Den Konsultative Praksis i P£¦dagogisk Psykologisk Den Konsultative Praksis i P£¦dagogisk Psykologisk

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  • Den Konsultative Praksis i

    Pædagogisk Psykologisk

    Rådgivning

    Specialets samlede antal tegn 190.865 Svarende til normalsider 79,5 10. semester Psykologi Sofie Winther Troelsen, studienr. 20082237 Vejleder: Lena Lippke

  • Abstract This thesis studies how school psychologists work from a consultative point of view,

    with a focus on how they shift between working from a consultative point of view

    and a more traditional way of working.

    Listed below are the three questions under investigation, the first of which comprises

    the main question, and the final two are supplementary:

    • How does the school psychologist define and experience working from a con-

    sultative point of view?

    • How does this fit with the demands put out by the school and the workplace

    of the psychologist?

    • Which common ground does the psychologist have to support them in their

    use and understanding of their work assignments?

    The empirical basis of the thesis consists of four observations of two school psy-

    chologists at work as well as two semi-structured interviews of the same two psy-

    chologists. The overlying frame is a case study and both the observations and the

    interviews can be defines as within a qualitative understanding. Both psychologists

    work in the same urban area in Denmark, in an office that has implemented the con-

    sultative method in their daily work by the use of a consultative model. The analysis

    of the observations and interviews shows, that the two psychologists are trying in

    their own individual way to implement the use of the consultative method in their

    work. Further, it is shown that one of the psychologists, who only recently started

    working as a school psychologists, has trouble defining the consultative method. This

    is due to the fact that no introduction to the work assignments has been provided

    prior to the commencement of the employment. Further, there is no joint understand-

    ing of the consultative method in the workplace, therefore provides no assistance in

    defining the work from a consultative perspective. It is therefore found that a com-

    mon understanding of the work assignments is crucial for the understanding of the

    consultative method. Also, the two psychologists have close and collegial relation-

    ships with several of the employees at the school, which limits their ability to work

    on multiple levels with the school. This is because their situation inclines them to

  • overtake some cases and do tests instead of working from a consultative approach

    and letting the solutions come from the teachers themselves.

    Both of the psychologists included in this thesis works with the pupil at the centre of

    their practice and none of them are focusing on the other levels at the school, where

    they could also be working to improve or solve the problems the school was experi-

    encing.

    In conclusion, it is found, that there are still problems with the understanding of how

    to work from a consultative standpoint in and around schools. It is further concluded

    that the way of working from the consultative position is very individual and closely

    linked to each psychologist and his or her way of understanding and using the posi-

    tion.

  • Indholdsfortegnelse 1 FORTÆLLINGEN OM DEN KONSULTATIVE POSITION .................................................... 1  

    2 PROBLEMFORMULERING.......................................................................................................... 4  

    3 AFGRÆNSNING AF SPECIALET ................................................................................................ 5  

    4 RELEVANTE BEGREBER............................................................................................................. 6  

    5 TEORETISK BAGGRUND FOR SPECIALET ............................................................................ 7  

    5.1 PARADIGMESKIFTET ..................................................................................................................... 7   5.1.1 Redegørelse af den konsultative og autoritære position...................................................... 7   5.1.2 Salamancaerklæringen og lovens indvirkning på PPRs skiftende arbejdsopgaver ............ 9  

    5.2 BRUGERNE AF PPR OG FORVENTNINGERNE TIL PSYKOLOGEN.................................................... 10   5.3 FAGIDENTITET ............................................................................................................................ 12   5.4 MODSTRIDENDE OPGAVER I PPR PRAKSIS .................................................................................. 13   5.5 KOLLEGA ELLER KLIENT? ........................................................................................................... 14   5.6 DEN KONSULTATIVE TILGANGS FORSKELLIGE POSITIONER OG UDGANGSPUNKTER .................... 17  

    6 METODOLOGISKE VALG OG REFLEKSIONER.................................................................. 20  

    6.1 SPECIALETS EPISTEMOLOGISKE POSITION ................................................................................... 20   6.2 CASE STUDIE............................................................................................................................... 21   6.3 KVALITATIV METODE ................................................................................................................. 22  

    6.3.1 Definering af viden ............................................................................................................ 23   6.4 OBSERVATION ............................................................................................................................ 24  

    6.4.1 Observation som metode.................................................................................................... 24   6.4.2 Feltnoter............................................................................................................................. 26  

    6.5 INTERVIEW.................................................................................................................................. 28   6.5.1 Transskribering af interview.............................................................................................. 30  

    6.6 ANALYSEMETODE....................................................................................................................... 31   6.7 UNDERSØGELSENS KVALITET ..................................................................................................... 33   6.8 ETIK............................................................................................................................................ 36   6.9 PRÆSENTATION AF INFORMANTER ............................................................................................. 37  

    6.9.1 PPR-kontoret ..................................................................................................................... 37   6.9.2 Psykolog 1(Rikke) .............................................................................................................. 38   6.9.3 Psykolog 2 (Søren)............................................................................................................. 38  

    7 ANALYSE/TEMAER ..................................................................................................................... 39  

    7.1 FAGIDENTITET ............................................................................................................................ 40   7.2 DEFINITION AF DEN KONSULTATIVE PSYKOLOG I PPR................................................................ 44   7.3 DISKREPANSER I PPR ................................................................................................................. 47  

  • 7.3.1 PPR´s konsultative model .................................................................................................. 48   7.3.2 Relationen til brugerne ...................................................................................................... 51   7.3.3 Hvad hæmmer psykologens muligheder for at arbejde konsultativt?................................ 53  

    7.4 INTERVIEWSITUATIONENS KOBLING TIL PRAKSIS........................................................................ 57  

    8 DISKUSSION .................................................................................................................................. 61  

    8.1 DEN KONSULTATIVE PSYKOLOG I PPR ....................................................................................... 61   8.1.1 Definition af den konsultative psykolog............................................................................. 61  

    8.2 FORSKELLIGE MÅDER AT UDØVE DEN KONSULTATIVE POSITION PÅ ........................................... 63   8.2.1 Fagidentitetens indvirkning på den konsultative position ................................................. 63   8.2.2 Relationen til brugerne og dettes betydningen for mulighederne for det konsultative

    arbejde ......................................................................................................................................... 65   8.3 PSYKOLOGENS UDVIKLING AF DEN K