Communicaton an Overview

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    Communication

    An Overview

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    Question:

    What comes to mind when you thinkof the word communication?

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    Communication is

    The transactionalprocess of creatingmeaning

    The elicitation ofmeaningin another

    It occurs when you sendorreceive

    messages & when you assign meaning tothose messages

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    The Transactional Model of Communication

    Feedback

    Message

    Sender/Encoder (Channel) Receiver/Decoder

    a

    Feedforward

    Context

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    The Semantic TriangleOgden & Richards (1927)

    Thought

    Symbol (words) Referent (the thing)

    D-O-G

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    The Power of

    Language/Communication

    communication/language is at the heart of

    our being

    P = C

    T

    your words leave a mark; your words are

    powerful

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    Defining Intercultural Communication

    Inter- between

    Intercultural Communication ~ communicationamong people ofdifferentcultures

    Intra - within

    Intracultural Communication ~ communicationbetween people of the same culture

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    What We Try to Achieve

    Communication Competence ~

    How the receiver regards you

    (positively)

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    Elements of Intercultural

    Competence

    1. Respect

    2. Dialogue

    3. Collaboration

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    1. Respect

    BRING LESSFEAR!

    Have courage

    Increase motivation

    (desire and energyto interact with people

    who are differentthan ourselves)

    Learn to tolerate ambiguity

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    Respect co

    ntinued

    Awareness of the value of differences; value diverse perspectives

    Understand & appreciate other

    Have goodwill

    Use empathy (not sympathy); pathos

    Sensitivity - understand & appreciate

    Be open-minded genuine curiosity;

    Show interestnot judgment

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    Respect continued

    Establish a code of ethics

    Variations on the Golden Rule are found in cultures

    around the world:

    Buddhism Tibetan Dhammapada

    Christianity Matthew 7:12

    Confucianism Analect 15:23

    Hinduism The Mahabharata 5:1517

    Islam The Sunnah from The Hadith

    Jainism Lord Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara

    Judaism Talmud, Shabbat, 31 a

    Native American The Great Law of Peace

    (Adapted from: Samovar, Porter, & McDaniel (2007) Communication Between Cultures. Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.)

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    Respect continued

    Increase knowledge/awareness of:

    a. Who we are

    b. Others

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    Increasing self-awareness

    Know your ethnocentrism monitor it

    Happy are they that hear their detractions andcan put them tomending.

    - Shakespeare

    Learn and admit your biases

    (Adapted from: Timpson, Yang, Borravo & Canetto (2005).

    147 Practical tips for teaching diversity. p. 43. Tip #52.)

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    Gaining Knowledge continued

    Speak with people who are differentthan yourself

    Seek to understandcultures; the whys

    Be appropriate - adhere to the rules of the context

    (& culture)

    (Adapted from: Timpson, Yang, Borravo & Canetto (2005).

    147 Practical tips for teaching diversity. p. 59. Tip #81.)

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    2. Dialogue

    Use the dialogue approach:

    Conversation that is slow, careful,

    respectful and attentive

    A process to encourage appreciation for differences

    Provides a voice forall give every person the opportunity tovoice as well as listen; promote equality through balance

    Helps to develop and maintain relationships

    (Adapted from: Evanoff, R.J. (2004). Universalist, relativist, and constructivist approaches tointercultural ethics. International JournalofIntercultural Relations, 28, 439-458 and Wilmot,W.W., & Hocker, J.L. (2001). InterpersonalConflict, 6th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 257)

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    Dialogue continued

    Discover and discuss similarities

    as well as differences

    Solicit feedback always and in all ways

    - seek clarification- seek explanation

    - encourage restatement

    - When in doubt, ask! Dialogue is key!

    (Adapted from: Timpson, Yang, Borravo & Canetto (2005).

    147 Practical tips for teaching diversity.p. 79. Tip #79. and

    Bontz, C. R. (1993) Diversity and group cross-cultural team research. Journalof AppliedCommunication Research, 21, p. 12.

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    Dialogue continued

    Listen!

    it is through listeningthat understanding becomes possible

    listen carefully before speaking

    hear the message, consider it, thenreconsiderit

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    Listening continued

    Try on different interpretations

    Listen consciouslyfor the content & intent

    of the message being communicated

    Engage others in a dialogue about theircultural realities

    Good intercultural listeners are receptive to others life stories

    Skillful intercultural listeners are: open, curious, & empathetic

    (Adapted from Starosta, W.J., & Chen, G.-M. (2005). Intercultural listening: Collected reflections, collatedrefractions. In Starosta, W. J & Chen, G.-M. (Eds.) Taking stock in intercultural communication: Where to

    now. pp. 274-285. Washington, DC:National Communication Association)

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    3. Fostering Collaboration

    Collaborative highlycooperative and assertive

    Assertive equalconcern for self as well as other

    Focus on interdependence

    Concessions; flexibility to change; yielding

    Acceptance of responsibility

    Foster a supportive climate

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    Fostering Collaboration continued

    A climate in which every person is valued &appreciated; notdefensive

    Each/every person knows:

    they are invited; they are welcome they are wanted

    their ideas & opinions are respected

    they can be themselves

    Each/every person behaves in ethical ways

    confirming

    supporting; build each other up

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    Potential Problems in

    Intercultural Communication

    Prototyping left unchecked

    Ethnocentrism - yourlearnedcultural bias; your

    cultural goggles

    When ethnocentrism is left unchecked

    (unmonitored)

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    Potential Problems in

    Intercultural Communication Continued

    Stereotyping

    oversimplify; overgeneralizeboxes begin to close

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    Potential Problems in

    Intercultural Communication Continued

    Prejudice

    Becoming emo

    tio

    nalabout your stereotypesLids are closed

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    Potential Problems in

    Intercultural Communication Continued

    Mistreatment

    RacismThe justified mistreatment of a group of people

    GenocideThe justified killing of a group of people