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Claudio Monteverdi

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@&Claudio MonteverdiCountry Birth Death Period Composition Types Italy May 15, 1567 in Cremona, Italy Nov 29, 1643 in Venice, Italy Baroque All Works (369) Choral Music (340) Vocal Music (20) Opera (4) Ballet Music (3)

If one were to name the composer that stitches the seam between the Renaissance and the Baroque, it would likely be Claudio Monteverdi-the same composer who is largely and frequently credited with making the cut in the first place. The path from his earliest canzonettas and madrigals to his latest operatic work exemplifies the shifts in musical thinking that took place in the last decades of the sixteenth century, and the first few of the seventeenth. Monteverdi was born in Cremona, Italy on the 15th of May, 1567. As a youth his musical talent was already evident: his first publication was issued by a prominent Venetian publishing house when he was fifteen, and by the time he was twenty a variety of his works had gone to print. His first book of five-voice madrigals, while bearing a dedication to his Cremonese mentor Ingegnieri, succeeded in establishing his reputation outside of his provincial home-town, and helped him find work in the court of the Duke Gonzaga of Mantua. His compositions from the Mantuan period betray the influence of Giaches de Wert, who Monteverdi eventually succeeded as the maestro di cappella. It was around this time that Monteverdi's name became widely known, due largely to the criticism levied at him by G. M. Artusi in his famous 1600 treatise "on the imperfection of modern music." Artusi found Monteverdi's contrapuntal unorthodoxies unacceptable, and cited several excerpts from his madrigals as examples of modern musical decadence. In the response that appeared in the preface to Monteverdi's fifth book of madrigals, the composer coined a pair of terms inextricably tied to the diversity of musical taste that came to characterize the times. He referred to the older style of composition, in which the traditional rules of counterpoint superseded expressive considerations, as the prima prattica. The seconda prattica, as characterized by such works as Crudi Amarilli, sought to put music in the servitude of the text by whatever means necessary-including "incorrect" counterpoint-to vividly express the text. In 1607, Monteverdi's first opera (and the oldest to grace modern stages with any frequency) L'Orfeo, was performed in Mantua. This was followed

in 1608 by L'Arianna, which, despite its popularity at the time, no longer survives except in libretti, and in the title character's famous lament, a polyphonic arrangement of which appeared in his sixth book of madrigals (1614). Disagreements with the Gonzaga court led him to seek work elsewhere, and finally in 1612 he was appointed maestro di cappella at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice. His earliest years at Venice were a rebuilding period for the cappella, and it was some time before Monteverdi was free to accept commissions outside his duties at the cathedral. In 1616 he composed the ballet Tirsi i Clori for Ferdinand of Mantua, the more-favored brother of his deceased and disliked ex-employer. The following years saw some abandoned operatic ventures, the now-lost opera La finta pazza Licori, and the dramatic dialogue Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda. The 1630s were lean musical years for Monteverdi. Political battles and an outbreak of the plague left him without commissions from either Mantua or Venice. However, with the opening of Venetian opera houses in 1637, Monteverdi's operatic career was revived. A new production of L'Arianna was staged in 1640, and three new operas appeared within two years: Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, Le nozze d'Enea con Lavinia, and L'incoronazione di Poppea. This resurgence preceded his death by just a few years: he passed away in Venice in 1643. -- J. Neal

Musica coralca. 1614 ca. 1587 ca. 1619 ca. 1603 ca. 1640 ca. 1620 ca. 1603 ca. 1619 ca. 1605 ca. 1619 ca. 1651 ca. 1651 ca. 1638 A Dio, Florida bella, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 6), Madrigal SV 110 A che tormi il ben mio, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book I), Madrigal SV 25 A quest'olmo, a quest'ombre, madrigal for 6 voices, 2 violMadrigal ins and 2 recorders/flutes (from Book 7), SV 119 A un giro sol de' bell'occhi lucenti, madrigal for 5 voices Madrigal (from Book 4), SV 84 Ab aeterno ordinata sum, motet for bass (from Selva Baroque morale e spirituale), SV 262 Motet Adoramus te, Christe, motet for 6 voices & continuo, SV Baroque 289 Motet Ah dolente partita, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 4), SV Madrigal 75 Ah, che non si conviene romper la fede?, madrigal for 2 Madrigal voices (from Book 7), SV 125 Ahi che si parte il mio sol adorno, for 3 voices, SV 290 Choral Music Ahi, com'a un vago sol cortese giro, madrigal for 5 voices Madrigal (from Book 5), SV 101 Al lume delle stelle, madrigal for 2 sopranos, tenor & bass Madrigal (from Book 7), SV 138 Alcun non mi consigli, madrigal for 3 voices (from Book 9), Madrigal SV 169 Alle danze, alle gioie, madrigal for 3 voices (from Book 9), Madrigal SV 174 Altri canti d'amor, dramatic madrigal for 6 voices, 2 violins Madrigal & 4 violas (from Book 8), SV 146

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Altri canti di Marte, madrigal for 6 voices and 2 violins Madrigal (from Book 8), SV 155 Amarili onde m'assale, madrigal for 3 voices (from Scherzi Madrigal musicali 3 voci), SV 231 Amor che deggio far, madrigal for 2 sopranos, tenor, bass, Madrigal 2 violins and chittarone/harpsichord (from Book 7), SV 144 Amor per tua merc vatene a quella, madrigal for 5 voices Madrigal (from Book 1), SV 26 Amor s'il tuo ferire, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 1), Madrigal SV 37 Amor, se giusto sei, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 5), Madrigal SV 103 Amorosa pupilletta, madrigal for 3 voices (from Scherzi Madrigal musicali 3 voci), SV 238 Angelus ad pastores ait, motet for 3 voices (from Sacrae Baroque cantiunculae), SV 222 Motet Anima del cor mio, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 4), SV Madrigal 91 Anima dolorosa, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 4), SV Madrigal 90 Anima mia, perdona, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 4), Madrigal SV 80 Ardo e scoprir, ahi lasso, io non ardisco, madrigal for 2 Madrigal tenors (from Book 8, & Book 9), SV 158 Ardo si ma non t'amo, madrigal in 3 sections for 5 voices Madrigal (from Book 1), SV 39 Ardo, avvampo, mi struggo, madrigal for 8 voices and 2 viMadrigal olins (from Book 8), SV 152 Armatevi, pupille, madrigal for soprano (from Scherzi Madrigal musicali), SV 247/2 Armato il cor d'adamantina fede, madrigal for 2 tenors Madrigal (from Book 8, 9, & Scherzi musicale), SV 150 Audi, coelum, verba mea, motet for 7 voices (from Vespro Baroque della Beata Vergine), SV 206/9 Motet Augellin, che la voce al canto spieghi, madrigal for 3 Madrigal voices (from Book 7), SV 133 Ave Maria, gratia plena, motet for 3 voices (from Sacrae Baroque cantiunculae), SV 213 Motet Ave maris stella, for soprano, tenor & chorus (from Vespro Baroque della Beata Vergine), SV 206/12 Motet Baci soavi e cari, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 1), SV Madrigal 27 Batto, qui pianse Ergasto, madrigal for 5 voices (from Madrigal Book 6), SV 115 Beatus Vir (I), motet for 6 voices, 2 violins, 3 Baroque violas/trombones and continuo (from Seva morale e Motet spirituale), SV 268 Beatus Vir (II), motet for 5 voices (from Seva morale e spir- Baroque ituale), SV 269 Motet Beatus Vir, motet for 7 voices & 2 violins (from Messa a Baroque quatro voci, et Salmi), SV195 Motet Begli occhi, all'armi, madrigal for soprano (from Scherzi Madrigal

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musicali), SV 247/3 Bel pastor dal cui bel guardo, dialogue of a nymph & a shepherd for soprano & tenor (from Book 9), SV 168 Bevea Fillide mia, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 2), SV 41 La bocc'onde l'asprissime parole solean uscir, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 2), SV 54 Cantai un tempo, e se fu dolc'il canto, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 2), SV 59 Cantata Domino canticum novum, motet, version for 2 voices, SV 292 Cantate Domino canticum novum, motet, version for 6 voices, SV 292 Canzonettas, for 3 voices, SV 1-21

Madrigal Madrigal Madrigal Madrigal Baroque Motet Baroque Motet Madrigal

Canzonette d'amore, (from Canzonettas for 3 voices), SV 2 Madrigal Ch'io ami la mia vita, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 1), Madrigal SV 23 Ch'io non t'ami, cor mio, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book Madrigal 3), SV 70 Ch'io t'ami e t'ami piu de la mia vita, madrigal for 5 voices Madrigal (from Book 5), SV 98 Che dar pi vi poss'io, madrigal for 5 voices (from Book 5), Madrigal SV 99 Chi vol che m'innamori, motet for alto, tenor, bass & 3 Baroque strings (from Selva morale e spirituale), SV 256 Motet Chi vol haver felice e lieto il core, madrigal for 5 voices Madrigal (from Book 8), SV 162 Chi vuol veder d'inverno un dolce aprile, (from CanzonetMadrigal tas for 3 voices), SV 14 Chi vuol veder un bosco, (from Canzonettas for 3 voices), Madrigal SV 20 Chiome d'oro, bel thesoro, madrigal for 2 sopranos, 2 violMadrigal ins and lute/harpsichord (from Book 7), SV 143 Baroque Christe, adoramus te, motet for 5 voices, SV 293 Motet Clori amorosa, madrigal for 5 voices (from Scherzi Madrigal musicale), SV 243 Come dolce hoggi l'auretta spira, madrigal for 3 voices Madrigal (from Book 9), SV 173 Come far, cuor mio, (from Canzonettas for 3 voices), SV Madrigal 11 Confitebor tibi, Domine I, motet for 1 voice & 2 violins Baroque (from Missa 4 voci et Salmi), SV 193 Motet