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Class 4 Class 4 ANOVA; Writing, ANOVA; Writing, Regression Regression Corkin et al. (2008), P&B 6, Linear Regression Handout

# Class 4 ANOVA; Writing, Regression Class 4 ANOVA; Writing, Regression Corkin et al. (2008), P&B 6, Linear Regression Handout

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Class 4Class 4 ANOVA; Writing, Regression ANOVA; Writing, Regression

Corkin et al. (2008), P&B 6, Linear Regression Handout

Factorial DesignsFactorial DesignsIndependent Variables: Categorical

Experimental Design: Manipulated IVs --e.g. treatment groups

Expo Facto Design Status IVs: gender; ethnicity; depression diagnosis

Dependent Variables◦Continuous

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Corkin et al. Article Corkin et al. Article

1. Research Questions

2. Literature Review

3. Analyses

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

a. Explore the factor structure of a Spanish version of the CDS

b. Examine the relation of trait anxiety to the (four) identified dimensions of career indecision.

c. Explore differences in anxiety and career indecision dimensions among (a) gender groups and (b) three career decision groups

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VariablesVariables

1.Gender Male Female

2.Career Decision Satisfaction Gps. Satisfied Satisfied/Doubts Undecided

3. Career Indecision Dimensions

1. Lack of Structure2. Lack of Support3. Approach-

Approach4. Barriers

4.Trait Anxiety5

Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

a. Explore the factor structure of a Spanish version of the CDS

◦ Type of Question: ◦ IVs◦ DVs ◦ Research Design: ◦ Analysis:

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

a. Explore the factor structure of a Spanish version of the CDS

◦ Type of Question: Descriptive ◦ IVs◦ DVs ◦ Research Design: Data

Reduction◦ Analysis: Factor analysis

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

b. Examine the relation of trait anxiety to the (four) identified dimensions of career indecision.

◦ Type of Question:◦ IVs:◦ DVs: ◦ Research Design:◦ Analysis

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

b. Examine the relation of trait anxiety to the (four) identified dimensions of career indecision.

◦ Type of Question: association◦ IVs: career indecision; continuous◦ DVs: trait anxiety; continuous◦ Research Design: correlational◦ Analyses: correlation coeff.

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

c. Explore differences in anxiety and career indecision dimensions among (a) gender groups and (b) three career decision satisfaction groups

◦ Type of Question: ◦ IVs: ◦ DVs: ◦ Research Design: ◦ Analysis

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

c. Explore differences in anxiety and career indecision dimensions(CID) among (a) gender groups and (b) three career decision satisfaction groups

◦ Type of Question: Difference/ Association

◦ IVs: Categorical Gender groups C Decision Satisfaction groups: Possible: C Decision Groups X Gender

◦ DVs: Continuous Anxiety (1) and C Indec. Dimensions (4):

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

c. Explore differences in anxiety and career indecision dimensions(CID) among (a) gender groups and (b) three career decision satisfaction groups

◦ Research Design: Expo-facto,

factorial design

◦ Analysis: MANOVA; follow up with ANOVAs; and Pair wise Comparisons

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IDs and DVs – IDs and DVs – Question CQuestion C

IDVs: 1.Gender

Male Female

2.Career Decision Satisfaction Gs Satisfied Satisfied/

Doubts Undecided

DVs: Career Indecision

D. 1. Lack of Structure2. Lack of Support3. Approach-

Approach4. Barriers

5.Trait Anxiety

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Study ‘s Logical FrameworkStudy ‘s Logical FrameworkWhat is known about:What is known about:

Career indecision and anxiety……

Dimensions (antecedents) of career indecision (4) …….

Sub-groups of career decided students--satisfied vs. not satisfied vs. undecided……

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It is known that….It is known that….Positive relation of career indecision to

anxiety.

Dimensions (antecedents) of career indecision may relate in different ways to anxiety. (Lack of Sup, Lack of Struct., App-App, Barriers)

Sub-groups of career decided students-- decided vs. decided/doubts vs. undecided – differ in anxiety and in four antecedents of career indecision scores (4 dimensions of CI).

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It is not known that…..It is not known that…..

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It is not known that…..It is not known that…..To what extent what is known from

research with college students in the US, using instruments in English will be consistent with findings among college students in Puerto Rico using the Spanish version of instruments.

Rationale: Puerto Ricans migrate frequently back and forth from PR to the USA mainland.

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Table 2: Table 2: Correlations of CDS Correlations of CDS Factor Factor Scores and Trait Scores and Trait AnxietyAnxietyFactors 1 2 3 4

1. Lack of Structure2. Lack of Support .49**3. Approach–Approach .55** .41**4. Perceived Barriers .52** .37** .41**5. Trait Anxiety .35** .21** .34** .28** ** p<.01

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

b. Examine the relation of trait anxiety to the (four) identified dimensions of career indecision.

◦ Hypotheses: Dimensions of CI (pp. 83-85)1. Lack of Structure 2. Lack of Support3. Approach-Approach4. Barriers

◦ Analysis:

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Corkin et al. Research Corkin et al. Research QuestionsQuestions

b. Examine the relation of trait anxiety to the (four) identified dimensions of career indecision.

◦ Hypotheses: Dimensions of CI1. Lack of Structure + relation2. Lack of Support + relation3. Approach-Approach No relation (p.83)

4. Barriers + relation

◦ Analysis: Pearson Correlation Coefficients

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Question C: Question C: Differences in Differences in anxietyanxiety (1) and (1) and career indecision dimensions career indecision dimensions (4) among :(4) among : IVs Gender

Male, Female

Career Dec. Satisfaction groups Decided, Decided/Doubts, Undecided

DVs: Anxiety Career Indecision Dimensions:

1. Lack of support 3. Lack of structure 2. Perceived Barriers 4.

Approach/Approach21

MMANOVA 2 x 3 – 5 DVs ANOVA 2 x 3 – 5 DVs (1)(1)

DVS4 variablesCareer IndecisionDimensions

1variable

Anxiety

F Stat.(Pillais Trace)

Eta h2

Effect size

Gender (F, M)

3.68** .06

C Dec. Satisfaction Groups

SatisfiedSatisified/DbtsUndecided

18.43***

.23

C Dec. Satisfaction Groups x Gender

S X GenderSD x GenderUnd. X Gender

4.02ns .03

Results MANOVA reported on article page 88 Bottom right & 89 t0p** p<.01, ***p<.001

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Results MANOVAResults MANOVA There were statistically significant

differences for:◦gender, Pillai’s Trace = .056, F(5, 310) =

3.68, p < .01, multivariate h2 = .06, and for

◦ career decidedness groups, Pillai’s Trace = .457, F(10, 622) = 18.43, p < .001, multivariate h2 = .23.

◦The two-way interactions of each career decision satisfaction subgroups x gender were not statistically significant (article p. 88 bottom right)

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2 x 3 ANOVAs (5) 2 x 3 ANOVAs (5)

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22 x x 33 ANOVA ANOVATwo Dependent Variables

Gender – 2 Levels - ◦Male Female

Career Decidedness Groups – 3 Levels◦Decided – Well Satisfied◦Decided- With Doubts◦Undecided

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Question C: Main Effects- Question C: Main Effects- Five Five 2 x 3 ANOVA 2 x 3 ANOVA

Anxiety

Career Decidedness Groups

Lack Support

LackStructure

Prcvd. Barriers

ApproachApproach

Gender**

M M1 M3 M5 M7 M9

F M2 M4 M6 M8 M10

C. Decd G***

Decided M1 M4 M7 M10 M13

Dec/Dbts M2 M5 M8 M11 M14

Undecided M3 M6 M9 M12 M15

** p<.01, ***p<.001 Bonferroni C .05/15 = .003 26

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Bonferroni CorrectionBonferroni Correction

p< .003 .05/15 = .003

Control for Type I error

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Question C: Main Effects- Question C: Main Effects- Five Five 2 x 3 ANOVA 2 x 3 ANOVA Anxiety

Career Decidedness Groups

Lack Support

LackStructure

Prcvd. Barriers

ApproachApproach

Gender**

M M1 M3 M5 M7 M9

F M2 M4 M6 M8 M10

C. Decd G***

Decided M1 M4 M7 M10 M13

Dec/Dbts M2 M5 M8 M11 M14

Undecided M3 M6 M9 M12 M15

** p<.01, ***p<.001 Bonferroni C .05/15 = .003 30

Interaction Effects- Interaction Effects- GenderGender as as Moderator Repeat Analyses Moderator Repeat Analyses for for each gendereach gender

Career Indecision DimensionsAnxiety Lack

Support

LackStructure

Prcvd. Barriers

ApproachApproach

C. Decd G

Decided M Females

M F4 M F7 M F10 M F13

Dec/Dbts M F2 M F5 M F8 M F11 M F14

Undecided

M F3 M F6 M F9 M F12 M F15

C. Decd G

Decided M Males M M 4 M M 7 M M 10 M M 13

Dec/Dbts M M2 M M5 M M8 M M11 M M14

Undecided

M M3 M M6 M M9 M M12 M M15

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Guideline 6.21Guideline 6.21Doe (2010) reported that a

major source of dissatisfaction among teachers appears to be the low social status accorded to their profession.

A major source of dissatisfaction among teachers appears to be the low social status accorded to their profession (Doe, 2010)

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