Text of Chapter 10. What is Persuasion ï‚ Persuasion-process of influencing ones attitudes,...
What is Persuasion Persuasion-process of influencing ones attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors. Increases understanding and awareness but at same time seeks to influence audience choices. Characteristics of Persuasion Not Coercive although you need to take a stance Topics always have 2 alternative viewpoints Subjective/Often one sided Incremental-persuasion is a process-happens over time Interactive Key is change Can be ethical
Two Components of Persuasion Convincing-changing the way audience members think Actuating-changing or moving audience members toward a specific behavior
Succeeding in Persuasion Relevant message Establish common ground with listener Listeners should feel that changing will benefit them Seek minor change-more successful than seeking major change More likely to persuade people if speakers position is only moderately different from audiences Recognize that decision is ultimately audiences
Classical Persuasive Appeals Vs. Contemporary Persuasive Appeals
Classical Persuasive Appeals Aristotle believed persuasion could be brought about through use of 3 means - forms of rhetorical proofs 1-Logos 2-Pathos 3-Ethos
Logos Has to do with actual nature of message-the logic and reasoning used to build argument The appeal to audiences reason and logic Builds arguments for or against an idea through two main types of appeals 1. Syllogism 2. Enthymeme
Logos Cont.. 1. Syllogism -three part argument that consists of 1. a major premise (general case) 2. a minor premise or (specific case), and 3. a conclusion.
Syllogism - form of deductive reasoning Moves from general condition to specific instance Absolute and Constant Ex. *Major Premise: All men are mortal *Minor Premise: Socrates is a man *Conclusion: Therefore Socrates is a mortal *Syllogism can sometimes make overgeneralizations-attempt to support a claim by asserting that a particular piece of evidence is true for everyone concerned.
Logos Cont. 2. Enthymeme -A syllogism presented as probability rather than as an absolute -One premise is always missing in an argument but is implied -Useful because arguments are rarely based on absolutes
Pathos Has to do with audiences feelings Appeal to audience emotion -requires creating a certain outlook in audience, painting image Aristotle thought there are 4 sets of emotions that you can appeal to- -anger and meekness -love and hate -fear and boldness -shame and shamelessness 2 general ways of invoking pathos : -vivid description -emotionally charged words. Relying solely on pathos in an argument will fail-must be combined with sound reasoning.
Ethos Has to do with qualifications and personality of speaker The appeal through the nature of the speakers moral character and personality which consists of three elements: Good sense or competence Moral character Goodwill
Contemporary Persuasive Appeals Aside from classical approaches, there are also contemporary ways of appealing and persuading A-Persuading Listeners By Appealing To Their Needs B-Persuading Listeners By Appealing To The Reasons For Their Behavior C-Persuading Listeners By Focusing On Whats Most Relevant To Them D-Persuading Listeners Through Speaker Credibility
A. Persuading Listeners By Appealing To Their Needs Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs -contemporary form of motivation States that each person has 5 basic needs hierarchically embedded. Physiological Safety Social Self-Esteem Self-Actualization Lower level needs must be met before higher level
B-Persuading Listeners By Appealing To The Reasons For Their Behavior Expectancy-Outcome Values Theory -Consciously evaluating the potential costs and benefits associated with taking a particular action
C-Persuading Listeners By Focusing On Whats Most Relevant To Them Elaboration Likelihood Model - theory of persuasion that suggests that people process persuasive messages by one of 2 routes, depending on their degree of involvement in message 1. Central Processing- People who are motivated and able to think critically about a message are said to engage in this 2. Peripheral Processing-People who see the message as irrelevant or too complex and thus dont pay close attention are said to engage in this
D-Persuading Listeners Through Speaker Credibility Audiences perceptions and attitudes toward the speakers perceived expertise, trustworthiness, similarity to audience members and attractiveness.
What is Reasoning? 1- The power of comprehending, inferring, or thinking in orderly rational ways. 2- The process of building arguments created to change peoples opinions, influence behavior, or justify the arguers beliefs or actions.
What is an argument?
Argument Argument: stated position with support for or against an idea; consists of proposition and evidence Persuasive speeches use arguments to present one alternative as superior to other. Core elements of argument & persuasion consist of proposition and evidence
3 parts to an argument Core elements of an argument. Proposition/Claim-the conclusion the speaker is attempting to prove. or proposition being made- Thesis statement. Evidence-material that provides grounds for belief. Examples, narratives, testimony, facts, and statistics Warrant-links claim and evidence together. Provides reasons that evidence supports the claim.
Proposition (Part 1) There are 3 types of propositions 1. Proposition of fact 2. Proposition of value 3. Proposition of policy
Propositions- different types of propositions require different kinds of supporting evidence. Propositions of Facts Focus on conditions that exist, once existed, or will exist in the future. whether something is true of false Whether something will or will not happen Require often factual evidence
Propositions of Value Deals with issues of judgment Why something is right/wrong, good/bad Not attempting to prove truth Require evidence but more subjective rather than factual
Propositions of Policy Recommend that specific course of action be taken, or approved of by audience. Proposes that certain outcome will be realized if the proposed condition is met Ex-Property taxes should be increased to fund classroom expansions at local elementary schools
Evidence (Part 2) What speakers use to persuade audience to believe their claims-supporting material External evidence-any information in support of claim that comes from sources aside from speaker (examples, narratives, testimony, facts, statistics) Audiences knowledge, expertise and opinions can be evidence-will only work if audience believes speaker has credibility
Warrants (Part 3) Help support a claim and substantiate in the audiences mind link between claim and evidence There are 3 different types of warrants- or reasoning that speakers can use in arguments
Organizing the Persuasive Speech
Problem-Solution Pattern Most common format in persuasion Usually for propositions of fact and propositions of policy This pattern organizes speech points using following format A) Problem-Define it B) Solution-Offer ways to overcome problem
Problem-Solution cont Example- Speech Purpose-Arguing for a reduction in the price of gasoline (Proposition of ?) Problem-How high gasoline prices present a problem Solution-Way or ways in which prices can be lowered
Monroes Motivated Sequence Pattern of Arrangement Uses problem-solution format Five step process that begins with arousing listeners attention and ends with calling for action Effective when you want audience to do something- ex. buy a product, donate time, donate money Also effective when you want audience to reconsider present way of thinking about something
Step 1 Attention Gain audiences attention Arouse curiosity about what speaker is going to say Makes speech highly relevant to audience
Step 2 Need critical step Isolate and describe issue to be addressed Identify unfulfilled needs-needs that audience members have that must be satisfied - problem that must be solved Establish clear, urgent, and unfulfilled need in the mind of audience No solutions should be proposed
Step 3 Satisfaction Propose solution that satisfies the needs of audience -solution to problem Offer proposal to change attitudes, beliefs, and values regarding problem Identify and eliminate possible objections to this