1 Speaking to Persuade. Persuasion Definition: art of convincing people to adopt your point of view. Psychology: Taps into audience attitudes, beliefs,

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  • 1 Speaking to Persuade
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  • Persuasion Definition: art of convincing people to adopt your point of view. Psychology: Taps into audience attitudes, beliefs, and values (impediments) Uses a specific strategy pertaining to the objective 2
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  • Engage the Audience Audiences process what they hear and think and how they feel/respond More involvement = higher persuasive power Consider their needs/prior knowledge Reinforce Correct Educate (fill in the gaps) 3
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  • Aristotles Approach Ethos Ethical Credible Logos Logic Reasoning Pathos Emotions 4
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  • design Alan Chapman 2001-7, based on Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 5 Esteem needs achievement, status, responsibility, reputation Self-actualization personal growth and fulfilment Belongingness and Love needs family, affection, relationships, work group, etc. Safety needs protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
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  • Cognitive Dissonance Definition: Theory that people strive to solve problems to manage stress/tension in a way that is consistent with their beliefs, values, and morals. Speaker goal: Create cognitive dissonance in audience 6
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  • Creating and Relieving Cognitive Dissonance Identify existing problem or need that audience will agree with Need to maintain the environment Effect of aerosol sprays on the environment Deplete the ozone layer Exposes us to suns harmful rays Convenience of aerosol sprays Audience wants bothdissonance Provide solution that meets both needs: pump sprays 7
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  • Whom to Target Those you most want to reach Not yet decided Against your idea Already in agreement Hostile 8
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  • Conduct Audience Analysis 9
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  • Three Dimensions Demographics Individual characteristics Group characteristics Psychological Previous knowledge Beliefs Attitudes Contextual When and where? Why are they here?
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  • Demographics Age Gender Race, culture, ethnicity Profession Religion Educational level Relevant qualities/interests Homogeneous/heterogeneous (size, too) Self: similarities/differences
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  • Psychology What are they thinking? Previous knowledge vs. knowledge needed Knowledge desired vs. knowledge needed Familiar terminology Familiar concepts, processes, tools Who knows more? You? Them?
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  • Context Voluntary vs. mandatory attendance? Current climate Midterm exams Flu season Company layoffs Audience expectations of style Dress Time of day Obstacles or distractions in room
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  • 14 Contending with Opposition Directly refute arguments with facts Use a persuasive strategy
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  • Persuasive Strategies 15
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  • 16 Speeches on Questions of Fact Correct facts/Debunk myths Topical or spatial arrangement Not all doctors can treat your condition DC vs. MD vs. DO Education Scope of treatment
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  • 17 Speeches on Questions of Values Address attitudes and values Change or reinforce current beliefs of right/wrong or good/bad Requires evidence Topical Aerobics is the best form of exercise. Definition Health benefits Types of aerobic exercise
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  • 18 Speeches on Questions of Policy Urge actions and support of policies Uses the word should and answers question: What should be done about...? Can be passive: Attain agreement Can be active: Gain immediate action
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  • 19 Persuasive Strategies Monroes Motivated Sequence Problem/Solution Statement of Reasons Comparative Advantage
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  • 20 Monroes Motivated Sequence Attention: Grab audiences attention at the beginning of your introduction. Need: Show audience that there is a serious problem that needs action. Satisfaction: Satisfy the need by presenting a solution and show how your solution works. Visualization: Paint a picture of results. Help listeners visualize the positive impact. Show how they will personally benefit, if possible. Action: Request specific action from your listeners. Be specific!!
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  • 21 Problem/Solution Useful in questions of policy Demonstrate that the problem exists Facts Statistics Extent Relation to audience Present solution
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  • 22 Statement of Reasons Used when audience is already favorable or interested State purpose of presentation State central idea or main point Support central idea with reasons
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  • 23 Comparative Advantage Used when audience agrees a problem exists but disagrees on the solution Show advantages of your solution Compare your solution with others proposed Demonstrate why your solution is superior Use facts, evidence, reasoning, statistics, etc. Paint a picture of the future
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  • Tips Hostile audience: change topics Audience in agreement: reinforce and move to action Audience on the fence or disagrees/against: wow them with evidence, reasoning, and vivid images 24
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  • 25 Conditions Necessary to Persuade Audience perceptions Credible speaker Quality evidence Logical reasoning Emotional involvement
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  • 26 Five Dimensions of Speaker Credibility Competence Composure Speaker credibility Sociability Trustworthiness Extroversion
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  • 27 Types of Credibility Initial Derived Terminal
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  • 28 Building Credibility Speak from conviction Be yourself Use quality information and sources Show interest in the audience Maintain your composure
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  • 29 Using Evidence Less credibilityMore evidence needed Use facts that anticipate audience disagreement, argument, or apathy Tips: Be specific/concrete Be novel Use credible sources Tie evidence to specific point (draw conclusion for the audience)
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  • 30 Reasoning: The art of drawing a conclusion based on sound evidence.
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  • 31 Types of Reasoning From specific instances (inductive) From principle (deductive) From cause From analogy
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  • Fallacies of Reasoning Can persuade if people do not recognize Can completely eliminate credibility if people do recognize 32
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  • 33 Appealing to Emotions (e.g., fear, compassion, pride, anger, guilt, etc.) Using words that provoke strong feelings Increasing likelihood of audience reaction Enhancing emotional appeal Use emotional language to produce desired emotion in audience Develop vivid examples and images Be sincere; use nonverbals Voice Eye contact
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  • 34 Ethics and Emotional Appeals Must use appeals honestly Must be coupled with reason Must avoid name-calling and abusive language