PSY 321 Persuasion & Attitudes Dr. Sanchez. Today’s Plan: Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood Model: Last Week Persuasive Cues Self-persuasion Persuasion

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PSY 321 Persuasion & Attitudes Dr. Sanchez Slide 2 Todays Plan: Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood Model: Last Week Persuasive Cues Self-persuasion Persuasion and Culture Film on advertising and persuasion Slide 3 Message High motivation & ability ________ (focus on quality of message) Lasting change Low motivation & ability Temporary change _________ (focus on surface Features) Persuasion Attempt Audience Factors Processing Approach Persuasion Outcome Slide 4 Features of the Source of a Message that can Serve as Persuasive Cues Expertise _________ Likeability attractiveness similarity in-group status Number of sources Slide 5 Other Persuasive Cues Number of arguments Reactions of others - social proof Slide 6 Other Persuasive Cues Number of arguments Reactions of others - social proof Mood classical conditioning how do I feel about it? misattribution non-conscious mimicry and facial feedback Slide 7 Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus (Pavlovs bell) Positively eval. stimulus (meat) Positive feelings (salivation) Presented in conjunction with Later... Previously neutral stimulus (bell) Positive feelings (salivation) Slide 8 Persuasion Context. Attitude ObjectWell liked object, setting, person Positive feelings Presented in conjunction with Later... Attitude Object Positive feelings, favorable attitude Slide 9 Balance Principles Heiders Balance Theory balance: occurs when we ______ with people we like and when we ______ with people we dont like balance: occurs when we ______ with people we like and when we ______ with people we dont like _______ is aversive _______ is aversive Slide 10 Balance Principles you your friend Dalai Lama + + + Balanced triad Slide 11 Balance Principles Heiders Balance Theory balance: occurs when we agree with people we like and when we disagree with people we dont like balance: occurs when we agree with people we like and when we disagree with people we dont like imbalance is aversive imbalance is aversive you your friend Dalai Lama you your friend Dalai Lama + + + + + - Balanced triad Imbalanced triad Slide 12 Balance Principles you your friend Dalai Lama you your friend Dalai Lama + + + - + - Balanced triad Balance restored Slide 13 Balance Principles you your friend Dalai Lama you your (ex)friend Dalai Lama + + + + - - Balanced triad Balance restored Slide 14 Persuasion By Communication Slide 15 What Makes an Effective Source? Believable sources must be _________ sources. The source must have two distinct characteristics: _______________ _______________ Slide 16 Who Do You Trust? Slide 17 What Makes an Effective Source? (cont.) How likable is the communicator? Two factors influence a sources likability: The similarity between the source and the audience. The similarity between the source and the audience. The physical attractiveness of the source. The physical attractiveness of the source. Slide 18 Chaiken (1979) Slide 19 Is The Source More Important Than The Message? It depends How personally relevant is the message for the recipient? Slide 20 Source vs.Message: The Role of Audience Involvement Petty, Cacioppo, & Goldman, 1981 Slide 21 The Sleeper Effect Slide 22 What Makes an Effective Message? How should the argument be presented to maximize its strength? Are longer messages better? If _________, the longer the message, the more valid it must be. If _________, the longer the message, the more valid it must be. If _________, message length is a two-edged sword. If _________, message length is a two-edged sword. Does presentation order matter? Slide 23 Table 6.2: Effects of Presentation Order and Timing on Persuasion Slide 24 What Makes an Effective Message? (cont.) Should the message use fear appeals or scare tactics? How strong is the argument? How strong is the argument? Does the message contain reassuring advice? Does the message contain reassuring advice? Are appeals to positive emotions effective? People are soft touches when they are in a good mood. People are soft touches when they are in a good mood. Slide 25 Why Might Positive Feelings Activate the Peripheral Route? A positive emotional state is cognitively distracting, impairing ability to think critically. When in a good mood, assume all is well and become lazy processors of information. When happy, become motivated not to spoil the mood by thinking critically about new information. Slide 26 Subliminal Messages Can subliminal messages influence behavior? We do perceive subliminal cues. But the cues will not persuade to take action unless one is already motivated to do so. But the cues will not persuade to take action unless one is already motivated to do so. Slide 27 Figure 6.9: Subliminal Influence Strahan et al., 2002. Slide 28 Audience Factors Very few people are consistently easy or difficult to persuade. People differ in extent to which become involved and take the central route. Need for Cognition: How much does one enjoy effortful cognitive activities? Need for Cognition: How much does one enjoy effortful cognitive activities? Slide 29 Table 6.3: Need for Cognition Scale: Sample Items Slide 30 Figure 6.10: Informational and Image-Oriented Ads: The Role of Self-Monitoring From J.M. Snyder and K.G. DeBono (1985) "Appeals to Image and Claims About Quality: Understanding the Psychology of Advertising," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 586-597. Copyright (c) 1985 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission. Slide 31 Audience Factors (cont.) To what extent does the message meet the psychological needs of the audience? Cultural factors play a subtle but important role. e.g., individualistic vs. collectivistic messages e.g., individualistic vs. collectivistic messages Slide 32 Table 6.4: Strategies for Resisting Persuasion Jacks and Cameron, 2003. Slide 33 Audience Factors (cont.) Has the audience been forewarned? Advanced knowledge allows time to develop counterarguments. Inoculation hypothesis Inoculation hypothesis Being forewarned elicits a motivational reaction. Psychological reactance Psychological reactance Effects of forewarning depends on personal importance of message. Slide 34 Persuasion by Our Own Actions* Slide 35 Role Playing: All the Worlds a Stage What happens when we engage in attitude-discrepant behavior? Why does role-playing lead to enduring attitude change? Why can changes in behavior lead to changes in attitude? Slide 36 Cognitive Dissonance Theory: The Classic Version We are motivated by a desire for ______________________. Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Inconsistent ________ arouse psychological tension that people become motivated to reduce. Can lead to irrational and sometimes maladaptive behavior. Can lead to irrational and sometimes maladaptive behavior. Insufficient justification for behavior can lead to dissonance Insufficient justification for behavior can lead to dissonance Slide 37 Table 6.5: Ways to Reduce Dissonance Slide 38 The Dissonance Classic Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959 Slide 39 Justifying Attitude-Discrepant Behavior Subjects experienced cognitive dissonance because had _____________. Contributions of Festinger & Carlsmiths classic study: Showed the phenomenon of self-persuasion. Showed the phenomenon of self-persuasion. Contradicted the accepted belief that big rewards produce greater change. Contradicted the accepted belief that big rewards produce greater change. Slide 40 Justifying Effort: Coming to Like What We Suffer For We alter our attitudes to justify our suffering. Aronson & Mills (1959) embarrassment test study The more we pay for something, the more we will come to like it. Slide 41 Justifying Difficult Decisions: When Good Choices Get Even Better Whenever we make difficult decisions, we feel dissonance. We rationalize the correctness of our decision by exaggerating: The positive features of the chosen alternative The positive features of the chosen alternative The negative features of the unchosen alternative. The negative features of the unchosen alternative. Slide 42 Figure 6.12: Necessary Conditions for the Arousal and Reduction of Dissonance Slide 43 Alternative Routes to Self- Persuasion Self-Perception Theory: Self-persuasion through observation of own behavior. Impression Management Theory: What matters is not a motive to be consistent but rather a motive to appear consistent. Self-Affirmation Theory: Dissonance situations create a threat to the self. Slide 44 Figure 6.13: When Self- Affirmation Fails Galinsky et al., 2000. Slide 45 Theories of Self-Persuasion: Critical Comparisons