ASHTA HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECT .ASHTA HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT

  • View
    216

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of ASHTA HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECT .ASHTA HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT...

  • ASHTA HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECT

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Prepared by ENI Consulting

    Rr. Lidhja e Prizrenit, Tirana

    Tirana, May 2011

  • 2

    Index

    1 INTRODUCTION ___________________________________________________________________ 1

    1.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY _____________________________________________________________ 1 1.1.1 Introduction ________________________________________________________________ 1 1.1.2 Environmental baseline _______________________________________________________ 1 1.1.3 Main impacts and mitigation measures __________________________________________ 10 1.1.4 Environmental Management Plan ______________________________________________ 18 1.1.5 Environmental Monitoring Plan ________________________________________________ 18 1.1.6 Conclusions _______________________________________________________________ 19

    1.2 POWER SITUATION IN ALBANIA AND ASHTA HPP _________________________________________ 21 1.3 GOAL OF THE EIA REPORT_________________________________________________________ 23 1.4 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK _______________________________________________ 23

    1.4.1 Institutional capacities _______________________________________________________ 23 1.4.2 Legislation related to the environment___________________________________________ 24 1.4.3 International Conventions on environmental issues ________________________________ 28 1.4.4 Determining the boundaries of the study area_____________________________________ 28

    2 ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE_______________________________________________________ 30

    2.1 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT __________________________________________________________ 30 2.1.1 Geographical description of the project area______________________________________ 30 2.1.2 Geology __________________________________________________________________ 32 2.1.3 Mineral resources __________________________________________________________ 36 2.1.4 Soils _____________________________________________________________________ 37 2.1.5 Seismology _______________________________________________________________ 39 2.1.6 Groundwaters _____________________________________________________________ 43 2.1.7 Surface waters_____________________________________________________________ 46 2.1.8 Flooding __________________________________________________________________ 55 2.1.9 Erosion and sedimentation ___________________________________________________ 58 2.1.10 Atmospheric environment ____________________________________________________ 61

    2.2 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ________________________________________________________ 64 2.2.1 Biological environment in the Drini-Buna-Shkodra Lake ecosystem____________________ 64 2.2.2 Protected Areas ____________________________________________________________ 65 2.2.3 Ecological characteristics of the proposed project area _____________________________ 66 2.2.4 Types of Habitats___________________________________________________________ 68 2.2.5 Flora species that enjoy protection status ________________________________________ 72 2.2.6 Fauna____________________________________________________________________ 73

    2.3 SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ____________________________________________________ 78 2.3.1 Population and its evolution___________________________________________________ 78 2.3.2 Employment_______________________________________________________________ 78 2.3.3 Settlements _______________________________________________________________ 79 2.3.4 Education and environmental education _________________________________________ 80 2.3.5 Health and health services ___________________________________________________ 80 2.3.6 Land use _________________________________________________________________ 81 2.3.7 Industry __________________________________________________________________ 84 2.3.8 Infrastructure and services ___________________________________________________ 84 2.3.9 State of environment ________________________________________________________ 87 2.3.10 Tourism __________________________________________________________________ 91

    3 DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES ____________________________________________________ 92

    3.1 CURRENT SITUATION IN THE POWER SECTOR ___________________________________________ 92 3.2 THE ENERGY STRATEGY __________________________________________________________ 93

    3.2.1 The National Energy Policy ___________________________________________________ 93 3.2.2 The Renewable energy in Albania______________________________________________ 94

  • 3

    3.3 STRATEGY FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ______________________________________________ 95 3.4 STRATEGY FOR BIODIVERSITY ______________________________________________________ 96 3.5 LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PLANS _____________________________________________________ 96 3.6 PROJECT ALTERNATIVES __________________________________________________________ 97

    3.6.1 Zero Alternative ____________________________________________________________ 97 3.6.2 Bushati HPP alternative______________________________________________________ 98 3.6.3 Ashta HPP alternative _______________________________________________________ 98 3.6.4 Comparison of alternatives ___________________________________________________ 99 3.6.5 Project description _________________________________________________________ 100

    4 MAIN IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES _______________________________________ 109

    4.1 DURING CONSTRUCTION STAGE ____________________________________________________ 109 4.1.1 Sources of environmental impacts_____________________________________________ 109 4.1.2 Landscape _______________________________________________________________ 109 4.1.3 Tectonics and seismicity ____________________________________________________ 109 4.1.4 Land use and soil__________________________________________________________ 111 4.1.5 Groundwaters ____________________________________________________________ 112 4.1.6 Surface waters____________________________________________________________ 113 4.1.7 Flooding _________________________________________________________________ 114 4.1.8 Erosion and sedimentation __________________________________________________ 114 4.1.9 Other physical effects during construction stage__________________________________ 114 4.1.10 Biological environment______________________________________________________ 121

    4.2 SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ___________________________________________________ 123 4.3 DURING THE HPPS OPERATION PHASE ______________________________________________ 124

    4.3.1 Landscape _______________________________________________________________ 124 4.3.2 Earthquakes______________________________________________________________ 125 4.3.3 Soil _____________________________________________________________________ 125 4.3.4 Groundwaters ____________________________________________________________ 126 4.3.5 Surface waters____________________________________________________________ 126 4.3.6 Flooding _________________________________________________________________ 127 4.3.7 Erosion and sedimentation __________________________________________________ 127 4.3.8 Other physical effects during operation stage ____________________________________ 128 4.3.9 Biological environment______________________________________________________ 129 4.3.10 Socio-economic environment ________________________________________________ 130 4.3.11 Cumulative impacts ________________________________________________________ 130

    5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ____________________________________________ 134

    6 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN______________________________________________ 140

    7 CONCLUSIONS__________________________________________________________________ 143

    8 BIBLIOGRAPHY _________________________________________________________________ 146

    9 ANNEXES ______________________________________________________________________ 149

    9.1 NECESSARY PERMITS ___________________________________________________________ 149 9.2 PUBLIC CONSULTATION __________________________________________________________ 149

    9.2.1 Questions made by the participants in the public meetings: _________________________ 156 9.3 LIST OF FAUNA IN THE DRINI RIVER AND NEARBY WETLANDS _______________________________ 161

    9.3.1 List of amphibians, abundance and status ______________________________________ 161 9.3.2 List of reptiles, abundance and status __________________________________________ 162 9.3.3 List of birds, abundance and status____________________________________________ 163 9.3.4 List of mammals, abundance and status ________________________________________ 167 9.3.5 Elecrofishing results________________________________________________________ 168

    9.4 THE APPLIED PRINCIPLE OF CLEAN ENERGY____________________________________________ 174

  • 4

    Acronyms

    AEF Agency of Environment and Forests AGS Albanian Geological Survey ANCTP Albanian National Council of Territory Planning APC Albanian Power Corporation. ASA Academy of Sciences of Albania BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD Chemical Oxygen Demand COB Commune of Bushat CC Construction Company DC Design Company CDD Committee of Dikes and Dams CTP Council of Territory Planning DCM Decision of Council of Ministers DFS Directorate of Forest Service DPH Department of Public Health EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EMP Environmental Management Plan EPA Environmental Protection Agency ERE Energy Regulatory Entity EU European Union FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia GWh/y Gigawatt hour/year Ha Hectare Hidmet Hydro meteorological Institute HMWB Heavily Modified Water Bodies HMI Hydro meteorological Institute HMWB Heavily Modified Water Bodies HPP Hydro Power Plant IHA Internationa