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powerpoint describing some major artists from the baroque period
Arte Barocca (Italiano) L’art Baroque (Francais)Barockkunst (German)
JASMIN REYES 6
• Etymology: Portuguese Barocco, or oddly-shaped pearls
• Active between 1600- 1750
• During the Baroque Era, the Counter-Reformation emerged concurrently, resulting in the mannerism style of art ceasing to be an effective way of expression. Baroque art was fitting for the growing desire to propagandize religious art.
• The Catholic church adopted the new form as a way to stimulate the public’s faith in the church. The sculptures and paintings were successful in provoking emotion to the viewer as it appealed by conveying overly dramatized spiritual images.
Characteristics of Baroque Art
• Strong contrast between light and shadow, dramatic use called ‘Tenebrism’ or “Chiaroscuro”
• Bold colours
• Dramatic movements concerning the subject
• Portrayed everyday people (lay people) who are not idealized
• Large use of space, such as height and depth
• Ornate decorations, such as in grandeur scale Baroque buildings
• Focused primarily on religious scenes
Baroque Artists: Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi
• Considered to be the most revolutionary artist for his time, due to his abandonment of rules that had previously been followed by artists for centuries.
• Was commissioned at 24 by Cardinal Francesco del Monte to paint church of San Luigi dei Francesi, here his works drew public criticism for their realistic and dramatic nature.
Caravaggio: The Beheading of St. John the Baptist
• Caravaggio’s largest painting, figures larger than life size.
• Linked to Mark 6:27
• Backdrop 16th century prison, where two prisoners silently witness the scene, symbolizing the lack of rights to the public over church ruling and decisions.
• Dark colours used behind the figures adding Chiaroscuro effect.
• The old woman covering her faces, while the other witnesses stand silently symbolizes the mind set of the new generation lacking compassion, hungry only for revenge and power.
• John the Baptist is placed on the floor like a lamb, rather than kneeled like a normal execution. This symbolizes the dehumanizing of saints and divine beings, an idea introduced by some Protestant denominations.
• (Fun Fact) This is the only work where Caravaggio signed his name, in the blood of John the Baptist.
Caravaggio: The Entombment of Christ
• The face of death of Christ symbolizes the unique moment which lies in the heart of church ritual in a tangible visible form.
• Caravaggio's paintings is distinguished by his refusal to portray the human individual as beautiful and heroic like renaissance artists did. The figures here are bent, cowering or reclining. The self confidence has been replaced with humility, to appeal to the viewers emotion.
• 2-point perspective is used to poke out of the painting. The use of one and two-point perspective becomes a common trademark of Caravaggio and baroque paintings.
Baroque Artists: Johannes Vermeer
• Developed friendship with leading Delft painter Leonard Bramer, one oh his early supporters.
• In his early works he explored mythology and religion, after a decade his unique and personal painting style began to emerge.
• His later works focus on domestic scenes, with realistic figures and objects.
• He had a fascination with light, including Chiaroscuro in many of his works.
Vermeer: Allegory of Catholic Faith • The allegorical figure of faith, thought to be Mary
Magdalene, rests her foot on the globe and gazes as the crucifix of Christ crowned with thorns. This is Vermeer’s interpretation of an earlier French painting, “The Repentant Magdalene”
• The hanging glass orb is a reference to a Jesuit drawing (many theories say the Vermeer converted to Jesuitism in his later life). The glass orb also shows the play of light.
• The luxury gold panel in the background contrasts with the white washed wall. It is symbolic of a makeshift Catholic Church.
• The serpent is symbolic of Satan, which spits blood on the floor which stands for the stone on which Christ ordered Peter to found his church. 1672
Vermeer: The Astronomer• The globe signifies the complex forms
of constellations, as well as the open astronomical manual on the table.
• The incoming light of the window is concentrated on the contemplative scholar and celestial globe creating an air of mystery relating to the heavens.
• The painting in the back represents Moses and the bull, which symbolizes wisdom. Moses as well, was considered the geographer of the ages.
• The astronomer also wears a robe worn by scholars.
• An astrolabe on the table also symbolizes the new enlightenment of the time with new technology.
Baroque Artists: Peter Paul Rubens • 1577-1640
• In his early years he served as an apprentice to many established artists such as Titian.
• The Duke of Mantua commissioned him to paint portraits. He was later commissioned to paint religious works for churches.
• He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation portraits and history paintings of mythological and biblical subjects.
• His patrons included nobility and church leaders.
• His style combined renaissance classicism with baroque characteristics.
Rubens: The Fall of the Damned • 1620
• Chiaroscuro is represented in the human forms and in the clouds. It emphasizes the darkness from which the figures fall. The light and dark emphasizes the three-dimensional objects.
• Works like these instilled the fear that was put into many followers to be afraid of damnation and that the key to salvation is through good acts of faith and following Catholic church dogma.
Rubens: Raising of the Cross
• In the center nine executioners raise the cross from which Christ's pale body hangs. The Virgin Mary and a group of weeping women and children are on the left. On the right, a Roman officer watches on horseback while soldiers in the background are crucifying the two thieves.
• The painting is spread across all three panels.
• The use of chiaroscuro adds to the drama of the scene, evoking emotion into the viewer.