Amnesty International Presentation

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Introductory report about Amnesty International

Text of Amnesty International Presentation

Amnesty International

MARTIN MILLETE & RAJI TAADADEVELOPMENT THEORY 1960

History2

It is a worldwide movement of people who work together to take action for HUMAN RIGHTS. It is independent of any government, political ideology, economic interest or religion.

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Ex.Internet Censorship

2KidnapUnlawful DetentionRenditionTorture

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Operations

1. International Board Secretary-GeneralInternational Board/International Executive CommitteeInternational Secretariat DirectorsSecretary Generals Global Council

Secretary-General is the operational leader of the movement, acting as its chief political adviser and strategist, its chief spokesperson and the chief executive officer of the International Secretariat, which carries out the majority of our research and campaigning work.International Board/International Executive Committee

To provide a strong link with the governing board of the wider Amnesty International movement, one member of the International Board with relevant experience is appointed to serve a two year term as an ex-officio member of the Council.International Secretariat DirectorsThe International Secretariat of Amnesty International is led by a team of Senior Directors headed by the Secretary General. The Senior Directors work closely with the directors and deputy directors of the IS' programmes (departments) and together they provide strategic direction, operational management and direct support to the secretariats staff and volunteers. They also work closely with the directors of Amnesty Internationals local chapters.Secretary Generals Global CouncilThe Secretary General's Global Council is a forum that brings together leaders in the arts, business and philanthropy to raise Amnesty International's visibility in the global South and raise funds to support our work as we expand our presence in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. Launched in September 2013, Global Council members use their high public profiles and draw on their professional expertise to advance human rights and Amnesty's work.2. Financial Resourcesa. Donations:- individualsnational and international non-government organizations National and foreign government bodies such as overseas development fundsInternational governmental organizations such as European UnionFunding can be:-short term (ex. To resource a project or assist a human rights defender at risk)- Long term (ex. To enable an NGO to maintain, develop or expand its activities)b. Fundraising-must adhere to the legal and administrative frameworks of the country

-80 offices across the globe-3Million members and supporters

3. Worldwide Presence publication and promotion of our research findingspublic demonstrationsvigilsletter-writing campaignshuman rights educationawareness-raising concertsdirect lobbyingtargeted appealsemail petitions and other online actionspartnerships with local campaigning groupscommunity activitiesco-operation with student groups

33Role

Emphasis on Human RightsUntil every person can enjoy all of their rights, we will continue our efforts. We will not stop until everyone can live in dignity; until every persons voice can be heard; until no one is tortured or executed.

Amnesty International is dedicated to enabling people to enjoy all their rights as they live in dignity and away from threats against their conscience and of torture and execution. 35Development through Human RightsAmnesty International began as an organization entirely focused on human rights (e.g. freedom of expression, womens right, abolition of death penalty, justice for crimes against humanity and corporate accountability)

Human rights, within the contemporary context of Amnesty International, cover economic, social and cultural (ESC) rightsEvery organ of society has human rights responsibilities (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)Sources:Nelson, Paul J. (2007). "Human rights, the millennium development goals, and the future of development cooperation".World Development 35(12).

http://www.amnesty.org/en/economic-social-and-cultural-rights

Economic, social and cultural rights are a broad category of human rights guaranteed in theInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rightsand other legally binding international and regional human rights treaties. Nearly every country in the world is party to a legally binding treaty that guarantees these rights. They include:36Development through Human RightsAmnesty International advocates ESC rights, which are protected under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other human rights treaties

Rights at workRight to educationCultural rightsRight to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental healthRight to adequate housingRight to foodRight to water

Rights at work, particularly just and fair conditions of employment, protection against forced or compulsory labour and the right to form and join trade unions.Theright to education, including ensuring that primary education is free and compulsory, that education is sufficiently available, accessible, acceptable and adapted to the individual.Cultural rightsof minorities and Indigenous Peoples.Theright to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, including the right to healthy living conditions and available, accessible, acceptable and quality health services.Theright to adequate housing, including security of tenure, protection from forced eviction and access to affordable, habitable, well located and culturally adequate housing.Theright to food, including the right to freedom from hunger and access at all times to adequate nutritious food or the means to obtain it.Theright to water the right to sufficient water and sanitation that is available, accessible (both physically and economically) and safe.

Sources:

Nelson, Paul J. (2007). "Human rights, the millennium development goals, and the future of development cooperation".World Development 35(12).

http://www.amnesty.org/en/economic-social-and-cultural-rights

37Development through Human RightsSTATES are primarily responsible for protecting and developing initiatives for human rightsESC rights should be fulfilled progressively, subject to the varying resources of states States must fulfil minimum core obligations of each right (e.g. free primary education for right to education)NO DISCRIMINATION in laws and practices for resource allocation

"minimum core obligations" minimum essential levels of each of the rights.

Sources:

Nelson, Paul J. (2007). "Human rights, the millennium development goals, and the future of development cooperation".World Development 35(12).

http://www.amnesty.org/en/economic-social-and-cultural-rights

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Who is responsible?States national governments bear the primary responsibility for making human rights a reality. Governments mustrespectpeoples' rights they must not violate these rights. They mustprotectpeoples' rights ensuring that other people or bodies do not abuse these rights. And they mustfulfilpeoples' rights, making them a reality in practice.

Governments have widely differing resources. International law allows for the fact that making economic, social and cultural rights a reality can only be achieved progressively over time. However, the duty of governments to respect and protect these rights and to ensure freedom from discrimination is immediate. Lack of resources is no excuse.

Although governments may need time to realize economic, social and cultural rights, this does not mean they can do nothing they have to take steps towards fulfilling them. As an initial step, they must prioritise "minimum core obligations" minimum essential levels of each of the rights. Under the right to education, for example, core obligations include the right to free primary education.

Governments must not discriminate in their laws, policies or practices and must prioritize the most vulnerable when allocating resources.

States also have obligations when they act beyond their borders to respect, protect and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights. These obligations extend to action they take through intergovernmental organisations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

As stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, "every organ of society" has human rights responsibilities. Corporations play an increasingly significant role globally in the realization or denial of human rights. Amnesty International is committed to holding businesses accountable where their actions result in human rights violations.

38MembershipProspective members from countries with Amnesty International offices may join locallyProspective members from countries without Amnesty International offices may become an international memberAmnesty International has offices in 80 countries worldwideSources:Nelson, Paul J. (2007). "Human rights, the millennium development goals, and the future of development cooperation".World Development 35(12).

39ProjectsAmnesty Internationals Human Rights Friendly Schools ProjectIntegration of human rights into schools worldwideRights Education Action Programme (REAP)Addresses specific human rights issues through educationAfrica Human Rights Education ProjectHuman rights education at the community level in 10 countries in East and West AfricaEducation for Human Dignity ProjectAwareness, debate and action on human rights abuses causing povertySources:http://www.amhttp://www.amnesty.org/en/human-rights-education/projects-initiativesnesty.org/en/human-rights-education/projects-initiatives

Amnesty Internationals Human Rights Friendly Schools ProjectResponding to the imp