America and the World Powerpoint -- IMPERIALISM

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<p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Imperialism is the quest for colonial empires. (It s when a strong country dominates a smaller country and exploits them for a reason.) . . . Some of the reasons include: Military advantages, natural resources, trade advantages, religion, new markets, and social darwinism. It s driven by the need for markets and raw materials as well as the desire for power and prestige.</p> <p>-</p> <p>-</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Alfred MahanBook: The Influence of Sea Power Upon History -Stated that the US needed a strong navy to protect its economic interests in foreign markets</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>America wanted to acquire Hawaii because the island had a tropical climate and fertile soil. It was also said to be a great place to build naval bases (Global reach/power/trade) and coaling stations.</p> <p></p> <p>American investors were also interested in the sugar industry Hawaii had. As the economy was booming, sugar production was too and this made more money for the investors.</p> <p>In 1886, the US officials demanded control over Pearl Harbor in exchange for tax-free sugar. Kalakaua, the king, refused the deal. American business leaders, planters and traders then formed the Hawaiian League to try to persuade the United states to . . .</p> <p>;h=225</p> <p></p> <p>annex Hawaii as a territory for not making the deal. Surprisingly, a year later the United States forced Kalakaua at gunpoint to sign a constitution which allowed the US to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor. Years later, the McKinley Tariff was put into play and ended the sugar trade which led to economical issues.</p> <p>In 1895, Japan attacked China and gained the island of Taiwan and Korea.European powers took over those newly controlled lands and made a spheres of influence when a country takes over new lands and influences their economical and political power.</p> <p>The United States almost ended trade with China, but thankfully, in 1899 Secretary of State John Hay created the Open Door Policy, which gave all nations equal access to trade.</p> <p></p> <p>He sent out Open Door Policy papers to the Europeans and Japanese that asked them to agree to 3 things: 1. Keep all trade ports in their spheres open to all nations. 2. Chinese officials be allowed to collect all tariffs and duties.John Hay</p> <p>3. Guarantee equal harbor, railroad, and tariff rates in their spheres to all nations trading in China.</p> <p>Because the Chinese didnt like foreigners, a secret society group called the Fists of Righteous Harmony, also known as The Boxers was created. This group sent out handbills stating the foreigners and missionaries were the ones who caused all the Chinese troubles.</p> <p>In 1990, the boxers attacked western missionaries and northern traders and killed nearly 300 people! They also killed foreigners in the settlements in Beijing, China. Thankfully, foreign countries brought in troops and rescued the foreigners still there. This was known as the Boxer Rebellion.</p> <p>In 1853, Matthew Perry was sent out to persuade Japan to trade with the West. A year later, himself and seven warships sailed to Tokyo and gave Japans rulers two gifts: a telegraph transmitter and a model train.</p> <p>The leaders of Japan began to trade with the West. This gained Japan industrial power and built up its army/navy. However, because Japan was a rival with Russia over Chinese territories, a battle broke out called the Russo-Japanese War. President Roosevelt stepped in and negotiated peace between the two countries. He ended the war and won the Nobel Peace Prize.</p> <p>In March 1867, Secretary of State, William Seward, signs a treaty with Russia to purchase Alaska for 7 million dollars, known as Sewards Folly or Sewards Icebox.</p> <p></p> <p>About 7 months later, Alaska is finally handed to the United States from Russia. As settlement grew slowly, gold, oil and other natural resources were later founded there. Alaska was even a strategic location when fighting the Soviet Union in the 20th century because it served as a trans-shipment point for aircrafts. Today, its location is also good for nation security purposes.</p> <p></p> <p>,Davis-Spanish%20American%20War.preview.jpg</p> <p>Cubans were having unsuccessful revolts with the Cuban government. By stopping this rebellion, the government exiled many people, or forced many people to leave their country.</p> <p></p> <p>A poet named Jose M rti revolted against the leaders of Cuba and was one of many people exiled. Later in his life, he moved to New York City and promoted Cuban independence. He even started another revolt with Cuban exiles but was unfortunately killed in the battle.</p> <p>American journalist, Willi m R dolp Hearst wrote about the situation in Cuba in his two popular newspapers: T e New York Jour l and Josep Pulitzers New York World. He used a technique called Yellow Journalism to sell newspapers without actually well-researching the news; instead making the headlines the eye-catching part that made people want to buy it.</p> <p>THE MAINE INCIDENTBecause he believed that newspapers should tell public opinion and policy, he sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to create drawings that show Spanish cruelty. This was a plan to try to get U.S support to go to war with Spain.</p> <p>THE MAINE INCIDENTA couple months later a letter, the New York Journal published a letter that was written from Spains minister to the U.S. The letter insulted the U.S. by calling President McKinley weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd. This caused the Americans to get outraged.</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Before the U.S was about to go to war with Spain, also known as Jingoism, which is doing something, such as insulting the president, to make another country go to war with you, a very tragic event happened in Cuba. The battleship USS Maine had been sent to Havana, Cuba to help protect U.S lives and property. However, the ship blew up for an unknown reason and killed nearly 260 sailors. The New York Journal published this event with the headline DESTRUCTION OF T E WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY! Two months later the U.S congress declared war on Spain.</p> <p></p> <p>The Spanish-American Wars first battle United States VS Spain -- was at the Philippine Islands with leader George Dewey. George and his fleet came across the Manila Bay in his flagship called the U.S.S. Olympia and opened fire once the Spanish fired upon them first.</p> <p></p> <p>The Spanish in the Philippines finally surrendered months later after George received aid from Emilio Aguinaldo who helped him capture the island.</p> <p>The United States attacked the Spanish at Fort Santiago (which included El Caney and San Juan Hill), hoping to capture it. El Caney was captured easily by one U.S division.</p> <p>Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt led 1,000 soldiers up the San Juan Hill. Most of the soldiers were Rough Riders, composed of athletes, cowboys, American Indians, and ranchers. No horses were available so everyone had to charge up hill with the Spanish firing down on them. At night time, the U.S. took over the fort and won the</p> <p></p> <p>1. Cuba was set free from Spain ruling over them 2. Spain surrendered their territories, Puerto Rico and Guam, to the United</p> <p>3. Spain gave up their control of the Philippines to the United States 4. 5,400 soldiers died from either war or disease/food poisoning 5. The United States grew more world power and expanded their sphere of influence</p> <p>;review=yes</p> <p></p> <p>After gaining control over Puerto Rico and Cuba after the Spanish-American War, President McKinley wanted to put order back into the islands by setting up military governments to rule them. He appointed Leonard Wood as the governor of Cuba who faced many issues with one being sanitation issues.</p> <p></p> <p>Because Cuba still wasnt independent, Congress said they would take out U.S troops in Cuba if they made the Platt Amendment part of its constitution. This amendment limited the freedom for Cuba to make treaties with other countries and also required them to sell/lease land to the United States for naval and fueling stations. By agreeing to this, it made Cuba a U.S. Protectorate. This meant that the U.S would protect Cuba from other nations but also allowed them to intervene in Cuba at anytime.</p> <p>People building the Panama Canal faced harsh working conditions and they didnt have the required materials to build it. Even worse, yellow fever came upon them which postponed development on the Canal.**BUILT TO CUT TRAVEL TIME**</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eventually, Roosevelt appointed John Stevens as the chief engineer and architect to get things back on track. With tough challenges faced such as storms and diseases, the first passage through the Panama Canal was finally completed in 1914 by the SS Ancon!</p> <p>The Monroe Doctrine was put into play by presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson to help protect U.S interests from Latin America because Latin Americas wealth of raw materials engrossed a lot of Europeans and Americans capital. The money was in the form of high-interest bank loans. Later on, Roosevelt modified the Monroe Doctrine with the Roosevelt Corollary. It was issued by President Roosevelt to try to stop the Europeans from forcing the Dominican Republic to repay them for their loans. However, over time the U.S took things away from the Dominican Republic which made them protest because the Europeans came to them saying they demanded for repayment. Our country decided to make a move and send marines there, which stopped chaos.</p> <p>"Speak softly and carry a big stick"The Big Stick Diplomacy was a slogan directed towards Roosevelts Corollary with the Monroe Doctrine. It implements the idea of negotiating peacefully. The quote "Speak softly and carry a big stick" was first used in this speech at the Minnesota State Fair twelve days after the assassination of William McKinley.</p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Great White Fleet, also known as the United States Navy battle, completed a circumnavigation of the earth. The fleet consisted of 16 battle ships with 14,000 men who traveled about 45,000 miles for 14 months hoping to gain world power and naval power.</p> <p>President Taft created the Dollar Diplomacy policy because he wanted to protect U.S interests in Latin America. He thought that increasing economic power by replacing European loans with American loans would reduce the chances of European intervention. Over the years, American capital grew to over 1.6 billion dollars since we invested in mines, railroads, and sugar plantations.</p> <p></p> <p>An example of the Dollar Diplomacy would be when the U.S. loaned about 1.5 million dollars to Nicaragua. Shortly after all that money was given, there was a revolt and Taft had to send in about 2000 soldiers to stop it and protect the U.S investments.</p>