AA16 W3 Phonetic .International Phonetic Alphabets (IPA) a phonetic alphabetic system used by linguists

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  • Phonetic Transcription

    NCTU Yuwen Lai

  • RecordingNullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit. Integer posuere erat a ante Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit. Integer posuere erat a ante venenatis dapibus posuere velit aliquet. venenatis dapibus posuere velit aliquet.

    Articulatory descriptionvoiceless alveolar fricative voiceless bilabial plosive high front unrounded vowel voiceless postalveolar affricate

    Documenting speech3

    Transcription - narrow & broad transcription[spit]

    ^O

  • 4

    ghoti

  • 5

    ghotilaugh women nation

  • 6

    Orthographical Reform-I

    For example, in Year 1 that useless letter c would be dropped to be replased either by k or s, and likewise x would no longer be part of the alphabet. The only kase in which c would be retained would be the ch formation, which will be dealt with later. Year 2 might reform w spelling, so that which and one would take the same konsonant, wile Year 3 might well abolish y replasing it with i and iear 4 might fiks the g-j anomali wonse and for all.

  • 7

    Orthographical Reform-II

    Jenerally, then, the improvement would continue iear bai iear withiear 5 doing awai with useless double konsonants, and iears 6-12 orso modifaiing vowlz and the rimeining voist and unvoist konsonants.Bai iear 15 or sou, it wud fainali be posibl tu meik ius ov thi ridandantleterz c, y and x bai now jast a memori in the maindz of oulddoderers- tu replais ch, sh and th rispektivli.

  • 8

    Orthographical Reform-III

    Fainali, xen, after sam 20 iers ov orxogrefikl riform, we wud hev a lojikl, kohirnt speling in ius xrewawt xe Ingliy spiking werld

  • A set of symbols for representing all the possible distinctive sounds in worlds languages

    Use ordinary Roman letters as much as possible

    Use of diacritics for suprasegmentals, minute shades of a sound economy of the system

    One symbol -- one sound

    Show pronunciation in a dictionary

    Form the basis of a writing system for a language

    Record a language in linguistic fieldwork

    International Phonetic Alphabets (IPA)a phonetic alphabetic system used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent sounds

    9

  • Key elements for consonants: voicing, POA, MOA

    11

    interactive IPA

    http://www.ipachart.com

  • 12

    DiacriticsAccessories for sounds

  • 13

  • 14

    Online IPA typewriterPainless IPA typing

  • Native language and Transcriptiontranscriptions are always language-dependent

    15

    Your L1 at work

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    raise tongue to block the air

    ta a

    Unprejudiced transcription

  • tongue tip gets close to the alveo-palatal area

    16

    raise tongue to block the air

    ta a

    Unprejudiced transcription

  • t

    block the air partially release air

    tongue tip gets close to the alveo-palatal area

    16

    raise tongue to block the air

    ta a

    Unprejudiced transcription

  • How to describe a suspect

    17

    A variety of general description information about the suspect should be noted: Sex Race or national origin Age (estimated) Weight (estimated) Build-fat, husky, slim, muscular, etc.

    Facial information is also important: Hair-note the color, texture, hairline, style; also possible dyes or wigs Eyes-note the color, shape (round, slanted), whether clear or bloodshot, and the

    heaviness of eyelashes and eyebrows Nose-overall shape (long, wide, flat, etc.) and nostrils (wide, narrow, flared) are

    important Ears-note size and prominence (protruding or flat against head) Mouth-are lips thin, medium, full? do corners turn up, turn down, or level? Chin-what is the shape (round, oval, pointed, square)? double chin, dimpled, cleft? Neck-note protruding Adams apple or hanging jowls Complexion-note pores, pockmarks, acne, razor rash, bumps Facial hair-clean shaven? unshaven? beard, mustache, goatee, sideburns? Tattoos-shape and style; on what part of the body

  • Transcription

    [phone] /phoneme/ phonological representation

    Physical realization

    18

    To write down something that is spoken

    distinctive featuredetailed description

  • Transcription

    [phone] /phoneme/ phonological representation

    Physical realization

    18

    To write down something that is spoken

    distinctive featuredetailed description

  • Transcription

    [phone] /phoneme/ phonological representation

    Physical realization

    18

    To write down something that is spoken

    distinctive featuredetailed description

  • Broad & narrow transcription19

    Broad (phonemic transcription)

    / /

    Narrow (phonetic transcription)

    captures as many aspects of a specific pronunciation as possible

    [ ]

    /kt/

    [ kht ][ kht ]

  • 20

    Phonemes (phone + -eme)

    mental representation of a sound distinctive phones which change meanings of words

    Allophones

    pronunciation predictable, variants of a same phoneme Superman and Clark

    Phonemes and Allophones

    / /

  • 21

    Two words with different meanings that are identical except forone sound segment that occurs in the same place in the string.

    e. g. cab [kb]and cad [kd]

    Minimal pair

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    Transcription practice

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    Allophonic variant - Aspiration

    t

  • 24

    Voice Onset Time (VOT)

    t

    The temporal interval between the release of the consonantal constriction and the onset of voicing

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    Voicing and Aspiration

    fully voiced

    voiceless unaspirated

    voiceless aspirated

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    Aspiration (GA)

    creaky

  • 26

    Aspiration (GA)

    creaky

  • 26

    Aspiration (GA)

    creaky

  • 26

    Aspiration (GA)

    creaky

  • 27

    Devoicing (GA)

    Aspiration devoice following approximants (sometimes partially)

    Word-final voiced stop and fricative sometimes are devoiced as well

  • 28

    CoarticulationArticulatory overlap

    Anticipatory/right-to-left/backward Preservative/left-to-right/carry-over/progressive

  • 28

    CoarticulationArticulatory overlap

    Anticipatory/right-to-left/backward Preservative/left-to-right/carry-over/progressive

  • 29

    Consonantal releaseStops

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    Flap and tapStops

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    Glottal plosive/stoptightly closing the vocal folds for a short time

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    Syllabic consonants-

  • 33

    Velarization

    /l/ light - syllable initial /l/ dark - postvocalic

    back of the tongue raised toward velum

  • 34

    Intrusionadding sound

  • 35

    Duration

  • 36

    Not to mention

    Paris

    Jesus

    Francois

    JerusalemFrench pronunciation

    http://amy520jj.pixnet.net/blog/post/20956779

  • 36

    Not to mention

    Paris

    Jesus

    Francois

    Jerusalem

    Franois (French pronunciation: [f.sw]

    French pronunciation

    http://amy520jj.pixnet.net/blog/post/20956779

  • 37

    Rhotic speech

    rhotic and non-rhotic

    linking r link intrusive r following [:] [:] [:]

    A famous example is "Park the car in Harvard Yard", pronounced [pak kan havd jad], or as if spelled "pahk the cah(r) in Hahvuhd Yahd". Note that the r in car would usually be pronounced in this case, because the following word begins with a vowel.

    America in spring

    37

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tsljuK4f2E

  • 38

    Rhotacizationr-coloring

    rhotic and non-rhotic

    linking r link intrusive r following [:] [:] [:]

    A famous example is "Park the car in Harvard Yard", pronounced [pak kan havd jad], or as if spelled "pahk the cah(r) in Hahvuhd Yahd".