5G Massive MIMO - res- 02 Massive MIMO, a large-scale antenna technology, is a core 5G technology that

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  • 5G Massive MIMO Network Application

  • Figures


    Challenges of massive MIMO in 5G network deployment

    Network coverage

    User experience

    Network capability

    Executive summary

    Massive MIMO is a core technology of the 5th generation mobile communication

    Massive MIMO supports continuous development of 5G network application

    Multi-beam management and beamforming lay a

    foundation for better coverage

    5G SSB offers much better flexibility for broadcast channel

    coverage than 4G

    Evolution from horizontal multi-beam basic coverage to

    full-scenario three-dimensional coverage

    Efficient automatic optimization of 5G SSB

    SU-MIMO and enhanced scenario-based algorithm enhance

    user experience wherever and whenever needed

    SU-MIMO helps realize the ultimate experience of a

    single user

    Guaranteed user experience anytime and anywhere
















    Digital twin can help Massive MIMO realize intelligent value evolution of physical networks

    Summary and expectation




    Table 1 Summary of features/challenges/key technical points at

    each aspect of 5G network development and application

    Figure 1 5G typical network coverage scenario

    Figure 2 Comparison between 4G broadcast channel and 5G SSB

    Figure 3 Full-scenario three-dimensional SSB coverage solution

    Figure 4 SSB antenna parameters intelligent optimization flow

    Figure 5 Mapping model of digital twin network and physical network







    Table of contents




    MU-MIMO SDMA pairing algorithm and QoS intelligent

    scheduling help enhance system capacity and capability

    MU-MIMO is the basis for multi-user and multi-layer

    pairing optimization and enhancement of system capacity

    QoS-based intelligent scheduling

  • 01

    Executive summary

    Executive summary

    One of the greatest things in our era is that 5G is helping realize the Intelligent Internet of Everything (IIoE),

    bringing great changes to people’s lives, many vertical industries and the entire society with making the world a

    better connected and digital one. Massive MIMO, as one of the core technologies of 5G, is key to meeting the high

    performance requirements and new service requirements of this amazing new era.

    Though Massive MIMO does offer great promises for highly capable 5G with wider bandwidth, more connections,

    lower latency and better reliability, realizing its full potentials requires effective responses to the challenges of

    network coverage, user experience, and network capability, which is relevant to all the mobile network operators

    and system vendors.

    After the Massive MIMO technology is introduced, the differentiation and flexibility of wireless network coverage

    in three-dimensional space have been greatly improved. The radio wave propagation model, user behavior and

    service distribution, beam management and beamforming are more complicated, flexible and difficult to measure.

    The location of problems in wireless networks, the effectiveness of response solutions, and the effectiveness and

    impacts of new functions become more complicated as the network scale increases. How to effectively predict, find,

    and evaluate the optimal solution in advance before the complicated real network encounters problems?

    While Massive MIMO enables 5G with much higher diversity and flexibility of network accessibility and capability in

    a three-dimensional space, the complexity of the network raises the questions in identifying network issues, offering

    effective solutions, and maximizing the benefits of the new technologies without paying too high a price. How

    can we predict what network problems would happen under which circumstances, and come up with the optimal

    solutions and evaluate them, before the problems really happen?

    This white paper will address all these challenges with some analyses and suggestions.

  • 02

    Massive MIMO, a large-scale antenna technology, is a core 5G technology that can improve network coverage, user

    experience and network capability.

    While the traditional radio devices often have just two, four, or maximum eight TRX channels, the radio devices

    powered by Massive MIMO technology can have 32 or 64 TRX channels, with up to 512 or even more antenna

    elements, which can lead to substantially higher capacity gain than traditional equipment. Furthermore, while the

    traditional devices focus more on coverage in horizontal dimension, Massive MIMO offers much better flexibility also

    in vertical dimension. Massive MIMO can exploit to a great extent the resources in space dimension and enable the

    users under the same base station to use the same time and frequency resources, which significantly enhances the

    network capacity without denser base stations and wider frequency bandwidth.

    The Massive MIMO technology was first introduced into mobile networks in Pre5G era. With deployments of 5G

    around the world, it has now been widely adopted on a large scale.

    Massive MIMO is a core technology of the 5th generation mobile communication

    Massive MIMO is a core technology of the 5th generation mobile communication

  • 03

    Challenges of Massive MIMO in 5G network deployment

    Challenges of Massive MIMO in 5G network deployment

    Massive MIMO technology can significantly improve the system capacity, but there are still many challenges to

    be overcome while deploying the actual networks. These challenges are coupled mainly to three key aspects of

    deploying 5G: network coverage, user experience and network capability.

    The above three aspects will benefit greatly from the typical technical features and advantages of Massive MIMO, and

    the corresponding technical difficulties will be solved at the same time.

    Taking synchronization signal and PBCH block (SSB) configuration as an example, SSB determines the basic coverage

    performance of the network. 4G broadcast channel is sent with a fixed wide beam, and its coverage does not change

    in most cases. However, 5G SSB can be configured with up to 7 (2.5 ms frame structure) or 8 (5 ms frame structure)

    beams according to frame structure. More SSB beams result in flexible configuration, i.e. multiple horizontal beams

    can be configured, or combination of horizontal and vertical beams can be configured. Different beams can be

    flexibly configured with different widths and heights, so that the 5G SSB beam configuration can support abundant

    scenarios and accurately meet differential coverage requirements. However, the increase in flexibility also brings a

    significant increases in configuration complexity. There are more than tens of thousands of combinations of antenna

    parameters configuration for 5G SSB beams. Here arises a huge technical problem on how to quickly and accurately

    find the configuration that is most suitable for the current scenario among tens of thousands of antenna parameters

    , and efficiently match the configuration with the change of scenarios and user behavior modes.

    Based on the quasi-orthogonal characteristics among multi-user channels, Massive MIMO can greatly improve the

    network capacity through SDMA. Due to the complexity of wireless channel propagation, and the randomness

    of user distribution and services, the design of a base station requires a well-performed algorithm for downlink

    transmission and uplink receiving to obtain a stable multi-user SDMA gain and anti-interference performance. Under

    the condition of a given number of antennas, the complexity of the Massive MIMO algorithm increases rapidly with the

    increase of the number of users and the maximum number of MU-MIMO multiplexing layers, which becomes one of the

    key technical difficulties affecting system capacity.

  • 04

    User experience User experience optimization needs to compensate for the weakness in weak-�eld environments, thereby providing

    a high-quality experience anytime and anywhere.

    From a radio access network perspective, user experience is first strongly dependent on network coverage and mobility

    performance. Generally speaking, the farther the user is away from the base station, the weaker the signal they receive, and

    consequently the lower the data rate. Cell edge is often the weakest spot of the network in terms of both coverage and user

    experience. Massive MIMO, with its ability to form more precise and energy-concentrated beams, can greatly enhance the signals

    received at cell edge, reduce interference to neighboring cells and improve user experience.

    Another typical case of poor user experience is when the users are moving really fast, which makes the basis of Massive MIMO’s good

    performance – reliable channel state information and channel estimation – questionable. In medium- or high-speed mobility cases, the

    radio channels between the terminal and the base station are in constant and fast change, wh

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