29492912 Bazic Drawing

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  • 7/31/2019 29492912 Bazic Drawing


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  • 7/31/2019 29492912 Bazic Drawing


    A B O U T THE ARTISTSHaving worked as an illustrator in the entertainment industry for many years, Michael Butkus has worked on more than 2,500films in the areas of advertising, movie poster art, set design, and character design. Michael also invented and illustrated hundreds of characters for Lucas Films' Shadow oj the Empire. Walter T. Foster was born in Woodland Park, C olorado, in 1891. Hebegan writing self-help art instruction books in the 1920s and produced them in his home in Laguna Beach, California, wherehe wrote, illustrated, and printed them himself. Michele Maltseff received her B.FA. and M.FA. in Painting and Drawing fromthe Academy of Art College in San Francisco, California. An avid horse lover, Michele has illustrated several books on the subject, and she has won many awards for her work. An internationally recognized artist and one of America's foremost colorists,William F. Powell has been professionally involved in fine art, commercial art, and technical illustration for more than 35 years.Bill holds awards for his technical art, which has been used for major projects, such as space programs and environmental studies. Carol Rosinski has worked exclusively with graphite pencil since 1985, and she has had more than 20 years of experienceas an artist and teacher. Mia Tavonatti moved from Michigan to California to attend art school at California State University,Long Beach, where she earned her B.FA. and M.FA. in Illustration. She has illustrated 20 books, and her work can be seen onmore than 60 book covers and in various magazines.

    2005, 2007 Walter Foster Publishing, Inc. (WFP) All rightsreserved. Walter Foster is a registered trademark.Artwork on front cover, table of contents, and pages 10-11,20-21 , 56-57, 122-123, 134-135, and 138-139 by MichaelButkus; 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007 WFP Artwork on pages 59and 62-67 by William F Powell; 1989, 1997, 2003, 2005,2007 WFP Artwork on front and back cover and pages 22,24-33, 36-37 , 50-53, 96, 98-103, 108-115, 118-119, 120,124-127, 136-137, and 140-141 by William F Powell; 1997,2003, 2005, 2007 WFP Artwork on pages 104-107 and 116-117by William F Powell; 1998, 2003, 2005, 2007 WFP Artworkon pages 12-19, 34-35, 48-49, and 86-87, 129 by William EPowell; 200 1, 2003, 2005, 2007 WFP Artwork on pages 54and 88-95 by William F Powell; 2005, 2007 WFP. Artwork onhalf-title page and pages 38-47 by William E Powell; 1997,2003, 2005, 2007 WFP. Artwork on pages 5 9, 80, and 128,130-133 by Walter T. Foster; 1989, 1997, 2003, 2005, 2007WFP. Artwork on pages 70-71 , 74-77 by Mia Tavonatti; 1989,1998, 2003, 2005, 2007 WFP Artwork on pages 58, 60-61 ,68-69, 72-73, 78-79, and 82-83 by Mia Tavonatti; 2005, 2007WFP. Artwork on front cover, title page, and pages 81 and 84-85by Michele Maltseff; 1989, 1998, 2003, 2005, 2007 WFP.Artwork on pages 16-17 by Carol Rosinski; 2006, 2007 CarolRosinski.This book has been produced to aid the aspiring artist. Reproduction of the work for study or finished art is permissible. Anyart produced or photomechanically reproduced from this publication for commercial purposes is forbidden without written consent from the publisher, Walter Foster Publishing, Inc.

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    The Art ofBasic Drawing


    WALTER FOSTER PUB LISHING , INC.23062 La Cadena Drive

    Laguna Hills, California 92653www.walterfoster.com

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    CONTENTSTools and MaterialsPerspectiveWarming UpStarting with SketchesLearning to SeeMeasuring with a PencilDrawing with a GridBeginning with Basic ShapesDeveloping Form

    Fruit and NutsStrawberriesPineapplePineconeCandlelightFloral A rrangementLiquid and GlassRose with WaterdropsSimple FlowersFloral BouquetTulipsCarnationPeonyDogwoodRegal LilyPrimroseHibiscusHybrid Tea RoseFloribunda RoseChrysanthemumsBearded IrisStill Life CompositionReflections and LaceBottle and Bread

    Drawing AnimalsDoberman PinscherGreat DaneSiberian Husky PuppyEnglish BulldogMiniature SchnauzerShar-Pei PuppyOld English SheepdogChow ChowBouvier des FlandresRagdoll KittensPersian Cat



    Tabby CatCommon Cat BehaviorsHorse PortraitHorse Head in ProfileAdvanced Horse HeadsPonyClydesdaleCircus HorseDrawing at the ZooFlamingoElephantKangarooToucanTortoiseRattlesnakeGiant PandaGiraffe

    Landscape CompositionPerspective TipsCloudsRocksTree ShapesStructuresMountainsDesertsCreek with RocksSycamore LaneHalf Dome, YosemiteBeginning PortraitureAdult Head ProportionsHead PositionsEyesNoses and EarsWoman in ProfileWoman Front ViewGirl in ProfileBoy in ProfileThe BodyHands and FeetFigures in ActionPortraying ChildrenComposing FiguresPeople in Perspective


    10210410811011211411611812 012212412512612712812913013113213313413814014114 2

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    C H A P T E R 1


    BASICDRAWINGAlthough the age-old ar t of pencil drawing is the basic foundationof all the visual arts, its elemental beauty allows it to stand on itsown. And pencil ar t is amazingly versat i leit can range from simple , unshaded contour l ine drawings to complex, ful ly renderedcomposit ions with a complete range of tonal values. The projects inthis book are taken from some of the most popular drawing booksin Walter Foster 's How to Draw and Paint Series . And because a l lthe successful ar t is ts featured in th is book have developed theirown special approach to drawing, there are countless lessons to belearned from their individual and distinct perspectives. You'll findall the inspira t ion you need as you fol low a diverse presentat ion ofsubject matter and instruction. So grab a pencil and s tar t makingyour mark!

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    TOOLS AND MATERIALSD rawing is not only fun, it is also an important art form initself. Even when you write or print your name, you areactually drawing! If you organize the lines, you can make shapes;and when you carry that a bit further and add dark and lightshading, your drawings begin to take on a three-dimensionalform and look more realistic. One of the great things about drawing is that you can do it anywhere, and the materials are veryinexpensive. You do get what you pay for, though, so purchasethe best you can afford at the time, and upgrade your supplieswhenever possible. Although anything that will make a mark canbe used for some type of drawing, you'll want to make certainyour magnificent efforts will last and not fade over time. Here aresome of the materials that will get you off to a good start.

    Sketch Pads Conveniently bounddrawing pads come in a widevariety of sizes, textures,weights, and bindings.They are particularlyhandy for making quicksketches and when drawing outdoors. You can use a large sketchbook in the studio for laying out apainting, or take a small one withyou for recording quick impressionswhen you travel. Smooth- to medium-grain paper texture (which is called the"tooth ") is often an ideal choice.

    Drawing Papers For finished works of art, usingsingle sheets of drawingpaper is best. They areavailable in a range of surface textures: sm ooth grain(plate and hot pressed),medium grain (cold pressed), and rough to veryrough. The cold-pressedsurface is the most versati le. It is of medium texturebut it's not totally smooth,so it makes a good surfacefor a variety of differentdrawing techniques.

    Charcoal Papers Charcoal paper and tablets arealso available in a varietyof textures. Some of thesurface finishes are quitepronounced, and you canuse them to enhance thetexture in your drawings.These papers also come ina variety of colors, whichcan add depth and visualinterest to your drawings.

    Work Stat ion It is a good idea to set up a work area that has good ligh ting and enoughroom for you to work and lay out your tools. Of course, an entire room w ith track lighting,easel, and drawing table is ide al. But all you really need is a place by a window for naturall ighting. When drawing at night, you can use a soft white light bulb and a cool white fluorescent light so that you have both warm (yellowish) and cool (bluish) light.

    Artist's ErasersA kneaded eraser is amust. It can be formed intosmall wedges and pointsto remove marks in verytiny areas. Vinyl erasersare good for larger areas;they remove pencil markscompletely. Neither eraserwill damage the papersurface unless scrubbedtoo hard.

    4Torti l lons These paper"stumps" can be used to blendand soften sm all areas whereyour finger or a cloth is toolarge. You can also use thesides to quickly blend largeareas. Once the tortillo nsbecome dirty, simply rubthem on a cloth, andthey're ready to go again.

    Util i ty Knives Utilityknives (also called "c raft"knives) are great for cleanly cutting draw ing papersand mat board. You canalso use them for sharpening pencils. (Seethebox on page 7.) Bladescome in a variety of shapesand sizes and are easilyinterchanged. But be careful; the blades are assharp as scalpels!

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    GATHERING THE BASICSYou don't need a lot of supplies to start; you can begin enjoyingdrawing with just a #2 or an HB pencil, a sharpen er, a vinyleraser, and any piece of paper. You can always add more pencils,charcoal, tortillons, and such later. When shopping for pencils,notice that they are labeled with letters and numbers; these indicate the degree of lead softness. Pencils with B leads are softerthan ones with H leads, and so they make darker strokes. An HBis in between, which m akes it very versatile and a good beginne r'stool. The chart at right shows a variety of draw ing tools an d thekind of strokes that are achieved with each one. As you expandyour pencil supply, practice shaping different points and creatingdifferent effects w ith each by varying the pre ssure you pu t on thepencil. The more comfortable you are with your tools, the betteryour drawings will be!A D D I N G O NUnless you already have a drawing table, you will probably wan tto purchase a drawing board. It doesn't have to be expensive; justget one large enough to accommodate individual sheets of drawing paper. Consider getting one with a cut-out hand le, especiallyif you want to draw outdoo rs, so you can easily carry it with y ou.

    Spray Fix A fixative "sets" a drawing and protects it from smearing. Some artists avoidusing fixative on pencil drawings because it tends to deepen the light shadings and eliminate some delicate values. However, fixative works well for charcoal drawings. Fixative isavailable in spray cans or in bottles, but you need a mouth atomizer to use bottled fixative.Spray cans are more convenient, and they give a finer spray and m ore even coverage.

    HB ,sharp point

    HB ,round point


    HB An HB with a sharp point produces crisp lines and offersgood control. With a round point, you can make slightly thicker lines and shade sm all areas.

    Flat For wider strokes, use the sharp point of a flat 4B . A large,flat sketch pencil is great for shading large areas, but the sharp,chiseled edge can be used to make thinner lines too.

    Charcoal 4B charcoal is soft, so it makes a dark m ark.Natural charcoal vines are even softer, and they leave a morecrumbly residue on the paper. Some artists use white charcoalpencils for blending and lightening areas in their drawings.

    Conte Crayon or Pencil Conte crayon is made from veryfine Kaolin clay. Once it came only in black, wh ite, red, andsanguine sticks, but now it's also available in a w ide range ofcolored pencils. Because it's water solu ble, it can be blendedwith a wet brush or cloth.


    A Uti l i ty K nife can be used to form different points(chiseled, blunt, or flat) than are possible with an ordinary pencil sharpener. Hold the knife at a s light a ngle tothe pencil shaft, and always sharpen away from you,taking off only a little wood and graphite at a time.

    A Sandpaper Block will quickly hone the lead intoany shape you wish. It will also sand down some of thewood. The finer the grit of the paper, the more controllable the resulting point. R oll the pencil in your fingerswhen sharpening to keep the shape even.

    Rough Paper is wonderful for smoothing the pencilpoint after tapering it with sandpaper. This is also agreat way to create a very fine point for sm all details.Again, it is important to g ently roll the penc il while honing to sharpen the lead evenly.

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    PERSPECTIVED rawing is actually quite simple; jus t sketch the shapes a ndmasses you see. Sketch loosely and freelyif you discov ersomething wrong with the shapes, you can refer to the rules ofperspective below to make corrections. Your drawings don't needto be tight and precise as far as geometric perspective goes, butthey should be within the boundaries of these rules for a realisticportrayal of the subject.

    Practice is the only way to improve your drawing skills and topolish your hand-eye relationships. It's a good idea to sketcheverything you see and keep all your drawings in a sketchbookso you can track the improvement. (See page 12 for more onsketching and keeping a sketchbook.) Following are a few exercises to introduce the basic elements of drawing in perspective.Begin with the one-point exercise.

    O N E - P O I N T P E R S P E C T I V EIn one-point perspective, the face of a bo x is the closest pa rt tothe viewer, and i t is paral le l to the horiz on l ine (eye level).The bottom, top, and sides of the face are parallel to the picture plane.

    Horizon linel. Draw a horizontal line and label it "eyelevel" or "horizo n line ." Draw a box below

    this line.

    2. Now draw a light guideline from the topright corner to a spot on the horizon line.ing point). All side lines will go to thesame VP.

    3. Next, draw a line from the other corner asshown; then draw a horizontal line toestablish the back of the box.

    i\. Finally darken al l lines as shown, and youwil l have drawn a perfect box in one-pointperspective. This box may become a book,a chest, a building, etc.




    / \/ \


    x \ \

    T W O - P O I N T P E R S P E C T I V EI n two-point perspective, the corner of the box is closest tothe viewer, and two VPs are needed. Nothing is parallel tothe horizon line in this view. The vertical l ines are parallelto the sides of the picture plane.

    VP Horizon line VP

    l . Establish the horizon line (see "One-PointPerspective" at left), and then place a dotat each end and label them VP. Draw a vertical line that represents the corner of thebox closest to the viewer.


    2. Draw guidelines to each VP " " N ^ ^from the top and the bottom of the ^** " w^vertical line. Draw two more verticallines for the back of the sides.


    3. Draw two lines to the VPs, as ^ ^ " > ^ ^shown, to establish the top of the box. ^ ^Now darken all the lines and you willhave drawn a perfect box in two-po intperspective.





    i. Draw a box in two-point perspective. 2. Find the center of the face by dra wing diagonal linesfrom corner to corner; then draw a vertical line upwardthrough the center. Make a dot for the roof h eight.

    3. Using the v anishing po int, draw a line for the angleof the roof ridge; then draw the back of the roof. Theangled roof lines will meet at a third VP somewherein the sky.

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    BASI C F ORMSThere are four basic forms you should know: the cube, the cone,the cylinder, and the sph ere. Each of these forms can be an excellent guide for beginning a complex drawing or painting. Below are some examples of these forms in sim ple use .

    Cube Cylinder Cone Sphere

    CREAT I NG DEPT H WI T H SHADI NGTo create the illusion of depth when the shapes are viewedstraight on, shading must be added . Shading creates differentvalues and gives the illusion of depth and form. The examples below show a cone, a cylinder, and a sphere in both theline stage and with sh ading for depth .


    Shaded A

    EL L I PSESAn ellipse is a circle viewed at an angle.Looking across the face of a circle, it isforeshortened, and we see an ellipse. Theaxis of the ellipse is constant, and it isrepresented as a straight centerlinethrough the longest part of the ellipse.The height is constant to the height ofthe circle. Here is the sequence we mightsee in a spinning coin.



    Notice the use of eye-level VPs toestablish planes for the ellipses.

    FORESHORTENINGAs defined in Webster's dictionary, to foreshorten is "to represent the lines (of an object) as shorter than they actually arein order to give the illusion of proper relative size, in accordance with the principles of perspective." Here are a fewexamples of foreshortening to practice.

    Foreshortened lines

    Front view(foreshortened)

    C A S T S H A D O W SWhen there is only one light source (such as the sun), all shadows in the picture are cast by that single source. All shadowsread from the same vanishing point. This point is placed directlyunder the light source, whether on the horizon line or more forward in the picture. The shadows follow the plane on which theobject is sitting. Shadows also follow the contour of the plane onwhich they are cast. Light sourcetigh t rays travel in straight lines. W hen they strike anobject, the object blocks the rays from co ntinuing andcreates a shadow re lating to the shape of the blocking object. Here is a simple example of the way toplot the correct shape and length of a shadowfor the shape and the height of the ligh t.

    If the light is raised, lowered,or moves to the side, theshape of the shadow w illchange accordingly.

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    W A R M I N G U PD rawing is about observation. If you can look at your subjectand really see what is in front of you, you're halfway therealreadythe rest is technique and practice. Warm up by sketching a few basic three-dimensional formsspheres, cylinders,cones, and cubes. (See page 18 for more on basic shapes andtheir corresponding forms.) Gather some objects from aroundyour home to use as references, or study the examples here. Andby the way, feel free to put a translucent piece of paper over thesedrawings and trace them. It's not cheatingit's good practice.S TARTING OUT LOOS E LYBegin by holding the pencil loosely in the underhand position.(See page 18.) The n, using your wh ole arm, not just your wrist,make a series of loose circular strokes, just to get the feelof the pencil and to free your arm. (If you use only your wristand hand, your sketches may appear stiff or forced.) Practicedrawing freely by moving your shoulder and arm to make loose,random strokes on a piece of scrap paper. Keep your grip relaxedso your hand does not get tired or cramped, and make your linesbold and smooth. Now start doodlingscribble a bunch of looseshapes without worrying about drawing perfect lines. You canalways refine them later.

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    BL OCKING I N A S I MPL E CO MP OSI T I ONNow loosely sketch an assortment ofshapes in a simple still life. (See Chapter 2for a more in-depth coverage of drawingstill lifes.) Collect objects tha t have a variety of sizes and shapeslarge and small,tall and short, spherical and rectangularand put them together in an interestingarrangement. Then start blocking in theshapes using a sharp HB pencil. Remember to use your whole arm and to workquickly so you don't start tightening upand getting caught up in details. The moreyou practice drawing this way, the morequickly your eye will learn to see what'sreally there .

    Measuring Up Before you start sketching the individu alshapes, make sure you establish the correct proportions.When drawing freely like this , it's easy to lose sight of thevarious size relationships. Draw a few guidelines to m arkthe height of each object, and keep your sketches withinthose lines.

    Time's Up You can create this piece by lightly roughing out the ob jects using rectangles and circles. Then refine the shapes and gently erase the initia l guidelines.u

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    STARTING WITH SKETCHESS ketching is a wonderful method of quickly capturing animpression of a subject. Depending on the pencil lead andtechnique used, you can swiftly record a variety of shapes, textures, moods, and actions. For example, dark, bold strokes, canindicate strength and solidity; lighter, more feathered strokes canconvey a sense of delicacy; and long, sweeping strokes can suggest movement. (See the examples below for a few commonsketching techniques.) Some artists often make careful sketchesto use as reference for more polished drawings later on, but loosesketches are also a valuable method of practice and a means ofartistic expression, as the examples on these pages show. Youmight want to experiment with different strokes and sketchingstyles. With each new exercise, your hand will become quickerand more skilled.

    Using Circular Strokes Loose,circular strokes are great for quicklyrecording simple subjects or forworking out a still life arrangement,as shown in this example. Just drawthe basic shapes of the objects andindicate the shadows cast by theobjects; don't pay attention to rendering details at this point. N oticehow much looser these lines arecompared to the examples from thesketchbook at right.

    Recording Your ImpressionsHere are examples of a few pages thatmight be found in an artist's sketchbookAlong with sketchinginteresting things yousee, make notes aboutthe mood, colors, light,time of day anythingthat might be helpfulwhen you refer back tothem. It's a good ideato carry a pad andpencil with you at allt imes, because younever know when youwill come across aninteresting subjectyou'd like to sketch.

    Scribbl ing Free, scribbled lines canalso be used to capture the generalshapes of objects such as clouds,treetops, or rocks. Use a soft B leadpencil with a broad tip to sketch theoutlines of the clouds; then roughlyscribble in a suggestion of shadows,hardly ever lifting your pencil fromthe drawing paper. Note how thistechnique effectively conveys thepuffy, airy quality of the clouds.

    Using Wide, Bold Strokes Thismethod is used for creating roughtextures and deep shadows, makingit ideal for subjects such as foliageand hair and fur textures. For thisexample, use the side of a 2B pencil,varying the pressure on the lead andchanging the pencil angle to producedifferent values (lights and darks)and line w idths. This creates therealistic form and rough texture ofa sturdy shrub.

    Sketching for Reference Mater ia l Here is an example of us ing a rough sketch as asource of reference for a more detailed draw ing. Use loose, circular strokes to record animpression of the flower's general shape, keeping your lines light and soft to reflect thedelicate nature of the su bject. Then use the sketch as a guide for the more fully renderedflower above.

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    Conveying Movement To show movement in a drawing, you need to fool the viewer'seye and make it appear as if the object is moving up, down, or sideways. In the examplesabove, the arrows indicate the direction of movementbut your pencil strokes should actually be made in the opposite direction. Press down at the beginning of each stroke to geta strong line, lifting your pencil at the end to taper it off. Note how these lines convey theupward and downward direction of water and the rising and billowing movement of smoke.

    F O C U S I N G O N T H ESometimes it 's easier to draw the area around an object instead of draw ingthe object itself. The area around and between objects is cal led the "negat ivespace." (The actual objects are the "positive space.") If an object appears to betoo complex or i f you are having trouble "se eing" i t , t ry focusing on the negative space instead. At first it will take some effort, but if you squint your eyes,you'll be able to blur the details so you see only the negative and positive

    Filling In Create the white picket fence by filling in the negative spaces around theslats. Don't draw the slatsinstead draw the shapes surrounding them and then fillin the shapes with the side of a soft lead penc il. Once you establish the shape of thefence, refine the sketch a bit by adding some light shading on the railings.

    Rendering Wave Action Quickly sketch a wave, using long, flowing strokes to indicatethe arcing movement of the crest, and make tigh tly scribbled lines for the more randommotions of the w ater as it breaks and foams. As in the examples at left, your strokes shouldtaper off in the direction opposite the movement of the wave. Also sketch in a few meandering lines in the foreground to depict the slower movement of the pooled water as it flowsand recedes.

    N E G A T I V E S P A C Espaces. You' l l find that w hen you d raw the negat ive shapes around an object ,you're also creat ing the edges of the object at the same t ime. The examplesbelow are simple dem onstrat ions of how to draw negat ive space. Select someobjects in your hom e and place them in a group, or go outside and look at aclump of t rees or a group of bui ldin gs. Try sketching the nega t ive space, andnot ice how the objects seem to emerge almost magical ly f rom the shadows!

    Si lhouett ing This stand of trees is a little more complicated than the fence, buthaving sketched the negative spaces simp lified it immensely. The negative shapesbetween the tree trunks and among the branches are varied and irregular, which addsa great deal of interest to the drawing .


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    LEARNING TO SEEM any beginners draw without really looking carefully at theirsubject; instead of drawing what they actually see, theydraw what they think they see. Try drawing som ething you knowwell, such as your hand, without looking at it. Chances are yourfinished drawing won't look as realistic as you expected. That'sbecause you drew what you think your hand looks like. Instead,you need to forget about all your preconceptions and learn todraw only what you really see in front of you (or in a photo).Two great exercises for training your eye to see are contourdrawing and gesture drawing.P E N C I L I N G T H E C O N T O U R SIn contour drawing, pick a starting point on your subject and thendraw only the contoursor outlinesof the shapes you see.Because you're not looking at your paper, you're training yourhand to draw the lines exactly as your eye sees them. Try doingsome contour drawings of your own; you might be surprised athow well you're able to capture the subjects.

    Draw ing with a Continuous LineWhen drawing a sketch like the one ofthis man push ing a wheelbarrow, glanceonly o ccasionally at your paper to checkthat you are on track, but concentrateon really look ing at the subject and tracing the o utlines you see. Instead of lifting your pe ncil between shapes, keepthe line unbroken by freely looping backand crossing over your lines. Notice howthis sim ple technique effectively captures the subject.

    Drawi n g "Bl i n d " The contour draw ing above can be made while occasionally look ing down at the paper while you draw your hand. The drawing on theright is an example of a blind contour drawing, where you can draw w ithoutlooking at your paper even once. It will be a little distorte d, but it's clearly yourhand. Blind contour d rawing is one of the best ways of mak ing sure you'retruly drawing only what you see.

    To test your observationskills, study an object veryclosely for a Jew minutes,and then close your eyesand try drawing it from

    memory, letting your handfollow the mental image.

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    DRAWI NG GEST URE AND ACT I ONAnother way to train your eye to see the essential eleme nts of asubjectand train your hand to record them rapidlyis throughgesture drawing. Instead of rendering the contours, gesture drawings establish the movement of a figure. First determine the mainthrust of the movement, from the head, down the spine, andthrough the legs; this is the line oj action, or action line. Thenbriefly sketch the general shapes of the figure around this line.These quick sketches are great for practicing drawing figures inaction and sharpening your powers of observation. (See pages134-137 for more on drawing people in action.)


    Start ing wi th an Act ionLine Once you've establishedthe line of action, try buildinga "skele ton" stick drawingaround it. Pay particularattention to the angles of theshoulders, spine, and pelvis.Then sketch in the placementof the arms, knees, and feetand roughly fill o ut the basicshapes of the figure.

    Studying Repeated Action Group sports provide a great oppo rtunity for p racticing gesture drawings and learning to see the e ssentials. Because the players keep repea ting thesame action, you can observe each movement closely and keep it in your memory lon genough to sketch it correctly.

    Working Quickly To capturethe action accurately, work veryquickly, without including evena suggestion of deta il. If youwant to correct a line, don'tstop to erase; just draw over it.


    Drawing a Group in Motion Once you com pile a series of gesture drawings, you can com bine them into a scene of people in action, like the one above.

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    MEASURING WITH A PENCILD rawing the correct proportionsthe size relationshipsbetween different parts of an objectis easier if you learn totake measurements directly from your subject and then transfer

    those to yo ur paper. You can m easure your subject with just aboutanything (for exam ple, your th um b). Using a pencil is a very easyand accurate way to take measurements, as shown below.

    Measuring Width Close one eye and hold out your arm w ith your pe ncil positionedhorizontally between your fingers, and line up the tip of your pencil with one side of thesubject. Move your thumbnail down the pencil until it just touches the opposite side ofyour subject.

    Measuring Height Using the same procedure, measure the distance betweenthe highest and lowest points of your subject.

    T ~ D "

    Transferring Measurem ents Mark the length of yourpencil measurements on your paper. If youwant to enlargethe subject, m ultiply each measurement by two or three. Ifyou extend the initial markings to this new measurement,you can form a box around your subject that will work like agrid to help you draw your subject using correct proportions.

    Adding Up the Numbers After you've created the basicrectangle, using the tallest and widest measurements ofthe subject, sketch the cat's general shape within the rectangle. Keep the shape simple and add details later.

    Mapping Out Elements As long as you stay in thesame position with your arm extended at full length, youcan take a dditional measurements, such as the cat's foothere, which w ill be in proportion to the rest of the body.

    Correcting Calculations While progressing from abasic shape to a gradually more detailed outline drawing,take measurements before app lying any marks to keepyour drawing in proportion.

    D R A W I N G WHAT Y O U S E E

    Window Outl ine Exercise To train your eye andbrain to observe, stand or sit in front of a window andtrace the outline of a tree or car onto the glass with anerasable marker. If you move your head, your line willno longer correspond accurately with the s ubject, so tryto keep it stil l.

    Portable Window Create a portable window from apiece of rigid acrylic, which is available at your localhardware store. Try the same window outline exerciseindoors; it will help you understand how to reproducethe challenging angles and curves of your subject.

    Foreshortening in a Window DrawingForeshorteningwhen an object is angled toward theviewercauses the closest parts of an object to appearmuch larger than parts that are farther away. This canbe a difficult concept to m aster, but a window draw ing,shown above, simplifies this process.

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    DRAWING WITH A GRIDA nother effective way to learn how to draw what you see isthe grid method. The viewing grid shown below is an open,framelike device divided with string into several sections of thesame size. This tool helps you break down the scene into small,

    manageable parts, giving you clues as to where your subjectshould be placed on the paper. A grid stand will hold it steadyand in the same place for you.


    v i l _ _ _ _-

    Step One Find the exact center of the artist's viewfinder included in this kit. You canalso make one using cardboard and string. Cut a rectangle out of the center of a piece ofcardboard. Find the exact center of all four sides of the outer rectangle and make a smallcut on the outside border. Slip two pieces of string through the slitsone horizontally andone verticallyto divide your viewing grid into four equal s ections.

    Step Two Use a ruler and a pencil to lightly draw the same size grid (or a proportionallylarger or smaller one) with the same number of squares on a piece of drawing paper. Todraw a larger or sm aller grid, multiply or divide each measurement by the same number,usually two or three.

    1 ' ; :

    dStep Three Hold the cardboard grid at arm's length and use it to frame the scene orobject you want to draw. Youmust keep the grid and your head in the same pos ition for theduration of the drawing, so make yourself comfortable from the start.

    Step Four With one eye closed, observe your subject through the grid and notice at whatpoints its outlines cross the grid lines. Then carefully transfer these points to the g rid onyour drawing paper.

    Step Five Now that you've plotted these im portant reference points, you can begin to fillin the lines between the points. Draw one section at a time, look ing through your grid andnoting where the shape fits within the grid lines.

    Step Six Keep drawing, square by square, frequently studying the subject through thegrid un til the drawing is complete. Then erase the grid lines, and you will have an accurateline drawing of your subject.

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    BEGINNING WITH BASIC SHAPESA nyone can draw just about anything by simply breakingdown the subject into the few basic shapes: circles, rectangles, squares, and triangles. By drawing an outline around thebasic shapes of your subject, you've drawn its shape. But yoursubject also has depth and dimension, or form. As you learnedon pages 9-10, the corresponding forms of the basic shapes arespheres, cylinders, cubes, and cones. For example, a ball and agrapefruit are spheres, a jar and a tree trunk are cylinders, a boxan d a building are cubes, and a pine tree and a funnel are cones.That's all there is to the first step of every drawing: sketch ing theshapes and developing th e forms. After that, it's essentially justconnecting and refining the lines and adding details.

    Creating Forms Hereare diagrams s howing howto draw the forms of thefour basic shapes.Theellipses show the backsof the circle, cylinder,and cone, and the cube isdrawn by connecting twosquares with pa rallel lines.(How to shade these formsis shown on page 10.) I T-J H

    Sphere Cylinder Cube Cone

    Combining Shapes Here is anexample of beginning a drawingwith basic shapes. Start by drawingeach line of action (see page 15);then build up the shapes of the dogand the chick with simple ovals,circles, rectangles, and trian gles.


    Building Form Once youestablish the shapes, it is easyto build up the forms withcylinders, spheres, and cones.Notice that the subjects arenow beginning to show somedepth and dimension.

    Drawing Through Drawing through means drawing the com pleteforms, including the lines that will e ventually be hidden from sight.Here when the forms were drawn, the ba ckside of the dog and chickwere indicated. Even though you can't see that side in the finisheddrawing, the subject should appear three-dimensional. To finish thedrawing, simply refine the outlines and add a little fluffy texture to thedowny chick.

    H O L D I N G Y O U R D R A W I N G P E N C I L

    Basic Underhand The basic underhand positionallows your arm and w rist to move freely, whichresults in fresh and lively sketches. Drawing in thisposition makes it easy to use both the point and theside of the lead by simply changing your hand andarm angle.

    Underhand Variat ion Holding the pe ncil at its endlets you make very light strokes, both long and short.It also gives you a delicate co ntrol of lights , darks, andtextures. Place a protective "slip sheet" under yourhand when you use this position so you don't smudgeyour drawing.

    W ri t ing The writing position is the most common one,and it gives you the m ost control for fine detail and precise lines. Be careful not to press too hard on the point,or you'll make indentations in the paper. And remembernot to grip the pencil too tightly, as your hand may getcramped.

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    SEEI NG T HE SHAPES AND F ORMSNow train your eye and hand by practicingdrawing objects around you. Set up a simplestill lifelike the one on page 11 or thearrangement belowand look for the basicshapes in each object. Try drawing from photographs, or copy the drawings on this page.Don't be afraid to tackle a complex subject;once you've reduced it to simple shapes, youcan draw anything!

    STEP O N E Begin with squaresand a circle, and then addellipses to the jug and sides tothe book. Notice that the wholeapple is drawn, not just thepart that will be visible. That'sanother example of drawingthrough.

    STEP O N E Even a complex form such as this '51 Ford is easy to draw if you begin with the most basicshapes you see. At this stage, ignore a ll the details and draw only squares and rectangles. These areonly guidelines, which you can erase when your drawing is finishe d, so draw ligh tly and don't worryabout m aking perfectly clean corners.

    S T E P TW O Next add anellipse for the body of the juga cone for the neck, and acylinder for the spout. Alsopencil in a few lines on thesides of the book, parallel tothe top and bottom, to begindeveloping its form.

    STEP TW O Using those basic shapes as a guide, start ad ding more squares and rectangles for the headlights, bumper, and grille. Start to develop the form of the wind shield w ith angled lines, and then sketchin a few straight lines to place the door handle and the side detail.

    STEP THREE Finally refine theoutlines of the jug and a pple, andthen round the book spine andthe corners of the pages. Onceyou're happy with your drawing,erase all the initial guidelines,and your drawing is complete.

    S T E P THREE Once you have all the major shapes and forms e stablished, begin roun ding the lines andrefining the details to conform to the car's design. Your guidelines are still in place here, but as a finalstep, you can clean up the drawing by erasing the extraneous lines.

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    DEVELOPING FORMV alues tell us even more about a form than its outline does.Values are the lights, darks, and all the shades in betweenthat make up an object. In pencil drawing, the values range fromwhite to grays to black, and it's the range of values in shadingand highlighting that gives a three-dimensional look to a two-dimensional drawing. Focus on building dimension in yourdrawings by modeling forms with lights and darks.

    Sketching theShapes First lightlysketch the basic shapeof this angular wedgeof cheese.

    D R A W I N G C A S T S HADOWSCast shadows are important in drawing for two reasons. First , theyanchor the im age, so i t doesn' t seem to be f loa t ing in air. Second, theyadd visual interest and help l ink objects together. When drawing a castshadow, keep in mind that i ts shape wil l depend on the l ight source aswell as on the shape of the object c ast ing i t . For exam ple, as shownbelow, a sphere casts a round or el l ipt ical shadow on a smooth surface,depending on the angle of the l ight source. The length of the shadowis also af fected: the lower the l ight source, the longer the shadow.

    Side lit froma high angle

    Side lit froma low angle

    Baeklit froma high angle

    Laying in Values Here thelight is com ing from the left, sothe cast shadows fall to the right,tightly shade in the middle valueson the side of the cheese, andplace the da rkest values in holeswhere the light doesn't hit.

    < 3 * s r

    Adding Shadows tookat a bunch of grapes as agroup of spheres. You canplace all the shadow areasof the grapes (form shadows) on the s ides that areopposite the light source.Then can also block in theshadows that the grapesthrow on one another andon the surrounding surface (cast shadows).

    U N D E R S T A N D I N G L I G H T A N D SHADOWSTo develop a three-dimensional form, you need to know whereto place the light, dark, and medium values of your subject.This will all depend on your light source. The angle, distance,and intensity of the light will affect both the shadows on anobject (called "form shadows") and the shadows the objectthrows on other surfaces (called "cast shadows"; see the boxabove). You might want to practice drawing form and cast shadows on a variety of round and angular objects, lighting themwith a bright, direct lamp so the highlights and shadows willbe strong and well-defined.

    Highl ight ingEither "save " the whiteof your paper for thebrightest highlights or"retrieve" them by pickingthem out w ith an eraseror painting them on withwhite gouache.

    Shading Shade in themiddle value of thesegrapes with a couple ofswift strokes using theside of a soft lead pencil.Then increase the pressure on your pencil for thedarkest values, and leavethe paper white for thelights.

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    Using PhotographsMany artists often drawfrom photo references,changing them as theysee fit. They may prefer to"interpret" in their drawings, rather than simplycopying a photograph.

    B U I L D I N G D I M E N S I O NSome artists often sketch with a single HB pencil, but they rarelyrender a complete drawing with one. Instead they change pencilsdepending on which values they are applying, using hard leadssuch as H and HB for light areas and a soft 2B lead for da rkerareas. You can also make very dark areas by increasing pencilpressure and bearing down harder for the darkest values. Build

    darkness by shading in layersthe more layers you~ J..,_ ^ apply, the dark er the area becom es. Mosti l t 'WM#UIUlHl |w f l( [ |1 ^ -" of your shading can be done with

    the side of the pencil in an underhand position, but you can add

    details with the point in thewriting position. (See page 18.)

    Shading Co nsistently If you haveonly one light source, make sure thatall the highlights are facing one direction and all the shadows are oriented inthe opposite direction. If you mix themup, your drawing won 't be believable.

    ^ fP

    Gett ing to Know Your Subject Quick, "thumbnail"sketches are invaluable for developing a draw ing. You canuse them to play with the positionin g, form at, and cropping un til you find an arrangement you like. These aren'tfinished drawings by any means, so you can keep themrough. And don't get too attached to them they're meantto be changed.

    2 1

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    $-. ] J . . . .


    :M K r wSHHhMHttffllPi" P T T T I ?


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    C H A P T E R 2


    STILLLIFESStill life drawings offer a great opportunity to learn and practicea varie ty of drawin g skil ls, inclu din g deve loping form, applyin gshading, and using perspective. St i l l l i fe composit ions tradit ionallydepict a carefully arranged grouping of a number of householdobjects, such as fruit, vegetables, glassware, or potteryall ofwhich offer a wide range of textures, sizes, and shapes. But youdon ' t have to restr ic t yourself to tradit ional i tems; use your ar t is t iclicense to get as creative as you want! The following lessons willguide you through the basics of drawing still lifes, from designingthe composit ion to blocking in the basic shapes and adding thefinal details for depth and texture.

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    FRUIT A N D N U T S BY WILLIAM F. POWELLS tudy your subject closely, and lightly sketch the simple shapes.(Notice, for example, that the pear is made up of two circlesone large and one small.) Once the basic shapes are drawn, beginshading with strokes that are consistent with the subjects' roundedforms, as shown in the final drawings.

    Drawing the Pear Start with two circles for the pear;next place the stem and the water drop. Begin shadingwith smooth, curving lines, leaving the highlighted areasuntouched. Then finish shading and refine the de tails.



    Drawing the Peach First draw the general shapes in step i. Then, in step 2, place guidelines for the texture of the pit and the cavity on the s lice. Begin shading the s kin of thepeach with long, smooth strokes to b ring out its curved surface in step 3. Use a sharp 2Bpencil to create the dark grooves on the pit and the irregular texture on the slice. Finishwith lines radiating outward from the seed and the top of the slice.

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    Drawing the Cherry To start the cherry, lightly blockin the round shape and the stem , using a combination ofshort sketch lines. Smooth the sketch lines into curves, andadd the indentation for the stem. Then begin light shadingin step 3. Continue shading until the cherry appearssmooth. Use the tip of a kneaded eraser to remove anyshading or smears that might have gotten into the highlights. Then fill in the darker areas using overlappingstrokes, changing stroke direction slightly to give theillusion of three-dimensional form to the shiny surface.


    Water Drops Detail Use the arrow directionsshown above as a guide for shading the cherryaccording to its contour. Leave ligh t areas for thewater drops, and shade inside them , keeping thevalues soft.

    Pools of Water Detai l Sketch the outline shape ofthe pool of water with short strokes, as you did withthe cherry. Shade softly, and create highlights with akneaded eraser.

    Rendering the Chestnuts To draw these chestnuts, use a circle and two intersectinglines to make a cone shape in s teps 1 and 2. Then place some guidelines for ridges in step3. Shade the chestnuts u sing smooth, even strokes that run the length of the objects.These strokes bring out form and glossiness. Finally add tiny dots on the surface. Makethe cast shadow the darkest part of the drawing.


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    STRAWBERRIES BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThese strawberries were drawn on plate-finish Bristol board using only an HBpencil. Block in the berry's overall shape insteps 1 and 2 to the right. Then lightly shadethe middle and bottom in step 3, and scatter aseed pattern over the berry's surface in step 4.Once the seeds are in, shade around them.

    Sketch a grid forthe surface pattern.

    Drawing Guidel ines Draw a grid on the s trawberry; itappears to wrap around the berry, helping to establish itsseed pattern and three-dimensional form.

    Developing Highlights and Shadows It's importantto shade properly around the seeds, creating sma ll circularareas that contain both light and dark. Also develop highlights and shadows on the overall berry to present a realistic, uneven surface.

    Indicate the shadedareas by lightly drawing

    circles around theseeds as guides.

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    PINEAPPLE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLL ike the strawberry, a prickly pineapple hasan involved surface pattern. The pineapplebelow was done on plate-finish Bristol boardusing an HB penc il for the m ain layo ut an dlight shading, as well as a 2B for darker areas.


    Practice drawing otherfruits and vegetables you haveat home, focusing on the varied

    textures and patterns of theirseeds, pulp, and skins.


    Drawing the Pineapple Sketch the primary shape instep 1, and add block-in lines for the pineapple's surfacepattern in steps 2 and 3. Use a sharp 2B to draw s ubtle texture lines at various angles on each pineapple "s ection,"using the stroke and lift technique; begin at the edge,stroke toward the middle, and lift the pencil at the endof the stroke. Finally shade the cast shadow smoother anddarker than the fruit surfaces, and add drops of juice for anappealing effect.


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    PINECONE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLC ompare the highly textured surface pattern of the pineconewith the strawberry and pineapple on pages 26-27 . Using anHB pencil, position the pinecone with light guidelines in step 1.Then indicate the tree trunk and pine needles in step 2, and adda grid for the pattern on the pinecone.

    Sketch athe surface pattern

    Establ ish ing D etai l Draw the shapes of the sp iked scales, which change in size fromone end of the cone to the other. In step 4, begin shad ing the cone and surroundingobjects. Make the cast shadow appear to follow the curve of the tree root.

    Working wi th N egat iveSpace Develop the grassin step 5 by drawing thenegative spaces; insteadof drawing individual pineneedles and blades ofgrass, fill in the shadowsbetween them. By shadingaround the negativespaces, the grass shapeswill automatically emergefrom the wh ite of the paper.(See page 13 for m ore onnegative space.)

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    D E V E L O P I N G D E T A I L S

    Tree Texture Guidelines To render the bark andknothole of the gnarled tree trunk, first lightly draw inthe texture design. Then, when you're happy with thegeneral appearance, proceed with the shading.

    Tree Texture Shading Short, rough strokes give theimpression of texture, whereas long, smooth strokesprovide interest and contrast. Use a combination of thetwo strokes to provide the bark's shading and details.

    Pinecone Scale Shading Develop each pineconescale separately, followin g the arrows on the diagramabove for the direction of your strokes. Keep the hatchedstrokes smooth and close together.

    2 9

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    CANDLELIGHT BY WILLIAM F. POWELLT is drawing was done on plate-finish Bristol board with HBand 2B pencils. The pewter-and-glass candlestick, painting, and pa intbrushes were arranged on a table; then a quick sketchwas made to check the composition, as shown in step 1.

    Blocking In the Composition When setting up a still life, keep rearranging the itemsuntil the comp osition suits you. If you're a beginner, you might want to keep the number ofobjects to a minimumthree to five elements is a good number to start with.

    Developing Shape and Form In step 2, place all the guidelines of your subjects; thenbegin shading with several layers of soft, overlapping strokes in step 3. Gradually developthe dark areas rather than all at the same time.

    * N l J " - ' ' ! " ' . . ; . ' '

    Flame Detail A candle flame isn't difficu lt to draw. Justmake a simple outline, keep all shading soft, and make thewick the darkes t part. Be sure to leave white area in thecandle top to suggest a glow.

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    FLORAL AR RA NG EM EN T BY WILLIAM F. POWELLBy varying your techniques, you become a more versatileartist. Therefore this drawing was drawn more loosely thanthe previous one. Begin with a n HB pencil, lightly d rawing in thebasic shapes within the floral arrangement.

    Establishing the Shad ing The sketch above showsshading strokes for the flower petals and leaves. Try notto add too much detail at this stage of your draw ing.

    Blending the Cast Shadow s As shown in the close-up above, the cast shadow needs the smoothest blending.Position the shadows using the side of an HB pencil; thenblend softly with a paper stump.

    Sketching Loosely This rendering wasfinished using a loose, sketchy technique.Sometimes this type of final can be morepleasing than a highly detailed one.


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    LIQUID A N D GLASS BY WILLIAM F. POWELLhis drawing was done on Bristol board witha plate (smooth) finish. Use an HB pencil for

    most of the work and a 2B for the dark shadows. flat sketch pencil is good for creating the back

    ground texture.

    ^ 4 ^Star t i n g Out In step 1, sketch the basic shapesof the glass, liqu id, and flowers. In step 2, addmore details, and begin sha ding the glass andliquid areas. Take your time, and try to make theedges clean. m? : M

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    ROSE WITH WATERDROPS BY WILLIAM F. POWELLM any beginning artists believe a rose is too difficult todraw and therefore may shy away from it. But, likeany other object, a rose can be developed step by step fromits most basic shapes.

    oAdding Values Now begin shad ing. Stroke from insideeach petal toward its outer edge.

    Establishing Guidelines Use an HB pencil to block inthe overall shapes of the rose and p etal, using a series ofangular lines. Make all guidelines light so you w on't havetrouble removing or covering them later.

    oDeveloping Shading Shade from the outer edge ofeach petal, meeting the strokes you drew in the oppositedirection. Use what is known as a stroke and lift technique.For this technique, you sh ould draw lines that gently fadeat the end. Just press firmly, lifting the pencil as the strokecomes to an end.Following Through Continue adding guidelines for the

    flower's interior, following the angles of the petal edges.

    Make the cast shadowthe darkest area of

    your drawing.


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    SIMPLE FLOWERS BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThis morning glory and gardenia are great flowers forlearning a few simple shading techniques called "hatching" and "crosshatching." Hatch strokes are parallel diagonallines; place them close together for dark shadows, and spacethem farther apart for lighter values. Cross-hatch strokes aremade by first drawing hatch strokes and then overlappingthem with hatch strokes that are angled in the opposite direction. Examples of both strokes are shown in the box at thebottom of the page.

    Step One took carefullyat the overall shape of amorning glory and lightlysketch a polygon with thepoint of an H B pen cil. Fromthis three-quarter view,you can see the veins thatradiate from the center,so sketch in five curvedlines to place them. Thenroughly outline the leavesand the flower base.

    Step Two Next drawthe curved outlines of theflower and leaves, usingthe guidelines for placement. You can also changethe pressure of the pencilon the paper to vary theline width, giving it a littlepersonality. Then add thestamens in the center.

    Step Three Now youare ready to add theshading. With the rounded point and side of anHB pencil, add a seriesof hatching strokes, following the shape, curve,and direction of the surfaces of the flower andleaves. For the areas morein shadow, make darkerstrokes placed closertogether, using the pointof a soft 2B pencil.


    Step One The gardeniais a little more com plicatedto draw than the morningglory, but you can stillstart the same way. Withstraight lines , block in anirregular polygon for theoverall flower shape andadd partial triangles forleaves. Then determinethe basic shape of eachpetal and begin sketchingin each, starting at thecenter of the gardenia.


    Step Two As you draweach of the petal shapes,pay particular attention towhere they overlap and totheir proportions, or theirsize relationshipshowbig each is compared w iththe others and comparedwith the flower as a whole.Accurately reproducingthe pattern of the petalsis one of the most important elements of drawinga flower. Once all theshapes are laid in,refine their outlines.

    Step Three Again,using the side and bluntpoint of an HB pencil,shade the petals andthe leaves, making yourstrokes follow the direction of the curves. Liftthe pencil at the end ofeach petal stroke so theline tapers and lightens,and deepen the shadows with overlappingstrokes in the oppos itedirection (called cross-hatching) with the pointof a 2B pencil.

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    FLORAL BOUQUET BY WILLIAM F. POWELLI f you look carefully, you will see that although the roses resemble one another, each one has unique features, just as peopledo . If you make sure your drawing reflects these differences, yourroses won't look like carbon copies of one another.

    Step One Just as you didfor single flowers, begin bydrawing the basic shapesof the roses with an HBpencil. Block in only theoutlines and a few m ajorpetal shapes, without getting involved in the details.Then sketch in the stemsand the shape of the ribbon. These first lines aremerely guidelines fordeveloping the drawing,so keep the strokes simpleand very light.

    im>^ 7y

    Step Two Once you'veestablished the generaloutlines, begin developingthe secondary shapes ofeach flower the curvesand indentations of thepetals. These are the elements that make each roseunique, so pay carefulattention to the shapes atthis stage of the drawing.

    Step Three Now begin todefine the shapes moreprecisely, adding detail tothe innermost petals, refining the stems , and developing the shape of the ribbon. Vary the thickness ofeach line to give the drawing more character andlife. Don't shade at a ll inthis step; you will want tomake sure the drawing isaccurate first.

    Step Four Sometimeskeeping the shading fairlyminimal and light showshow effective simple drawings can be. tater in thebook, shading will bedemonstrated in moredetail. Here use hatchedstrokes and place onlyenough shading on eachflower, leaf, and stem togive it some form.


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    TULIPS BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThere are several classes of tulips wi th differentlyshaped flowers. The one below, known as aparrot tulip, has less of a cup than the tulip to theright and is more complex to draw. Use the layoutsteps shown here before drawing the details.

    v i wDrawing the Parrot Tulip Begin using straight linesfrom point to point to capture the major shape of theflower. Add petal angles in step 2 . Then draw in actualpetal shapes, complete with simple shading.

    Creating Form Look for the rhythm of line in this nexttulip. It begins with three simple lines in step 1, which setits basic direction. Step 2 dem onstrates how to add linesto b uild the general flower shape. Step 3 adds more to theshape and begins to show the graceful pose of the flower.Step 4 shows more de tail and leads to shading, which givesthe flower its form.

    Just a few shading strokeshere enhance the effectof overlapping petals.

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    CARNATION BY WILLIAM F. POWELLC arnation varieties range from deep red to bicolored to white.They are very showy and easy to grow in most gardens.They are also fun and challenging to draw because of their manyoverlaying petals. Shade them solid, variegated, or w ith a light ordark edge at the end of each petal.

    A dark background allows theflower to pop off the page.

    Replicating Patterns and S hapes The front view aboveshows the complex pattern of this type of c arnation. Step 1places the basic shapes seen within the flower. From here,begin drawing the actual curved petal shapes. Once theyare in place, shade the flower.


    Establishing the Basic Shapes Develop the overallshape of the side view, including the stem and sepal.Begin drawing the intricate flower details in step 2, keeping them light and simple.

    - V


    The crinkled petals evolve fromdrawing irregular edges and

    shading unevenly in random areas.

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    PEONY BY WILLIAM F. POWELLP eonies grow in single- and double-floweredvarieties. They are a showy flower andmake fine subjects for flower drawings.

    The background strokes followthe direction of the petals andblend outward from the center.




    Developing the Peony This exercise should be drawn on vellum-finish B ristolboard. On this surface, shading produces a bit more texture than the smoother platefinish. Begin the exercise by drawing and positioning the major flower parts in step l .In step 2, begin s hading the petals and surrounding leaves. Start shading in earnestin step 3, and establish the background pattern.


    D O G W O O D BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThere are different varieties of dogwood. Below is an orientaltype called the "kousa dogwood," and at the right is theAmerican flowering dogwood. Both of their flowers vary frompure white to delicate pink. Follow the steps closely to draw them

    Kousa dogwood

    American flowering dogwood

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    REGAL LILY BY WILLIAM F. POWELLL ilies are very fragrant, and the plantscan grow up to 8 feet tall. Use thesteps below to develop the flower, whichyou can attach to the main stem whendrawing the entire plant, as shown at thebottom of the page.

    Bud Detail The lily bud in step 1 (above) starts out completely closed. Step 2 illustrates the two angles you shouldshade to give the bud fo rm. It also shows how to transformthe bud so it appears sligh tly opened . Add these types ofbuds to your lily plant, paying attention to how they attachto the stems.

    Shading lines like theseillustrate a technique

    called crosshatching andgive the petals form.

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    PRIMROSE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThere are many primrose varieties witha wide range of colors. This exercisedemonstrates how to draw a number offlowers and buds together. Take your timewhen placing them.

    The unopened primrosebuds begin with small,

    egg-like shapes.

    Forming the Primrose B lossom Draw a main stemfirst, and add smaller ones branching o utward. Keep themin clusters, curving out in different directions from the

    Developing the Leaves These steps show three shading stages of leaves. In step 1 (at the far righ t), lightly outline leaf shape. Begin shading in step 2, sketching wherethe leaf veins will be. Then shade around those areas, leaving them wh ite, to bring o ut the veins. When you reachstep 3, clean up the details, and add a few darker areasalong some of the veins.

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    HIBISCUS BY WILLIAM F. POWELLH ibiscus grow in single- and double-flowered varieties, andtheir colors include whites, oranges, pinks, and redsevenblues and purples. Some are multi- or bicolored. The examplehere is a single-flowered variety.

    Hibiscus Bud DetailTry drawing a few buds,and attach them to stembranches around yourdrawing for variety.

    iyPlanning Your Drawing Even though the hibiscus has a lot of detail, itisn't difficult to draw. Steps leading up to the finished draw ing must be followed closely to get the most ou t of this exercise. Step 1 shows the overallmass, petal direction , and basic center of the flower. Consider the size ofeach flower part in relation to the whole before attempting to draw it.

    v .



    y Shading Before shading the petals in step 2 , studywhere the shad ing falls and how it gives the petals aslightly rippled effect. Add the details of the flowercenter, and block in the stem and leaves.


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    HYBRID TEA ROSE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLHybrid tea roses have large blossoms with greatly varyingcolors. When drawing rose petals, think of each fittinginto its own place in the overall shape; this helps position themcorrectly. Begin lightly with an HB pencil, and use plate-finishBristol boa rd.

    Mak ing Choices The block-in steps are the sameno matter how you decide to finish the drawing,whether lightly outlined or completely shaded. Forshading, use the side of a 2B pencil and blend witha paper stump.

    Using the paper stump insmall circle movements will

    let you blend small areasto a smooth finish.

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    FLORIBUNDA ROSE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLFloribunda roses usually flower more freely than hybrid tearoses and grow in groups of blossoms. The petal arrangementin these roses is involved; but by study ing it closely you'll see anoverlapping, swirling pattern.

    Drawing the Rose Use a blunt-pointed HB pencil lightly on plate-finish B ristol board.Outline the overall area of the rose mass in step l . Once this is done, draw the s wirling petaldesign as shown in steps 2 and 3. Begin fitting the center petals into place in step 4. Use theside of an HB to shade as in step 5, being careful not to cover the water drops. They shouldbe shaded separately.


    Th e downward shading lines followthe angle of the leaf surface, and

    the pattern suggests veining. Use akneaded eraser to pull out highlights.

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    C H R Y S A N T H E M U M S BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThe two varieties of chrys anthemum son this page are the pompon and theJapanese anemone. The pompon chrysanthemum produces flowers one to twoinches across that are more buttonlikethan the larger, more globular types.The Japanese a nemone grows four inchesor more across and produces flowerswith irregular outlines that, in some cases,resemble forms of anemone sea life.Follow the steps for each flower type,trying to capture the attitude and personality of each flower and petal formation.It's best to draw this exercise on plate-finish Bristol board using both HB and 2Bpencils. Smooth bond paper also providesa good drawing surface.

    Observe the difference in texture between thetop of the Japanese anem one blossom below

    and its sides. The voluminous, bushy effect isachieved with many short, squiggly linesdrawn in random directions, in contrast

    to the sloping lines of the lower petals.


    Pompon chrysanthemum

    3 ^ # A


    Side view

    Japanese anemone chrysanthemumrtt

    Shortsquiggly lines

    "A , >v\.a^J?- >

    4 X H

    Long, drooping lines

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    Seeing the Shapes Border chrysanthemumsproduce larger, more bulbous flowers. Their petalarrangement is challenging to draw. Develop thedrawing outline with a 2B pencil, then add an interesting background using a flat sketch pencil withrandom strokes and varying pressures.

    Border Chrysanthemum

    The unopened bud resemblesa miniature pumpkin.

    Draw in the ereases first tomake shading easier.

    Shade darker nearthe creases to make

    them appear indentedinto the leaf.

    Drawing Petals Follow thearrows when developing thepetals. Work from the centeroutward, allowing each newpetal to be overlapped by theprevious one. Step 2 showsmost of the petals in place,but notice that changes totheir position may occurwhen you shade.

    Applying Shading A flat sketching penc il is best for shading the broad portions of theleaves. Use the corner of the lead to draw the o utlines and indicate veining. To create amore interesting "sketch y" look, leave some parts unshaded rather than finishing them offat the edges, as shown above.

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    BEARDED IRIS BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThe bearded iris is probably the mostbeautiful of the iris varieties. Its colors range from deep purples to blues,lavenders, and whites. Some flowers havedelicate, lightly colored petals with darkveining. They range in height from lessthan a foot to over three feet.

    4 y fs*^/Beginning to Shade Follow the arrow directionsin step 3 for blending and shading strokes; thesestrokes make the petal surfaces appear solid.Darken shadowed areas us ing the point of a 2B .

    Using Guidel ines Step 1 (above) shows the block-in linesfor a side view of the iris, whereas step 1 (below) shows afrontal view. Whichever you choose to draw, make your in itialoutline shapes lig ht, and use them as a general guide for drawing the graceful curves of this flower's petals.


    Good, clean block-in lines ar ehelpful for shading an involved

    subject. Take your time, and planahead to save correction time.

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    " *


    . . .

    Drawing the Petals Sketch the ridge lines in thepetals; they are necessary for accurate shading. Developthe shading in stages, filling in the grooved areas first.Then make the whole flower s lightly grayer by addingwhat is known as a "glaze" over it. To glaze, use the sideof an H B lead very lightly, shading with smoo th, evenstrokes over completed sections of the drawing. To makepetal surfaces appear even smoother, blend them with apaper stump.

    Focusing on D etails This final drawing is quiteinvolved, but it's no more difficult than the previousdrawings. It just has more flowers and shad ing steps.Once again, we must first draw the overall layout ofthe flowers before attempting any shading.

    Dark shading under thepetals makes them "fold"outward toward you and

    creates a thin shadow.

    The more detail you add,the more time a drawing will

    take. Don't become discouraged.If you get tired, simply put the

    drawing aside and take a break!

    f i

    Adding Shading and Highl ights This drawing wasdone on plate-finish Bristol board using HB, 2B, and flatsketching pe ncils. Create highlights by m olding a kneadederaser into a sharp wedge, "drawing" with it in the samedirection as the shading.

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    STILL L IFE COMPOSITION BY WILLIAM F. POWELLCreating a good still life composition is simply arranging theelements of a drawing in such a way that they make an eye-pleasing, harmonious scene. It's easy to do once you have a fewguidelines to follow. The most important things to keep in mindare: (1) choosing a format that fits the subject, (2) establishing acenter of interest and a line of direction that carries the viewer'seye into and around the picture, and (3) creating a sense of depthby overlapping objects, varying the values, and placing elementson different planes. Like everything else, the more you study andpractice forming pleasing compositions, the better you'll become.ARR ANG I NG A ST I L L L I F EComposing still lifes is a great experience because you select thelighting, you place the elements where you like, and the objectsdon't move! Begin by choosing the items to include, and thentry different groupings, lighting, and backgrounds. Test out thearrangements in small, quick thumb nails, like the ones show nbelow. These studies are invaluable for working out the best possible composition.

    -'"*""*""'"'"Composing wi th Photos Dynamic compositions rarely "just happen"mostare well planne d, with objects specifically selected and arranged in an appealingmanner to create good flow and depth. Taking snapshots of your arrangementswill help you see how your setups wil l look when they're drawn on a flat surface.


    k J t ^

    Horizontal Format The "landscape" format is a traditional one, perfect fordrawing indoor or outdoo r scenes. Here, as in any good compo sition, the overlapping vegetables lead the viewer's eye around the picture and toward the foca lpointthe tureen. Even the tile pattern points the way into the picture and towardthe focal point.Vertical Format In this "po rtrait"format, the carrot tops add height tothe composition and counterbalancethe arc of vegetables in the foregroun d.The tip of the head of garlic and theangle of the beans lead the viewer intothe composition and toward the focalpoint. In the background, only a suggestion of shadows are drawn , and thevertical tiles are not clearly defined.This adds to the upward flow of theentire composition and keeps the viewer's attention focused on the tureen.

    3 L

    Step One From your thum bnail sketches, choose a horizon tal format. Notice that thetureen is set off-center; if the focal point were dead center, your eye wou ldn't be led aroundthe whole dra wing, w hich would make a boring composition. Then lightly block in the basicshapes with mostly loose , circular strokes, using your whole arm to keep the lines free.

    Step Two Next refine the shapes o f the various elements, s till keeping your lines fairlylight to avoid creating harsh edges. Then, using the side of an HB pencil, begin indicatingthe cast shadows, as well as some of the details on the tureen.

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    Step Three Continue adding details on the tureen and darkening the cast shadows. Thenstart shading some of the objects to develop their forms. You might want to begin with thebell pepper and the potato, using the point and side of an HB pencil.

    Step Four Next build the forms of the other vegetables, using a range of values and shading techniques. To indicate the paper skins of the onion and the garlic, make strokes thatcurve with their shapes. For the rough texture of the potato, use more random strokes.

    Step Five When you are finished developing the light, m iddle, and dark values, use a 2B pencil for the darkest areas in the cast shadows (the areas closest to the objects casting the shadows).

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    REFLECTIONS AND LACE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThe shiny surface of a highly polished,silver creamer is perfect for learningto render reflective surfaces. For thisexercise, use plate-finish Bristol board ,HB and 2B pencils, and a kneaded erasermolded into a point. Begin by lightlydrawing in the basic shapes of the eggand creamer.

    Step One Begin by lightly b locking in the basicshapes of the egg and the creamer. Don't go onto the next step until you're happy with theshapes and the composition.

    Step Three At this stage, smooth the shadingon the egg and creamer with a paper stump.Then study how the holes in the lace changewhere the lace wrinkles and then settles backinto a flat pattern. Begin drawing the lace pattern using one of the methods described on theopposite page.

    Step Two Once the two central items are inplace, establish the area for the lace, and addlight shading to the table surface. Next positionthe reflection of the lace and egg on the creamer's surface. Begin lightly shading the inside andoutside surfaces of the creamer, keeping inmind that the inside is not as reflective or shiny.Then start lightly shad ing the eggshell.

    You might often findobjects for your still life

    drawings In the mostunexpected places. Combine

    objects you believe aren'trelated,and they might

    surprise you by creatingan appealing still lift.

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    Step Four In the final dra wing, pay close attention to thereflected images because they are key to successfullyrendering the objects. Interestingly the egg's positionin the reflection is completely d ifferent than its actualposition on the tab le because in the reflection we seethe back side of the egg.


    Foot and Spou t Deta i ls These two close-up drawingsshow de tail on the creamer's spout and feet. These are notas shiny as the rounded b owl. Re-create this matte finishby blending the edges and making the concave shadowpatterns darker and sharper.

    O\j V.


    W & &'

    -H 1 % *

    oLace Pattern Detail The drawings above show two approaches for creating the lace pattern. You can draw guidelines for each hole and then shade inside them (left), or you canlightly shade in the shape of each hole (right). Either way, you are drawing the negativeshapes. (See page 13.) Once the pattern is established, shade over the areas where you see

    shadows, along with subtle shadows cast within most of the holes. Make the holes in theforeground darker than those receding into the com position, but keep them lighter than thedarkest areas on the creamer. After this preliminary sha ding is com pleted, add details ofdark and light spots on the lace.

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    BOTTLE AND BREAD BY WILLIAM F. POWELLThis exercise was drawn on vellum-finish Bristol board withan HB pencil. Vellum finish has a bit more "tooth" than thesmoother plate finish does, resulting in darker pencil marks.

    The simplest itemsin your kitchen can be

    gathered up into aninviting scene.

    Paying Attent ion to Detai l In the close-up examples below, theguidelines show the distorted wine level, which is caused by the bottle's uneven curves. An artist must make im portant obse rvations likethis in order to create natural, true-to-life drawings. Blocking In the

    Composition Beginlightly sketching the winebottle, bread loaf, knife,and cutting board, roughing in the prominent itemsfirst, then adding theremaining elements instep 2. Continue refiningthe shapes in step 3, andthen indicate the placement for the backdrop.

    Placing Highlightsand Shadows t ightlyoutline where the highlights will be so you don'taccidentally fill them inwith pencil. Now addshadows with uniformdiagonal strokes. Usevertical strokes on thesides of the cutting board.

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    Developing Form and TextureTo draw the irregular texture ofthe bread's interior, make a varietyof markstiny lines, dots, andsmudgescreating a speckled,breadcrumb appearance. For thecrust, use longer, flowing strokesthat wrap around the bread's exterior. Finish with angled lines onthe crust for additional texture.

    " ' t ";:-

    Glass Detai l To drawa finished look o f shinyglass, follow steps 1through 3 showing thebottle's spo ut. Draw inshapes for the light anddark areas, then evenlyshade over all areas thatdon't contain highlights.Finally fill in the darkestareas and clean out anyhighlights w ith a pointedkneaded eraser.


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    C H A P T E R 3


    A N I M A L SThe myriad breeds and species of animals that exist throughoutthe world offer endless possibi l i t ies for drawing subjects. Whetherit 's an adorable puppy, a sl i thering s nak e, or a gal loping hor se, ananimal subject provides a wide range of shapes, l ines, and texturesto challenge and inspire you. And drawing animals isn' t difficult atal ljust fol low the simple, step-by-step inst ruct ions in the fol lowing lessons. As you learn to draw by start ing w i th basic shap es andprogressing through finished renderings, you'l l also discover variousshading techniques and finishing touches that wi l l bring your animal drawings to l ife. And with just a l i t t le practice, you'l l be able tocreate your own artwork featuring al l your favori te animal subjects.

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    DRAWING A N I M A L S BY MICHAEL BUTKUSA nimals are fascinating subjects, and you can spendmany hours at the zoo with your sketchpad, studyingtheir movem ents, their body structu res, and their coat textures. (See pages 86-87 for more on drawing animals fromlife.) And because pencil is such a versatile tool, you caneasily sketch a rough-coated goat or finely stroke a smoothhaired deer. Of course, you don't have to go to the zoo tofind models; try copying the drawings here, or find awildlife book for reference, and draw the animals thatappeal to you.

    Studying the Head Whendrawing the head, pay specialattention to the giraffe's mostdistinctive features. Emphasizethe narrow, tapered muzzle andthe heavy-lidded eyes, addinglong, curved eyelashes. Tomake sure the knobbed hornsdon't look "pasted on," drawthem as a continuous line fromthe forehead, cu rving backwhere they attach to the head.

    Working Out the Structure To draw the full body, makesure the propo rtions are correct. Begin by placing circles for themidriff, shoulders, w ithers, and haunches. Then use the bodywidth as a guide for the other parts: the neck (from shoulder tohead) and the legs are all bout the same length as the body iswide, and the head is roughly a third as long.

    D R A W I N G F U R

    t Pi.Smooth Coat Shade theundercoat with the side of ablunt 2B and pick out random coat hairs with a sharpHB pencil.

    Long Hair Make wavystrokes in the direction thehair grows, lifting the pencilat the end of each stroke.

    Rough Coat Using theside of your pencil, shade inseveral directions. With yourpencil, use different strokesand various pressures.

    Short Hair Use a blunt HBto make short, overlappingstrokes, lifting the pencil atthe end to taper the tips. ; *- A * \ i ! v . H r f t ^ 0

    Developing Mark ings Startdrawing this trio by sketchingand refining their generalshapes and then outlining themarkings with a sharp-pointedHB. Then shade in the spotswith a round-tip HB, makingyour strokes darker in the shadow areas, both on the spotsand between them.

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    MAKING YOUR SUBJECT UNIQUEBefore you begin drawing any anim al subject, as k yourself w hatit is that makes that animal distinct from all others. For examplesheep, horses, and giraffes all have hooves and a similar bodystructure, but a bighorn sheep has curled horns and a shaggycoat, a horse has a sm ooth coat and a single-toe hoof, and agiraffe has an elongated neck and legs and boldly patternedmarkings. Focusing on these distinguishing characteristicswill make your drawings believable and lifelike.

    Creat ing a Port rai t To capture this horse's likeness, focus on its features: the large nostri l , wide eye, pointed ears, and strong cheekbone a ll distinguish this horse from , say, thesheep on the left or the giraffe on the opposite page. Use a sharp-pointed pencil for theoutline and d etails, and the flat side of the lead for shadows . Then go back over the shading with the point to accentuate the und erlying muscles, leaving large areas of white tosuggest a smooth, glossy coat.

    Depicting Hair To show the texture of this bighorn's coat, usethe point of a 2B to apply long, wavy strokes on the body. Thendraw short, wispy tendrils on the legs and underbelly.

    Focusing on Feet Horses have solid, single-toedhooves, whereas giraffes, sheep, and other ruminantshave split (cloven) hooves. Notice that the horse's hoofis angled a little more than the giraffe's and that thegiraffe's toes are not perfectly sy mmetrical.

    Showing Action Drawing from pictures of animals helpsyou study their movements frozen by the camera. Focuson the sharp angles of the legs and feet, and suggest theunderlying muscles by varying the direction of your strokes.

    Horse Giraffe

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    DOBERMAN PlNSCHER BY M I A T A V O N A T T ID oberman Pinschers are known for their sleek, dark coats.When drawing the shiny coat, be sure to always sketch inthe direction that the hair grows, as this will give your drawinga more realistic appearance.

    Step Two Using the lines from the previous step as aguide, adjust the outline of the ears, head, and neck to givethem a more contoured appearance. Then add the eyes andnose, following the facial guidelines. Finally refine the outline of the muzzle.

    Step Three Next erase any guidelines th at are no longerneeded. Then begin placing light, broken lines made up ofshort dashes to indicate where the value changes in the coatare. These initial lines will act as a map for later shading.

    Step One With a sharp HB pencil, block in the boxy shapeof the Doberman's head and shoulders w ith quick, s traightlines. Even at this early stage, you want to es tablish asense of dimension and form , which you'll b uild upon asthe drawing progresses.

    /^ A

    Step Four For the dog'sshort hair, begin withsmall, dark hatch marksto establish the bristly,coarse nature of the coat.Then fill in the darks of theeyes and eyebrows, anddot in a few light rows ofwhiskers at the tip of themuzzle.

    ITW\ Step Five Now fill in the remaining darks. First create some graphite dust by rubbinga pencil over a sheet of fine sandpaper. Then pickup the graphite dust with a medium-

    sized blending stump and shade in the dark areas of the dog's fur and nose. To avoidhard edges, blend to create soft gradations where the two values m eet.

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    GREAT DANE BY WILLIAM F. POWELLG reat Danes have elegant stature and unique faces. While theirenormous size (they can reach 30 inches tall at the shoulder)may be slightly intim idating, they are actually very gentle andaffectionate, especially with children.

    Th e erect ears can bedeveloped from simple

    triangle shapes.

    Developing the Sha pe In steps 1 and 2, use an HB pencil to block in the dog's largehead. Notice the droopy lips and eyelids, which give the subject a plead ing expression.Refine the shapes, and lightly shade with a 2B pencil to bring out the form and contoursof the head in step 3. The minimal shading will give the coat a smooth appearance.

    Use a kneadederaser to pull outthe highlight onth e dog's nose.

    Creating Form Add darker values within the center ofthe ear to create the curvature of the ears, "carving out"the area through skillfu l shading, as shown in the finaldrawing. To enhance the shine of the nose, shade it evenly,and use a kneaded eraser to pull out h ighlights.


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    SIBERIAN HUSKY PUPPY BY MIATAVONATT IThe Husky is an athletic sled dog with a thick coat. Ithas a deep chest and a bushy tail, evident even at theyoung age of this little pup.

    Step One First suggest the pos ition of the spine and tailwith one gently curving gesture line. Then use this line toposition the round shape of the head, body, hindquarters.Next draw guidelines for the pup's facial features, at thesame time establishing the general shape of the muzzle.

    Step Three Once you're satisfied w ith the pose and theway it has taken shape, begin to develop the puppy's coat.Apply a series of short, parallel strokes that follow the previous outline, producing the appearance of a thick coat.Using the same kind of strokes, outline the color pattern ofthe coat. Then place the eyes, nose, mouth, and tongue,and refine the paws.

    Step Two Now outline the entire torso usingsmooth, quick lines based on the initial shapes.Place the triangular ears and suggest the upperportion of the four legs.

    Step Four Next erase any guidelines you don't need and beginshading the dark areas of the fur with the broad side of the pencil. Use straight strokes that follow the direction of hair growth,radiating from the c enter of the face and chest. Next shade inthe nose and pupils. Then add a background to contrast w iththe white of the puppy's chest. Apply straight, broad strokeswith the side of the pencil, using horizontal hatching lines.

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    Step Five At this stage, add volume to the dog's form , definingit with a few light strokes along the edges of the wh ite fur. Nowshade the far hind leg and left cheek by covering those areas withmore strokes. Next go over the dark fur with a softer pencil