2.3 Teaching Methods

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  • 2.3. Foreign Language Teaching 2.3. Foreign Language Teaching MethodsMethods

  • FL Teaching MethodsFL Teaching Methods

    The Grammar Translation Method The Natural Method The Direct Method The Oral Approach The Audiolingual Method Communicative Language Teaching Total Physical Response The Silent Way Suggestopedia

  • Grammar Translation MethodGrammar Translation Method

    It derives from the traditional approach to the teaching of Latin and Greek.

    It involves 2 components:

    grammatical rules & vocabulary use of translation

  • Grammar Translation MethodGrammar Translation MethodCharacteristics:

    1.- study of LITERATURE of the L22.- instruction in the students NATIVE LANGUAGE3.- READING and WRITING are major focuses, no speaking or listening4.- VOCABULARY selection is based on the texts used, words taught through bilingual WORDS LISTS5.- the SENTENCE is the basic unit of teaching6.- ACCURACY is emphasized. Students expected high standards in translation7.- Grammar is taught DEDUCTIVELY, by presentation and study of grammar rules, and then practiced through translation exercises

  • Grammar Translation MethodGrammar Translation Method This method dominated Europe from the

    1840s to the 1940s In modified form its used in some parts of the

    world today. Mid & late 19th century opposition to the

    grammar-translation method in several European countries.

    In Germany, England, France and other parts of Europe new approaches to language teaching were developed .

    The Reform Movement led to the Natural Method and the Direct Method.

  • The Natural MethodThe Natural Method This method developed as a reaction to grammar-

    translation, mainly in France. Its name comes from natural way to learn a language:

    exposure to the language used in everyday communicative interactions.

    Model was acquisition of L1: grammar not taught and translation irrelevant.

    No explanation of grammar, teachers encourage direct and spontaneous use of L2 in the classroom.

    Learners then are able to guess rules of grammar. No textbook in the early stages of learning. Speaking starts with systematic attention to

    pronunciation. This provided the foundation for the Direct Method:

    the most important of the natural methods.

  • The Direct Method.The Direct Method.

    It was introduced in France and Germany.

    Main Aims: emphasize the learning of speech acquire meaning in environmental

    context learn grammar through induction.

  • The Direct Method.The Direct Method.

    Characteristics: Classroom instruction conducted in L2 Grammar taught INDUCTIVELY New teaching points introduced orally Vocabulary taught through demonstrations

    (objects & pictures) Correct pronunciation & grammar

    emphasized Only everyday vocabulary & sentences

    taught Oral communication skills graded.

  • The Direct Method.The Direct Method.

    Drawbacks: Teachers with a high level in English Sometimes a lot of time is wasted to explain

    a word in English instead of using Spanish Not everyone liked the Direct Method British had recognized its limitations. New developments:

    the Audiolingualism in the United States the Oral Approach in Britain.

  • The Oral Approach or The Oral Approach or Situational Language Teaching.Situational Language Teaching.

    British origins in the 1920s and 1930s in applied linguistics.

    Principles: selection gradation presentation based on situations.

    It was the British approach to English language by the 1950s.

    Australian George Pitman was one of the most active proponents in the 1960s.

  • The Oral Approach or The Oral Approach or Situational Language Teaching.Situational Language Teaching.

    Characteristics: Language teaching begins with the spoken

    language. Orally before written form. English is the language of the classroom. New language points are introduced and

    practiced situational. Grammar items graded: single forms before

    complex ones. Reading and writing are introduced once a

    sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established.

  • The Audiolingual Method.The Audiolingual Method. The combination of STRUCTURAL LINGUISTIC theory,

    aural-oral procedures and BEHAVIORIST psychology led to the Audiolingual Method.

    Learning principles: Foreign language learning is a process of MECHANICAL

    HABIT FORMATION: dialogues about everyday situations are imitated and drilled, until the learners responses become automatic.

    Language presented in SPOKEN FORM before the written form. Language skills taught in the order of listening, speaking, reading and writing.

    Language acquired by analogy not by analysis: drills can enable learners to form correct analogies.

  • The Audiolingual Method.The Audiolingual Method. The use of drills and pattern practice is a distinctive feature. Various kinds of drills used: repetition, substitution,

    transformation. Memorizing is one of the main techniques along with the use of

    structural drills. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s: Chomsky rejected

    structuralism approach to language description and behaviorist theory .

    Audiolingual paradigm was called into question: pattern, practice, drilling, memorization. This created a crisis in American language teaching circles

    New methods have developed: there are approaches derived from contemporary theories of language and L2 acquisition.

  • Communicative Language TeachingCommunicative Language Teaching Origins found in the reactions against the Audiolingual

    and situational methods in the late 1960s. Main Features:

    Language learning learned to communicate. Communicative competence is the desired goal. Not perfect pronunciation, the content of the message

    is more relevant than the way in which it has been expressed.

    Students are considered the central point of the teaching learning process and the teacher will be the organizer.

    Method centered on real communication situations connected to students experiences.

  • Communicative Language TeachingCommunicative Language Teaching Communicative Approach in language teaching starts

    from a theory of language as communication . Communicative approach has attracted universal interest

    and much influenced the practice of modern language teaching.

    3 types of principles: The communication principle: activities that involve

    real communication promote learning The task principle: activities in which language is

    used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning

    The meaningfulness principle: language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process

  • Communicative ApproachesCommunicative Approaches(State of the art of language teaching)(State of the art of language teaching)

    Early communicative approaches lacked real communication

    Task based and content based language teaching appeared:

    Tasks involve real communication. The student is not just learning the language but living

    the language. Importance of negotiation of meaning. There is always a result, a product of the students effort. CLIL as a complement/result of these tendencies.

  • Communicative ApproachesCommunicative Approaches

    Syllabuses pay attention to notions and function, but in the last twenty years

    A renewed attention to grammar within the communicative framework:




    Communicative competence.

    Need to emphasize learning processes and improve learning autonomy: Learning to learn.

    Acknowledgement and awareness of individual variables: motivation, interests, learning styles

    Importance of language acquisition research.


    We agree on:

    Explicit and conscious grammar teaching (pedagogical grammar) within a communicative framework and interlanguage enhancement. Focus on form.

    Meaningful tasks and activities. Cooperative work.

    Importance of affective aspects and intercultural awareness.


    Pedagogical grammar vs. Descriptive / Normative grammar.

    We have in mind input processing principles (Van Patten) when presenting grammar in class.

    Different ways to introduce and present grammar: Garden path technique Input in grammar presentation: real input?, meaningful

    input? Input enrichment and input enhancement? Inductive presentation? Ages?


    Van Pattens input processing principles:

    We pay attention to meaning over form.

    Learners process content words in the input before anything else.

    Learners prefer processing lexical items to grammatical items for semantic information.

    Learners prefer processing more meaningful morphology before less or non-meaningful morphology,


    Consequence of Van Pattens principles: if students are strugling to understand they will not pay attention to any form.

    Grammar presentation and practice (from a certain age on) is a necessary part of a communicative course, but it must be meaningful, contextualized, pedagogical


    Good practice:

    Real language use. The student is involved as an individual. There is both a linguistic and nonlinguistic goal. Exchange of information is needed. Negotiation of

    meaning. Language input is always as real as possible. Vocabulary :easy to process. If we are practicing a form, it should be responsible

    for the meaning of our text / utterance. There is a result.


    A little bit of Chinese philosophy:

    Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand.

  • Total Physical ResponseTotal Physical Response Language teaching method built around the

    coordination of speech and action: it attempts to teach language through physical activity.

    It was developed by James Asher: consists of obeying commands given by the teacher that involve physical response.

    Commands become more complex as the class progresses.

    The use of TPR ensures active participation of students, and helps the teacher to know when utterances are understood.

    L2 learning process is the same as L1: comprehension precedes production.

  • The Silent WayThe Silent Way

    It was developed by Gattegno in 1972: program consists of structural lessons planned on the basis of certain items and vocabulary.

    Teacher doesnt say anything but points to individual letters, which, in combination, indicate to the student how a word might be pronounced.

    A relation between color-phoneme is established and then the vocabulary is set up (charts containing vocabulary and color-coded guides to pronunciation are made available to enable the teacher to guide the students learning while saying as little as possible).

  • SuggestopediaSuggestopedia It was developed by the Bulgarian psychiatrist

    educator Georgi Lozanov. Main Characteristics:

    It is based on the view that the brain has great unused potential, which can be exploited through the power of suggestion.

    Presentation of new material: it is introduced by the form of written dialogues based on situations familiar to students.

    The dialogue is read by the teacher and students with eyes closed repeat the text while classical music is played.

    First written, then in spoken form.