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Unit 5Unit 5
Educational MethodsEducational Methods
What instructional methods What instructional methods have you been exposed to??have you been exposed to?? ……in high school?in high school? ……in college?in college? ……in non-formal settings?in non-formal settings?
Teaching is like fishing…Teaching is like fishing… You use different lures for different fishYou use different lures for different fish You use different methods for different You use different methods for different
learners.learners. Teaching is like beautiful music…Teaching is like beautiful music…
Where, instructional methods are the Where, instructional methods are the instrumentsinstruments
When played alone they make sound…When played alone they make sound… When played together in tune, rhythm, When played together in tune, rhythm,
and feeling, they become amazing music!and feeling, they become amazing music!
Toolbox…Toolbox… What is in your “toolbox”?What is in your “toolbox”?
Selecting and Using a Variety of Selecting and Using a Variety of Instructional MethodsInstructional Methods
Instructional objectives:Instructional objectives: Define method of InstructionDefine method of Instruction Discuss factors to consider when Discuss factors to consider when
selecting a method of instructionselecting a method of instruction Distinguish between methods of Distinguish between methods of
instruction and instructional aidsinstruction and instructional aids Identify & discuss a variety of Identify & discuss a variety of
teaching methodsteaching methods
What is a “Method”?What is a “Method”?
a procedure or process for attaining a procedure or process for attaining an object: as an object: as a a (1) (1) :: a systematic procedure, a systematic procedure,
technique, or mode of inquiry employed technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or by or proper to a particular discipline or art (2) art (2) :: a systematic plan followed in a systematic plan followed in presenting material for instructionpresenting material for instruction
b b (1) (1) :: a way, technique, or process of a way, technique, or process of or for doing somethingor for doing something (2) (2) :: a body of a body of skills or techniquesskills or techniques
Teaching MethodTeaching Method
Objective oriented activities and Objective oriented activities and flow of information between flow of information between teachers and studentsteachers and students
Methods, Strategy, Aid, Methods, Strategy, Aid, Approach Approach Teaching Method tend to be synonymous Teaching Method tend to be synonymous
with technique according to Websterwith technique according to Webster Teaching Strategy – “careful plan” that Teaching Strategy – “careful plan” that
serves an important function in achieving a serves an important function in achieving a specific outcome.specific outcome.
Instructional aids includes:Instructional aids includes: Chalkboard, Flip chart, PowerPointChalkboard, Flip chart, PowerPoint Overheads, VCR, Real Objects, etc.Overheads, VCR, Real Objects, etc.
Teaching Approach is a “holistic process”Teaching Approach is a “holistic process” Includes the teaching steps, problem-Includes the teaching steps, problem-
solving strategies, and teaching methods.solving strategies, and teaching methods.
TeachingTeaching Methods Methods
Lecture-ExplainingLecture-Explaining Resource PeopleResource People Case StudyCase Study Group DiscussionGroup Discussion Brainstorming & Buzz GroupsBrainstorming & Buzz Groups Field-trip (tour)Field-trip (tour)
Additional Methods/StrategiesAdditional Methods/Strategies
OthersOthers Directed (supervised) studyDirected (supervised) study Role-PlayRole-Play Socratic DialogueSocratic Dialogue JigsawJigsaw Concept Map/SketchConcept Map/Sketch DebateDebate Cooperative LearningCooperative Learning Panel of ExpertsPanel of Experts
What What FactorsFactors do we consider do we consider when selecting an instructional when selecting an instructional method?method? The intended specific outcome The intended specific outcome
or purposeor purpose Size of groupSize of group Learners’ Learners’ preference for for
learninglearning The content sometimes dictates The content sometimes dictates
the methodthe method Required preparationRequired preparation
Instructional/Teaching Methods Instructional/Teaching Methods vs. Instructional Aids?vs. Instructional Aids?
Assist the teacher in the Assist the teacher in the teaching/learning processteaching/learning process White boardWhite board HandoutsHandouts PropsProps Pictures/VideoPictures/Video AudioAudio Computer based simulationComputer based simulation ModelsModels Others? Others?
Forked Road or Possibilities Forked Road or Possibilities Factors?Factors?1.1. Selecting between turf grass and natural grass.Selecting between turf grass and natural grass.2.2. Choosing a greenhouse covering.Choosing a greenhouse covering.3.3. Determining whether to attend the National Determining whether to attend the National
Convention.Convention.4.4. Selecting from among seed varieties.Selecting from among seed varieties.5.5. Determining best pest control.Determining best pest control.6.6. Selecting a career choice.Selecting a career choice.7.7. Promoting a management practice.Promoting a management practice.8.8. Determining whether to invest in new Determining whether to invest in new
equipment.equipment.9.9. Selecting lumber types.Selecting lumber types.10.10. Choosing a “path” of action.Choosing a “path” of action.
Instructional TipsInstructional Tips
1.1. Get learners to define the problem (best)Get learners to define the problem (best) Or, you define the problemOr, you define the problem
2.2. Record for all to seeRecord for all to see3.3. Use the template to facilitate the problem-Use the template to facilitate the problem-
solving (decision-making) effortsolving (decision-making) effort Complete the template yourselfComplete the template yourself
4.4. Assist students in identifying the factors to Assist students in identifying the factors to considerconsider
5.5. Provide the resources for seeking out Provide the resources for seeking out information on the possibilitiesinformation on the possibilities
6.6. Have students identify a solutionHave students identify a solution7.7. Allow students to share their solution with Allow students to share their solution with
rationale for their choicerationale for their choice
Integrating reading, Integrating reading, speaking, listening and speaking, listening and writing skillswriting skills
Select the right “tool” for the Select the right “tool” for the right “job”right “job”
Variety is valuedVariety is valued Method is determined by many Method is determined by many
factorsfactors Include instructional aids to add Include instructional aids to add
variety & clarity variety & clarity