18 Phuong Phap Giai Nhanh HOA HOC

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trang 1PHNG PHP 1. PHNG PHP BO TON KHI LNG Cu 1. un nng 58(g) magi hidroxit n khi lng khng i thu c cht rn c khi lng so vi ban u : A. Tng 18(g) B. Gim 40(g) C. Gim 18 (g) D. Tng 40(g) Cu 2. Ho tan 9,14 g hn hp Cu, Fe, Al bng ddHCl d thu c 7,84lt kh A(kc) v 2,54g cht rn B v dd C. Khi lng mui c trong dd C l : A. 3,99g B. 33,25g C. 31,45g D. 3,145g Cu 3. Cho 2,1 g hn hp gm Mg, Fe v Zn tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl, thy thot ra 1,12l H2 ktc. Khi lng mui khan to ra khi c cn dung dch l: A. 5,65g B. 7,75g C. 11,3g D. 10,3g Cu 4. (TS H khi A 2007): Ha tan hon ton 3,22 gam hn hp X gm Fe, Mg, Zn bng mt lng va dung dch H2SO4 long, thu c 1,344 lt kh H2 (kc) v dung dch cha m gam mui. Gi tr ca m l: A. 8,98 gam B. 9,52 gam C. 10,27 gam D. 7,25 gam Cu 5. (Cu 10 TSH khi A 2007 m 182): Cho 15,6 gam hn hp hai ancol (ru) n chc, k tip nhau trong dy ng ng tc dng ht vi 9,2 gam Na, thu c 24,5 gam cht rn. Hai ancol l A. C3H5OH v C4H7OH B. C2H5OH v C3H7OH C. C3H7OH v C4H9OH D. CH3OH v C2H5OH Cu 6. (Cu 45 TSH khi A 2007 m 182): Ha tan ha ton 2,81 gam hn hp gm Fe2O3, MgO, ZnO trong 500 ml H2SO4 0,1 M (va ). Sau phn ng, hn hp mui sunfat khan thu c khi c cn dung dch c khi lng l A. 6,81 g B. 4,81 g C. 3,81 g D. 5,81 g Cu 7. kh hon ton 17,6g hn hp Fe, FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 cn va 2,24 lt CO(ktc). Khi lng Fe thu c sau phn ng l: A. 15g. B. 16g. C. 18g. D. 15,3g. Cu 8. Cho t t mt lung kh CO i qua ng s ng m gam hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe 3O4, Fe2O3 un nng thu c 64 gam st, khi i ra sau phn ng cho i qua dung dch Ca(OH)2 d c 40 gam kt ta. Tm m ? S: 70,4 gam. Cu 9. Cho t t mt lung kh CO i qua ng s ng m gam hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe 3O4, Fe2O3 un nng thu c 64g st, kh i ra sau phn ng cho i qua dd Ca(OH)2 d c 40g kt ta. Tnh m. (S: m = 70,4g) Cu 10. t chy 1mol Fe trong khng kh d thu c 1mol oxit st. Cng thc ca oxit st l : A. Fe2O3 B. Fe3O4 C. FeO D. khng d kin xc nh Cu 11. Hn hp A gm 0,1 mol etilen glicol v 0,2 mol cht X. t chy hn hp A cn 21,28lt O2 ( ktc) v thu c 35,2g CO2 v 19,8g H2O. Tnh khi lng phn t X. Cu 12. Ho tan 10g hn hp hai mui cacbonat kim loi ho tr 2 v 3 bng dd HCl ta thu c dd A v 0,672 lt kh bay ra ( ktc). Hi c cn dd A th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan? Cu 13. un dd cha 10g xt v 20g cht bo. Sau khi kt thc phn ng x phng ho, ly 1/10 dd thu c em trung ho bng dd HCl 0,2M thy tn ht 90ml dd axit. Tnh lng xt cn x phng ho 1 tn cht bo. T 1 tn cht bo c th iu ch c bao nhiu glixerin v x phng nguyn cht? Tnh M ca cc axit trong thnh phn cht bo. Cu 14. un 132,8 g hn hp 3 ru no, n chc vi H2SO4 c 1400C thu c 111,2g hn hp 1,2 = 0,2 mol.) 6 Cu 15. Ho tan hon ton 23,8g hn hp gm mt mui cacbonat ca kim loi ho tr I v mt mui cacbonat ca kim loi ho tr II vo dd HCl thu c 0,2mol kh CO 2. Tnh khi lng mui mi to ra trong dung dch. (S: mmui = 26g ) cc ete trong cc ete c s mol bng nhau. Tnh s mol mi ete. (S :

trang 2Cu 16. Cho 57,5 gam hon hp gom ACO3, B2CO3, X2CO3, M2(CO3)3 tac dung het vi HCl d, thay thoat ra 11,2 lt CO2 (ktc). Khoi lng muoi clorua thu c sau phan ng la A. 63 g B.126 g C.67g D.120g Cu 17. Cho 115 gam hn hp mui (RCO3, M2CO3, N2(CO3)3) tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl d thu c 0,896 lt kh CO2 (ktc).C cn dung dch sau phn ng thu c khi lng mui l A. 120 gam B. 120,5 gam C. 115,44 gam D. 115,22 gam Cu 18. Cho 20 gam hn hp mt s mui cacbonat tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl d thu c 1,344 lt kh CO2 (ktc) v dung dch A. C cn dung dch A thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m l A. 10,33 gam B. 20,66 gam C. 25,32 gam D. 30 gam Cu 19. Cho 23,8 gam hn hp hai mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi A, B tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl d thu c V lt kh CO2 (ktc) v dung dch A. Dn ton b CO2 vo dd nc vi trong d th thu c 20 gam kt ta. C cn dung dch A thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m l A. 26 gam B. 30 gam C. 23 gam D. 27 gam Cu 20. Cho m gam hn hp hai mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi A, B tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl d thu c 4,48 lt kh CO2 (ktc) v dung dch A. C cn dung dch A thu c 26 gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m l A. 23,8 gam B. 25,2 gam C. 23,8 gam D. 27,4 gam Cu 21. Cho 2,84 gam hn hp hai mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi A, B tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl d thu c V lt kh CO2 (ktc) v dung dch A. C cn dung dch A thu c 3,17 gam mui khan. Gi tr ca V l A. 0,672 lt B. 2,24 lt C. 11,2 lt D. 3,36 lt Cu 22. Cho 24,4 gam hn hp gm K2CO3 v Na2CO3 tc dng va vi dung dch BaCl2. Sau phn ng thu c 39,4 gam kt ta. Lc kt ta, c cn dung dch thu c a gam mui khan. Gi tr ca a l A. 26,6 gam B. 20,1 gam C. 30,2 gam D. 25,6 gam Cu 23. Ho tan hon ton 3,34 gam hn hp hai mui cacbonat trung ha ca hai kim loi ha tr II v III bng dung dch HCl d th thu c dung dch A v 0,896 lt bay ra (ktc). Khi lng mui c trong dung dch A l A. 31,8 gam B. 3,78 gam C. 4,15 gam D. 4,23 gam Cu 24. Nhit phn 9,4g mt mui nitrat kim loi A n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton th thu c cht rn c khi lng 4g . Xc nh cng thc phn t ca mui. p s: Cu(NO3)2 Cu 25. t chy hon ton 0,1 mol hirocacbon A bng 6,72 lit O2 (kc) th thu c 8,8g CO2 v 3,6g H2O . Tm phn t lng A. (p s: 28) Cu 26. Cho 4g kim loi tan ht trong dd HCl th thu c 2,24 lt H2 (kc). Tm khi lng mui to thnh. (p s : 11,1 g) Cu 27. Nung 8,4g st trong khng kh th thu c 11,6g oxit st. Tnh s mol O2 tham gia phn ng. Tm cng thc oxit st. (p s: Oxit st l : Fe3O4) Cu 28. Nung 9,4g mui M(NO3)n trong bnh kn c V = 0,5 lt cha kh N2. Nhit v p sut trong bnh trc khi nung l 0,984 atm v 27oC. Sau khi nung mui b nhit phn ht cn li 4g oxit M2On , a v 27oC p sut trong bnh l p. Tnh nguyn t khi ca M v p sut p. (p s: M l Cu (64)) Cu 29. Dn lung kh CO i qua ng s c cha m gam hn hp rn X gm CuO v Fe2O3 un nng. Sau mt thi gian trong ngs cn li n gam hn hp rn Y. Kh thot ra c hp th bng dd Ca(OH)2 d thu c p gam kt ta. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng c th xy ra v lp biu thc lin h gia m, n, p. p s: m = n + 0,16p Cu 30. t chy hon ton m gam cht hu c A cn 2,24 lt kh oxi (kc) ri dn ton b sn phm chy gm (CO2, H2O) vo bnh ng dung dch Ca(OH)2 d thy khi lng bnh tng 4,2 gam, ng thi xut hin 7,5 gam kt ta. Gi tr ca m l A. 3,2 gam B. 1,0 gam C. 1,5 gam D. 1,8 gam

trang 3Cu 31. un nng 5,8 gam hn hp A gm C2H2 v H2 trong bnh kn vi xc tc thch hp, sau phn ng thu c hn hp kh X. Dn hn hp kh X qua bnh ng dung dch brm d thy khi lng bnh tng 1,4 gam v cn li hn hp kh Y. Khi lng ca hn hp kh Y l bao nhiu gam? (S: 4,4 gam) Cu 32. un nng hn hp X gm 0,5 mol C2H2 v 0,7 mol H2. Nung nng hn hp mt thi gian vi bt Ni c hn hp Y. Dn Y qua bnh ng nc brm d thy cn li 4,48 lt (kc) hn hp kh Z c t khi i vi khng kh bng 1. Khi lng bnh nc brm tng l bao nhiu gam? (S: 8,6 gam) Cu 33. t chy hon ton a gam hn hp hai ancol cng thuc dy ng ng ca ancol etylic th thu c 70, 4 gam CO2 v 39,6 gam H2O. Gi tr ca a l A. 50,2 gam B. 33,2 gam C. 110,0 gam D. 23,6 gam Cu 34. Cho 12 gam hn hp 2 kim loi Fe, Cu tc dng va vi dung dch HNO3 63%. Sau phn ng thu c dung dch A v 11,2 lt kh NO2 duy nht (ktc). Tnh nng % cc cht c trong dung dch A. Cu 35. Ho tan hon ton 23,8 gam hn hp gm mt mui cacbonat ca kim loi ho tr I v mui cacbonat ca kim loi ho tr II trong dung dch HCl. Sau phn ng thu c 4,48 lt kh (ktc). em c cn dung dch thu c th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan. Cu 36. t chy hon ton 1,88 gam cht hu c A (cha C, H, O) cn 1,904 lt O2 (ktc) v thu c kh CO2 cng hi nc theo t l th tch 4:3. Hy xc nh cng thc phn t ca A. Bit t khi hi ca A so vi khng kh nh hn 7 Cu 37. Hn hp X gm Fe, FeO, Fe2O3. Cho lung kh CO i qua ng s ng m gam X un nng. Sau khi kt thc th nghim thu c 64 gam cht rn trong ng s v 11,2 lt hn hp kh B (ktc) c t khi so H2 l 20,4. Tm m. Cu 38. Cho 0,1 mol este to bi axit 2 ln axit v ru mt ln ru tc dng hon ton vi NaOH thu c 6,4 gam ru v mt lng mui c khi lng nhiu hn lng este l 13,56% (so vi lng este). Tnh khi lng mui v xc nh cng thc cu to ca este. Cu 39. Thu phn hon ton 11,44 gam hn hp 2 este n chc l ng phn ca nhau bng dung dch NaOH thu c 11,08 gam hn hp mui v 5,56 gam hn hp 2 ru. Xc nh CTCT ca este. Cu 40. un 132,8 g hn hp 3 ru no, n chc vi H2SO4 c 1400C thu c 111,2g hn hp cc ete c s mol bng nhau. Tnh s mol mi ete. Cu 41. Hn hp A gm KClO3, Ca(ClO3)2, Ca(ClO2)2, CaCl2 v KCl nng 83,68 gam. Nhit phn hon ton A ta thu c cht rn B gm CaCl2 v KCl v mt th tch O2 va oxi ho SO2 thnh SO3 iu ch 191,1 gam dung dch H2SO4 80%. Cho cht rn B tc dng vi 360ml dung dch K2CO3 0,5 M (va ) thu c kt ta C v dung dch D. Lng KCl trong dung dch D nhiu gp 22/3 ln lng KCl c trong A. Tnh khi lng kt ta C. Tnh % khi lng KClO3 c trong A. Cu 42. Hn hp X gm Fe, FeO v Fe2O3. Cho lung kh CO i qua ng ng m gam hn hp X nung nng. Sau khi kt thc th nghim thu c 64g cht rn A trong ng s v 11,2 lt kh B (ktc) c t khi so vi hiro l m. Tnh m Cu 43. Cho 12g hn hp 2 kim loi Fe, Cu tc dng va vi dd HNO3 63%. Sau phn ng c dung dch A v 11,2 lt NO2 duy nht (ktc). Tnh nng % cc cht trong dung dch A. Cu 44. Ho tan 23,8g mui cacbonat ca cc kim loi ho tr 1 v 2 trong dung dch HCl. Sau phn ng thu c 4,48 lt kh (ktc). Tnh khi lng mui khan thu c khi c cn dung dch. Cu 45. Hn hp A gm KClO3, Ca(ClO3)2, CaCl2 v KCl nng 83,68g. Nhit phn hon ton A, thu c cht rn B gm CaCl2, KCl v 17,472 lt kh (ktc). Cho B tc dng vi 360ml dung dch K2CO3 0,5M va thu c kt ta C v dung dch D. Khi lng KCl trong D nhiu gp 22/3 ln lng KCl c trong A. Tnh phn trm khi lng KClO3 c trong A. Cu 46. t chy hon ton 1,88g cht hu c A cha C, H, O cn 1,904 lt oxi (ktc) thu c CO2 v hi nc theo t l th tch l 4:3. Bit t khi ca A so vi khng kh nh hn 7. Xc nh CTPT ca A.

trang 4Cu 47. t chay hoan toan m gam hn hp Y: C2H6, C3H4, C4H8 thi thu c 12,98g CO2 va 5,76g H2O. Tinh gia tri m? (ap s: 4,18g) Cu 48. Cho 2,83g hn hp 2 ru n chc tac dung va u vi Na thi thoat ra 0,896 lit H2 (ktc) va m gam mui khan. Gia tri cua m la: Cu 49. Cho 0,1 mo este to bi axit 2 chc v ancol n chc tc dng hon ton vi NOH thu c 6,4g ancol v lng mui c khi lng nhiu hn ca este l 13,56%. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca este. Cu 50. Thu phn hon ton11,44g hn hp 2 este n chc l ng phn ca nhau bng dung dch NaOH thu c 11,08g hn hp mui v 5,56g hn hp ancol, Xc nh CTCT ca cc este. Cu 51. Chia hn hp 2 anehit no n chc thnh 2 phn bng nhau: Phn 1 em t chy hon ton thu c 1,08g nc Phn 2 tc dng vi hiro d (Ni, t0) thu c hn hp A. Tnh th tch CO2 thu c 2730C ; 1,2atm thu c khi t chy A. Cu 52. Cho lung kh CO i qua ng s ng 0,04mol h