1 Latin America Unit 3. 2 Physical Geography of Latin America Chapter 7

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Text of 1 Latin America Unit 3. 2 Physical Geography of Latin America Chapter 7

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  • 1 Latin America Unit 3
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  • 2 Physical Geography of Latin America Chapter 7
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  • 5 Landforms Middle America Mexico and Central America Central America an isthmus, or a narrow piece of land that links North America and South Americaisthmus
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  • 6 Landforms Middle America Lies where four tectonic plates meet Deposits of ash and lava make the soil fertile
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  • 7 Landforms Middle America Central America Thick forests rugged mountains coastal marshes make it difficult to transport goods in that country
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  • 8 Landforms The Caribbean The islands of the Caribbean Sea A.K.A. = West Indies divided into the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas
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  • 9 Landforms The Caribbean The Greater Antilles Largest islands Cuba Hispaniola Puerto Rico Jamaica The Lesser Antilles an archipelagoarchipelago group of islands, curving from the Virgin Islands to Trinidad
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  • 10 Landforms South America The Andes worlds longest mountain system are a cordillera and stretch along the Pacific coast of South America for about 5,500 miles (8,851 km)
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  • 11 Landforms South America Tropical grasslands known as the LlanosLlanos stretch through eastern Colombia and Venezuela
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  • 12 Landforms South America PampasPampas Another well-known plain covers much of Argentina and Uruguay provides grazing land for beef cattle and fertile soil for growing grains
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  • 13 Waterways Rivers The Amazon Latin Americas longest river starts in the Andes and flows east about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) to the Atlantic Ocean
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  • 14 Waterways Rivers Paran, Paraguay, and Uruguay form Latin Americas second-largest river system These rivers flow into the Rio de la Plata a broad estuary, or area where river currents and ocean tides meetwhich meets the Atlantic Oceanestuary
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  • 15 Waterways Other Waterways Lake Maracaibo Venezuela South Americas largest lake contains some of Venezuelas oil fields
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  • 16 Waterways Other Waterways Lake Titicaca between Bolivia and Peru About 12,500 feet above sea level the worlds highest lake used by large ships.
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  • 17 Waterways Other Waterways Panama Canal Ships use the canal to shorten travel time between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
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  • 18 A Wealth of Natural Resources Brazil Latin Americas largest country rain forests provide timber, rubber, palm oil, and Brazil nuts
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  • 19 A Wealth of Natural Resources Energy Resources Venezuela regions largest oil and natural gas reserves Other Resources Silver mined in Mexico Colombian Mines the worlds finest emeralds Chile worlds largest exporter of copper
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  • 20 Climate Regions Section 2
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  • 21 Hot to Mild Climates Tropical Climates Tropical wet Vast rain forest are found here
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  • 22 Hot to Mild Climates Tropical Climates Amazon Basin South America Home to the worlds largest rain forest
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  • 23 Hot to Mild Climates Tropical Climates Canopy Trees grow close together Tops form a dense canopy Umbrella-like covering of leaves So dense that sunlight seldom reaches the forest floor
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  • 24 Hot to Mild Climates Tropical Climates Caribbean islands Developed a tourism industry despite hurricanes
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  • 25 Hot to Mild Climates Temperate Climates Humid subtropical climate Short and mild winters Long, hot, humid summers
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  • 26 Hot to Mild Climates Temperate Climates Chile Mediterranean Climate Farmers grow large amounts of fruit
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  • 27 Hot to Mild Climates Dry Climates Atacama Desert One of the driest places on the earth
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  • 28 Hot to Mild Climates El Nino A set of changes in air pressure, temperature, and rainfall Begins in the Pacific Ocean Waters off Perus coast are unusually warm
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  • 29 Elevation and Climate Andes Four altitude zones of climate Tierra Caliente Hot land Tierra Templada Tierra Fria Begins at 6,000 feet Tierra Helada Zone of highest elevation Temps as low as 20F
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  • 30 History and Cultures of Latin America Section 1
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  • 31 History and Government Section 1
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  • 32 Spain Portugal France, Britain, and the Netherlands Caudillos United States and Spain Panama Fidel Castro
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  • 33 Key facts
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  • 34 Early History Early Native American Civilizations Olmec Lived in Southern Mexico 1500 b.c.-300 b.c. Grew corn, controlled minerals, built temples
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  • 35 Early History Early Native American Civilizations Maya Lived in the Yucatan Peninsula 300 a.d.-900 a.d. Skills Astronomy Used their knowledge of stars, moon, and planets to develop a calendar Had a number system based on 20 Used hieroglyphics to record history A form of writing that uses signs and symbols
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  • 36 Early History Early Native American Civilizations Aztecs 1200 a.d. Central Mexico Tenochtitlan Aztec capital
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  • 37 Early History Early Native American Civilizations Inca 1400s South America (Peru) Empire Stretched more than 2,500 miles Cuzco Capital
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  • 39 Early History European Conquests 1519 Spanish Army led by Hernn Corts Landed on Mexicos Gulf coast marched to Tenochtitln, Mexico, and overtook the Aztec
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  • 40 Early History European Conquests 1532 Francisco Pizarro attacked the Inca killed the ruler conquered that empire
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  • 41 Early History Colonial Latin America Spain built an empire that included: South America the Caribbean Middle America parts of present-day United States
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  • 42 Early History Colonial Latin America Portugal took control of what is today Brazil
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  • 43 Early History Colonial Latin America France, Britain, and the Netherlands overtook some Caribbean areas and parts of North America
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  • 44 RevolutionariesVs.Results
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  • 45 Forming New Nations Independence 1804 enslaved Africans under Franois-Dominique Toussaint-LOuverture threw off French rule in Haiti Haiti became the only nation ever created as a result of a revolt by enslaved people
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  • 46 Forming New Nations Independence Simn Bolvar won freedom from the Spanish for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia
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  • 47 Forming New Nations Independence 1817 Jos de San Martn liberated Chile and Argentina from Spanish rule
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  • 48 Forming New Nations Political and Economic Challenges Caudillos Ruled as dictators Favored the wealthy over the poor
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  • 49 Forming New Nations The United States and Latin America 1898 United States and Spain fought a war over Spanish-ruled Cuba Spain was defeated, and Cuba became a republic under U.S. protection
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  • 50 Forming New Nations The United States and Latin America 1903 United States helped Panama win its freedom from Colombia gained permission to build the Panama Canal
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  • 51 Forming New Nations Modern Times 1959 a young lawyer named Fidel Castro carried out a revolution in Cuba and set up a communist state communist state country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole
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  • 52 Latin Americas challenges
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  • 53 Forming New Nations Modern Times Latin Americas challenges population is growing resources are limited Growing trade in illegal drugs has increased crime and corruption tensions still exist between rich and poor because of differences
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  • 54 Cultures and Lifestyles Section 2
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  • 55 The People Population Patterns Coasts of South America and areas in Mexico and Central America Where most people live Why? Favorable climates Fertile land
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  • 56 The People Migration Movement of people included Europeans, Africans, and Asians, either willingly or by force
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  • 57 The People Growth of Cities South America about 80 percent of people live in cities Central America and the Caribbean about 65 percent are urban dwellers
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  • 58 The People Ethnic Groups and Languages Latin Americas Native Americans live in Mexico; Central America; and the Andes countries of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia African Latin Americans form a high percentage of the populations in the Caribbean islands and northeastern Brazil