Latin America Review MesoAmerica 2016-05-27آ  Latin American Geography •Latin America is made up of

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  • Latin America Review

    MesoAmerica (Middle America)

  • Latin American Geography

    • Latin America is made up of countries

    from North America, Central America,

    South America and the Caribbean Islands.

    • The cultures of this region reflect a

    combination of native beliefs and

    colonial powers (England, France,

    Spain, etc).

  • Topography • Major topographical features:

    – Amazon Basin

    – Andes Mountains

    – Atacama Desert

    – Patagonia

  • Mayas, Aztecs and Incas

  • Maya

    300 -900 C.E. -Bloody sacrifices to make gods happy.

    -Farmed and traded maize (corn) and

    cocoa.

    -Predicted end of the world-December 23,

    2012

    -Giant pyramid temples, picture system of

    writing, 365 day calendar, concept of zero,

    astronomy.

  • Aztecs

    • Established Tenochtitlan 1315

    • Central Mexico

    • Warriors made Aztecs rich from tribute, payment by conquered people

    • By 1500 Aztecs numbered 30 million people

    • Built pyramids and human sacrifices to gods

    • Contributions: calendar, chinampas (floating gardens), and pyramids

  • Inca • From the Andes Mts. and extended 2,500 miles down the pacific coast

    • They had an Emperor- Sapa Inca and a centralized government.

    • The empire was linked by roads and armies could move quickly throughout the empire.

  • Inca

    • Religion: Polytheistic-their chief god was the Sun God.

    • Contributions: 12,000 miles of roads, terrace farming, Machu Picchu.

    • Quipus: records kept by colored strings and knots.

  • Machu Picchu

  • Exploration and

    European Conquest

    • Motives for Exploration: Europeans looking for routes to riches of Asia

    • New technology: gunpowder, faster ships, better maps, armaments helped exploration.

  • The New World

    • Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain financed Columbus in 1492.

    • Columbus reached the Americas and in 1494 Spain and Portugal split the Americas in the Treaty of Tordesillas at the Line of Demarcation.

  • Spain sent over Conquistadors

    looking for Gold, God & Glory

    • 1519-1521

    • Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec empire

    • C-Cortez

    • A-Aztecs

    • M-Mexico

    • 1532

    • Francisco Pizarro

    destroyed the Incan

    Empire in Peru

    • P-Pizarro

    • I-Incas

    • P-Peru

    Missionaries spread the Roman Catholic

    religion in the New World.

  • Reasons for Spanish Success

    • Spanish used armor, horses and

    weapons

    • Spanish formed alliances with other

    Native American groups

    • Disease brought by Spanish killed millions

    of native peoples.

    http://www.swordsandarmor.com/images/Ar700-2153.jpg http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/horses/horsepower.html

  • Social Structure of the Spanish

    Colonies

    Peninsulares

    People born in Spain

    Creoles

    Mestizos: People of mixed

    European and native descent

    Mulattoes: people of mixed

    African and European descent

    Native peoples and peoples of African

    descent

  • Columbian Exchange

    Wheat Sugar

    Rice

    Banana

    Pig

    Horse

    Wine Chicken

    Small pox

    Measles typhus

    Exchanges from the Americas to Europe

    Maize potato sweet potato

    Peanut squash

    beans

    Tomato

    Tobacco

    avocado

    Exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas, and technology

    between “old world” and “new world” – CULTURAL DIFFUSION

    http://www.goats4h.com/Pigs.gif

  • Slave Trade

    • Causes

    – Disease and Death of Natives

    – Labor needed for the plantations

    • Middle Passage

    – Brutal voyage from Africa to the Americas.

    • Effects

    – Local wars in Africa

    – Strong taken from Africa

    – Diversity in Latin America

  • $$Mercantilism$$

    • Mercantilism = Colonies used to

    benefit the Parent Nation

    • Exporting more than importing

    • Building up the supply of gold and

    silver

  • Long Term Causes of Latin

    American Independence

    Movements

    • European domination of Latin

    America.

    • Enlightenment ideas of Locke,

    Voltaire & Montesquieu.

    • American and French Revolutions

    • Growth of nationalism

  • Immediate Causes of the Latin

    American Independence Movements

    • Creoles, Mestizos & Indians resent colonial rule.

    • Revolutionary leaders emerge.

    • Napoleon invades Spain & colonies saw Spain’s weakness as an opportunity to revolt.

  • Haiti’s Struggle • Haiti’s sugar

    plantations

    made it a

    valuable colony

    of France

    http://www.theodora.com/wfb/haiti_geography.html http://www.theodora.com/wfb/haiti_geography.html

  • Toussaint L’Ouverture

    • Born into slavery

    • Son of a Noble West

    African Family

    • Learned to read

    • Inspired by stories

    of revolt in ancient

    Rome and Julius

    Caesar

  • Uprising of 1791

    • Toussaint with support of slaves vs. France, Spain, Britain and Mulattoes

    • More lives lost than in any other Revolution in the Americas

  • Rebuilding Haiti • By 1798 enslaved Haitians free

    • Toussaint controlled most of the island

    • Attempted to heal bad feelings between

    classes

    • Offered government jobs to whites,

    mulattoes & Africans.

  • Death of Toussaint • Toussaint was

    betrayed and seized by Napoleon’s men

    • Ten months later in a French prison Toussaint died

    • 1804 Haitian leaders declared independence

    • 1820 Haiti a republic & the only non slave nation in Western Hemisphere

  • Simon Bolivar • Simon Bolivar, an

    educated Creole, saw

    Napoleon’s occupation

    of Spain the signal to

    act.

    • In 1810 he led an

    uprising that

    established a republic

    in Venezuela

    • Civil war raged &

    Bolivar forced into exile

  • “The Liberator” • 1819 Bolivar

    marched his army across the Andes and attacked Bogotá

    • Joined forces with Jose de San Martin

  • • By 1824 wars of independence had ended

    • Bolivar’s dream for Gran Columbia

    vanished as rivalries flared

    • Gran Columbia split into Venezuela,

    Columbia and Ecuador

    • Violent civil wars emerged

    • Long struggle for stability and even longer

    for democracy

  • Cuba

    • Cuba won independence from Spain in

    1898.

    • 1952: Batista seized power with a

    repressive & corrupt government.

    • Fidel Castro organized a guerrilla army &

    fought Batista.

    • 1959: Castro set up a communist

    government in Cuba.

  • Effects of the Cuban Revolution

    • Communist Dictatorship under FIDEL

    CASTRO

    • Collective Farms

    • Government control of Industry –

    Command economy

    • Seizure of foreign property

  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    • 1961: U.S. backed a plot by Cuban exiles to invade Cuba- Bay of Pigs failed.

    • 1962: U.S. trade embargo on Cuba.

    • U.S.S.R. built nuclear missile bases on Cuba (90 miles off coast of Florida).

    • 1962: President Kennedy demanded Soviet removal of nuclear weapons & blockaded Cuba.

    • U.S.S.R. removed weapons & U.S. promised not to invade Cuba.

    • The closest we have come to nuclear war!!!!

  • Hot Spot in the Cold War

    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/0,9263,7601610908,00.html

  • Augusto Pinochet

    • Oppressive, military dictator in Chili.

    • Human rights abuses- tortured and killed

    political dissenters.

    • 1974-1990

    Add me…I have been showing

    up on the exam.

  • U.S. involvement in Latin America

    • Organization of American States 1948: L.A. &

    U.S. created O.A.S. to promote democracy,

    economic cooperation & human rights.

    • North American Free Trade Agreement:

    1990’s U.S., Mexico, & Canada signed NAFTA

    to allow free trade among the 3 nations. Goal:

    to bring prosperity to Mexico.

  • Problems facing Latin America

    • Poverty

    • Political instability

    • Overpopulation – Mex