Latin America Geography. Overview of Latin America.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Latin America Geography </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Overview of Latin America </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Latin America Begins at the Rio Grande River on the southern border of the United States and extends to the southern tip of South America. Covers 7,900,000 square miles or 16% of the earths surface </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The Land Mountains Mexico has three mountain ranges West Indies islands are the tops of volcanic mountains The Andes Mountains stretches along the west coast of South America Plains Cover the coasts of Mexico and Central America Two inland plains found inside South America Pampas of Argentina and llanos of Colombia and Venezuela </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Land Rivers Contains five rivers including the Amazon The Amazon stretches 4,000 miles and is the longest river in the Western Hemisphere. Natural Resources Oil and natural gas are prevalent in Mexico and Venezuela Other resources found are copper, iron ore, silver, and lead. Rich soil allows farmers to grow grains, fruit, and coffee. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Climate and Vegetation Elevation Low elevation-hot and humid with green tropical vegetation Higher elevation- the climate becomes milder and the temperature becomes cooler Highest elevation- very little plant life (snow or frost) Rainforests Cover the lowland areas of Latin America Largest is in Brazil in the Amazon basin Found on the east coast of Central America and some of the Caribbean islands </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Economy Based mainly on agriculture Farmers grow coffee, bananas, and sugarcane Latin America is a top cattle raising region in the world Service industry and manufacturing is growing </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The People Population- 500 million people (9%) 70% live in cities and along the coastlines Very diversified (many different groups of people) Democratic governments have emerged and continue to emerge. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Latin America Physical geography varies Low-lying plains and vast water systems Beauty and magnificence of the high rugged peaks of the Andes mountains </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Location and Basic Facts Located in the Western Hemisphere, south of the United States 8 million square miles of land (16% of the worlds land surface) Divided into three sub-regions: Middle America The Caribbean South America </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Mountains and Plateaus The Andes mountains are the most distinctive landforms in this region Located along the Pacific Ring of Fire Plate movement still occurs causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions People have settled into the mountain region and mostly plateaus </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Mountains and Plateaus The cooler climate and rich resources drew settlers in These regions were at one time very isolated Technology (cell phones, tv, and internet are breaking down physical barriers </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Mountains in Middle America and the Caribbean Sierra Madre mountain ranges are surrounded by the Mexican plateau Mild climate, fertile volcanic soil, and rainfall have attracted settlers for many years The Central Highlands is a chain of volcanic peaks in which many islands in the Caribbean Sea are part of </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Andes of South America Stretch 4,500 miles along the western edge of South America The longest mountain chain and one of the tallest in the world </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Highlands of Brazil Mato Grosso Plateau- sparsely populated plateau of forests and grasslands Brazil, Bolivia, Peru Brazilian Highlands- spans several climate and vegetation zones Key place to raise livestock </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Figure 1 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Figure 2 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Figure 3 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Figure 4 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Figure 5 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Figure 6 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Chapter 9 Latin America Mr. Jeremy Rinkel </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Mexico </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Bridging Two Continents Land bridge- a narrow strip of land that joins two larger landmasses Connects North America and South America Mexico is a peninsula or piece of land surrounded by water on three sides. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Mexico Land of the Shaking Earth Very rugged landscape Situated over various plates which caused the formation of mountains and volcanoes. Earthquakes occur very frequently Mount Popocatepetl smoky mountain Famous volcano named by Aztec Indians </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Mountains and Plateau Mountain Ranges Sierra Madre Occidentl (runs north and south along western Mexico near the Pacific Ocean) Sierra Madre Oriental (runs along the eastern side of Mexico Sierra Madre del Sur (southwestern Mexico) Plateau of Mexico (covers 40% of Mexico) Northern part is desert and grassy plains Southern part rises in elevation with basins Basins are broad, flat valleys. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Coastal Lowlands Stretch along the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico Rivers flow through the coastal plains The Rio Grande forms the border with the U.S. and drains in the Gulf of Mexico </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Climate Latitude is the location north or south of the equator The Tropic of Cancer runs through the center of Mexico Mexico is usually warm year around </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Climate Altitude zones Hot Land Temperate Land Cold Land </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> The Economy Economic Regions Service industries- is a business that provides services to people instead of making goods. Three economic regions Central Mexico The North The South </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Farming in Mexico Only 11% of the land is fertile for farming because of the mountains, deserts, and rainforests Farmers grow: coffee, corn, cotton, oranges, and sugarcane. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Central Mexico The economic heart of the country Home to half of Mexicos population Has favorable conditions for farming Cities in Central Mexico Mexico City Guadalajara Leon Puebla </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> The North Includes Baja California and the northern part of the plateau of Mexico Too dry to farm, but farmers irrigate to grow Cotton, fruits, cereals, and vegetables Ranchers raise Cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs Vaqueros- cowhands developed the tools to herd, rope and brand cattle. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> The North Cities Monterrey (steel, copper, lead, and zinc) Maquiladoras- are factories that assemble parts shipped from other countries Assemble automobiles, stereo systems, computers, and other electronic devices </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> The South Stretches from Mexico City to the Yucatan Peninsula. Poorest people of Mexico live in this area Subsistence farm- is a farm that produces only enough to support a familys needs Plantations (in the valleys)- large farms that raise a single crop for money. Rich farmers grow coffee and sugarcane Tourism is very popular in the South </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Economic Challenges Mexico has become an industrialized country Describes a country in which industry has replaced farming as the main economic activity Challenges due to industrialization Conserving land Controlling pollution Creating new jobs Increasing trade with other countries </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Pollution Mountains surround Mexico City blocking the flow of air leaving smog. Smog- is fog mixed with smoke and chemicals. The city sometimes shuts down and people must stay indoors Thousands of acres of forest are burned to make room for new fields for crops </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Population Changes Mexicos population is growing twice as fast as the United States Mexico cannot provide enough jobs 98 million people live in the southern part of the Plateau of Mexico Resources are strained with so many people living in this area Many people move to the U.S. to seek employment </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Free Trade North American Free Trade Agreement Joint agreement between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico (1993) Allows money to move freely among these three countries Has created many new jobs in Mexico </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Native Americans The first people came from Asia The Maya flourished in Yucatan Lived during 250 A.D to 900 A.D. Built cities around towering temples in the rainforest The Aztecs built the city Tenochtitlan Mexico City is located in this area Were fierce warriors, builders and traders Had marketplaces filled with pottery, baskets, cloth, gold, and silver </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> The Spanish Heritage Hernan Cortes- arrived in Mexico in 1519. Mexico remained a Spanish colony for nearly 300 years The Spaniards enslaved the Native Americans and had them work the fields and the mines Mestizo is a person with mixed Native American and European heritage 60% are mestizos 30% Native American </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Modern Mexico Gained its freedom from Spain in 1821 Revolution began in 1910 because people were discontent of the way of life especially poor farmers 1920- Mexico became a federal republic 31 states share powers 1990s- people demanded reform Other parties began to rule and win elections instead of just one political party </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> City Life of the population in Mexico live in cities Older homes are made of adobe (sun- dried or clay bricks) Houses in poor areas are made of scrap wood, metal, or whatever material can be found Most of these homes lack electricity and running water </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Country Life Most Mexican villages are very poor Homes are built of cement blocks, with a red tiled roof, sheet metal, or clay Most villages have a marketplace where clothes, food, baskets, and pottery are sold </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> The Arts and Recreation Painters and Writers- have created many national treasures Produced many murals or wall paintings Music and Dance Traditional music is played by a Mariachi band (a singer, 2 violinists, 2 guitarists, two horn players, and a bass player) These musicians wear colorful outfits and sombreros </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> The Arts and Recreation Celebrations- fiesta (feast day) Independence Day (September 15 &amp; 16) Cinco de Mayo (May 5) Mexicans also celebrate Christmas Foods Sports Soccer is the most popular sport Bullfighting is a popular sport for tourists </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Sources http://go.hrw.com/atlas/norm_htm/mexico. htm </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Central America </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> The Land More than 1,000 miles north to south 300 miles wide at widest point Pacific Ocean borders the west Caribbean Sea borders the east Volcanic eruptions are common </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Climate mostly tropical, but varies from country to country Mountains and highlands are dry and cool year round Pacific lowlands (tropical savanna) May-Nov warm and rainy Dec-April hot and dry Eastern lowlands (tropical rainforest year round) Hurricanes (fierce storms with winds of more than 74 m.p.h. </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> The Economy Farming Plantations- large farms that grow produce for sale or for export (coffee, bananas, sugar cane) Substience farmer- raises small amount of crops to provide for family, extras are sold at the local market </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> The Economy Rainforests (provide many great treasures) Chicle- a substance used in making chewing gum. Scientists use trees and plants used for medicine or medical research Caribbean Lowlands Farmers have cleared rainforest areas to raise crops, which erodes nutrients Central American governments are trying to enforce laws from the destruction of rainforest. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Industry Few small industries Little manufacturing due to lack of fuels Bauxite (mineral used to make aluminum) is found in Costa Rica and Guatemala </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> The People Influence of the Past Maya Indians settled in C.A. in 250-400 B.C. 1400s- Spanish settled in Central America 1500s- Spanish claimed land and forced Native Americans to work in plantations 1600s- British settled in Belize-enslaved Africans to work as slaves in the rainforest </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Independence Most countries gained in 1821 In 1903, with U.S. help, Panama won independence from Colombia Belize won independence from U.K. in 1981 This area has been challenged by revolutions since the mid 1800s. </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> The Population Today 35 million people Spanish is the official language except for English speaking Belize 50% live on farms or small towns People in urban areas work in manufacturing or service industry jobs Those living on the coast harvest shrimp, lobster, and other seafood for export </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Central America includes seven countries: Belize Guatemala Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Landforms Many active volcanoes. Some are dormant. DormantNot likely to erupt. Chain of volcanic mountains, called the Central Highlands, stretch along most of the region. Volcanic material has left rich, fertile soil. Farmers grow coffee, bananas, sugarcane, &amp; other crops. </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Guatemala Volcanoes 40% live like their ancestors. These people do not leave their countrys borders. Guatemalans who speak Spanish &amp; practice European ways are called ladinos. Live in cities. Civil War from 1960-1996. </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Costa Rica Offers one of the highest standards of living in the world. High literacy rates. Most are of Spanish descent. Few wars. Lots of schools. Major export is coffee. </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Panama 1903 U.S. helped Panama gain independence. U.S. built Panama Canal. (1914) U.S. controlled the canal and the land of each side until 2000, when they gave it back to Panama. 50% of population live &amp; work near the canal. Population is a mix of Spanish and Native American ancestry. </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> El Salvador Main crops are coffee, sugarcane, corn, cotton, &amp; shrimp. Population of about six million. Only 53% have access to safe water. 1% are indigenous to the region. Indigenousnative to the region. </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Caribbean </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> The Caribbean All Caribbean islands are located in the Caribbean Sea. Geographers call a group of islands an archipelago. Many of the islands are actually the tops of a mountain range that sit on the bottom of the sea. </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> The Caribbean Some islands in the Caribbean are still active volcanoes. Lava can help people as well as hurt. When lava breaks down, it forms good soil for farming. Some of the islands are not volcanic. These nonvolcanic islands are called atolls. Atoll---A chain of islands made up of coral. </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Caribbean Islands Bahamas are southeast of Florida. Greater Antilles (northern Caribbean...</li></ul>

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