1 Classification Chapter 17 copyright cmassengale

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  • *ClassificationChapter 17 copyright cmassengale

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  • *There are 13 billion known species of organismsThis is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!!New organisms are still being found and identified

    Species of Organismscopyright cmassengale

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  • *What is Classification?Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similaritiesClassification is also known as taxonomyTaxonomists are scientists that identify & name organismscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Benefits of ClassifyingAccurately & uniformly names organisms Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names Seahorse??copyright cmassengale

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  • *Confusion in Using Different Languages for Namescopyright cmassengale

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  • *Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomistscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Early Taxonomists2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first taxonomistAristotle divided organisms into plants & animalsHe subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea, or air dwellers copyright cmassengale

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  • *Early TaxonomistsJohn Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin for namingHis names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plantcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Carolus Linnaeus1707 177818th century taxonomistClassified organisms by their structureDeveloped naming system still used today

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  • *Carolus LinnaeusCalled the Father of TaxonomyDeveloped the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclatureTwo-word name (Genus & species)

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  • *Standardized NamingBinomial nomenclature usedGenus speciesLatin or GreekItalicized in printCapitalize genus, but NOT speciesUnderline when writingTurdus migratorius American Robincopyright cmassengale

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  • *Binomial NomenclatureWhich TWO are more closely related?copyright cmassengale

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  • *Rules for Naming OrganismsThe International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organismsAll names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress)This prevents duplicated namescopyright cmassengale

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  • *Classification GroupsTaxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placedThere is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specificDomain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species

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  • *Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups DomainKingdom Phylum (Division used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species BROADEST TAXONMost Specificcopyright cmassengale

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  • *

    DumbKing

    Phillip

    Came

    Over

    For

    Gooseberry

    Soup!copyright cmassengale

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  • *Broadest, most inclusive taxonThree domainsArchaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles)Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane-bound organellesDomainscopyright cmassengale

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  • *ARCHAEAProbably the 1st cells to evolveLive in HARSH environmentsFound in:Sewage Treatment PlantsThermal or Volcanic VentsHot Springs or Geysers that are acidVery salty water (Dead Sea; Great Salt Lake)copyright cmassengale

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  • *ARCHAEANcopyright cmassengale

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  • *BACTERIASome may cause DISEASEFound in ALL HABITATS except harsh onesImportant decomposers for environmentCommercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc.

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  • *Live in the intestines of animalscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Domain Eukarya is Divided into KingdomsEubacteria (true-bacteria)Archaebacteria ( ancient bacteria)Protista ( not plants animals or fungi) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts )Plantae (multicellular plants)Animalia (multicellular animals) copyright cmassengale

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  • EUBACTERIAOccur in many shapes ( Bacilli, Spirilla, and Cocci)

    cells walls made of peptidoglycan- a protein carbohydrate.Live in a wide variety of environmentsCan cause many diseases

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  • ArchaebacteriaCell walls do not have peptidoglycan- live in harsh environmnetsArchae means ancientThree groups of Archaebaqcter ia exist:Methanogens: convert hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide into methane gas. (oxygen is poisonous to them) live in anaerobic environments such as marine mud and sewage, cow intestines.Halophiles: salt loving archaea. Environmnets like the great salt lake and the dead sea.Thermoacidophiles: live in very acidic environments that have very high temperatures. Ex. Hot springs and hydrothermal vents. copyright cmassengale*

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  • *ProtistaMost are unicellularSome are multicellularSome are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophicAquaticCommon examples are amoeba and paramecium, sea weeds and moldscopyright cmassengale

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  • *FungiMulticellular, except yeastAbsorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it)Cell walls made of chitincopyright cmassengale

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  • *PlantaeMulticellularAutotrophicAbsorb sunlight to make glucose PhotosynthesisCell walls made of cellulosecopyright cmassengale

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  • *AnimaliaMulticellularIngestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies)Feed on plants or animalscopyright cmassengale

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  • *TaxonsMost genera contain a number of similar speciesThe genus Homo is an exception (only contains modern humans)Classification is based on evolutionary relationshipscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Basis for Modern TaxonomyPhylogenetics- analysis of the evolutionary or ancestral relationships among taxaHomologous structures (same structure, different function)Similar embryo developmentMolecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteinscopyright cmassengale

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  • *CladogramDiagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scalescopyright cmassengale

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  • *Primate Cladogramcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Dichotomous KeyingUsed to identify organismsCharacteristics given in pairsRead both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organismcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Example of Dichotomous Key1a Tentacles present Go to 21b Tentacles absent Go to 32a Eight Tentacles Octopus2b More than 8 tentacles 33a Tentacles hang down go to 43b Tentacles uprightSea Anemone4a Balloon-shaped bodyJellyfish4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5copyright cmassengale

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    ***************Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.***********Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development.Development involves many stages from conception until death.

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