[PPT]Clam Dissection viewDissection of the Clam Venus mercenaria * copyright cmassengale * * * * * * copyright cmassengale Resource * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * copyright cmassengale

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    Dissection of the Clam

    Venus mercenaria

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    Taxonomy of Bivalve Mollusks

    Kingdom

    Phylum

    Class

    Genus

    Species

    AnimaliaMolluscaBivalviaVenusmercenaria

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    Bivalve Mollusks

    Soft bodies invertebratesHave a muscular foot that can be extended for movementTwo part, hinged shellComplete, one-way digestive tract with a mouth & anusSeparate sexes

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    Bivalve Mollusks

    No eyes or distinct headHave siphons to circulate water through their bodiesFilter feed on planktonMussels are large and have a flat, more oblong shell shape, while freshwater clams are smaller (3/4 inch) and typically more round

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    Indirect Development

    Goes through a free-swimming, larval stage called the trochophoreAdults move slowly by their extendable foot

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    Bivalve Mollusks

    Protostomes blastopore becomes the mouthHave a fully lined body or mantle cavityBody organs called visceral mass protected by mantle which secretes the shellOpen circulationMost are sessile or sedentaryIncludes clams, oysters, scallops, & mussels

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    Bivalves

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    External Anatomy

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    Bivalve Shell

    Umbo is the raised, oldest part of the shell and is used to find surfaces

    Dorsal

    Ventral

    Anterior

    Posterior

    UMBO

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    Bivalve Shell

    Shell show regular spacing of external growth rings on shells and their progressive crowding as the animals grow older

    Growth Rings

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    Bivalve Shell

    Bivalves have an incurrent and excurrent siphon to bring in water containing food & O2 and for excess water & wastes to leave

    Siphons

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    The hinge ligament holds the two halves of the shell together

    Bivalve Shell

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    Internal Anatomy

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    Scissor tips or a screwdriver & can be used to open the shell

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    Adductor Muscles

    Strong adductor muscles help open & close the valves and must be cut to examine the interior of the clam

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    Inside Shell Lining

    The inside of the shell is pearly and smooth to protect the bodyOysters coat irritants with a substance called mother of pearl

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    Teeth located on the dorsal edge of the shell lock to keep shells from sliding

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    The mantle makes a CaCO3 (limestone) shell

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    Mantle cavity

    Gills hang outside visceral mass (body) in the mantle cavity & remove O2 as H2O flows over them

    Gills

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    Water Flow

    Incurrent siphons aid in bringing in water with food and oxygenCilia direct water into the gills, while labial palps direct water into the mouth

    Cilia on the gills pulls in water

    move food toward the mouth

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    VISCERAL MASS -contains respiratory, digestive, & reproductive systems

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    HEART & PERICARDIAL CAVITY

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    Nervous System

    Consists of 3 pairs of ganglia (brain)Has 2 pairs of nerve cords extending from this

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    Nitrogen waste from kidney Digestive waste from anus Sperm or egg (if external fertilization) Larva (if internal fertilization)

    Released into Mantle Cavity to be removed by excurrent Siphon:

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    Resource

    http://www.biologyjunction.com/pwpt_biology.htm

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