Photosynthesis Energy & Life copyright cmassengale 1

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  • PhotosynthesisEnergy & Lifecopyright cmassengale*

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  • Overview of Photosynthesiscopyright cmassengale*

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  • AutotrophsPlants and some other types of organisms that contain chlorophyll are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.copyright cmassengale*

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  • AutotrophsAutotrophs include organisms that make their own foodAutotrophs can use the suns energy directlycopyright cmassengale*Euglena

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  • HeterotrophsHeterotrophs are organisms that can NOT make their own foodHeterotrophs can NOT directly use the suns energycopyright cmassengale*

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  • EnergyEnergy Takes Many Forms such as light, heat, electrical, chemical, mechanicalEnergy can be changed from one form to anotherEnergy can be stored in chemical bonds & then released latercopyright cmassengale*Candles release energy as HEAT & LIGHT

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  • ATP Cellular EnergyAdenosine TriphosphateContains two, high-energy phosphate bondsAlso contains the nitrogen base adenine & a ribose sugar

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  • ADPAdenosine DiphosphateATP releases energy, a free phosphate, & ADP when cells take energy from ATP

    copyright cmassengale*One phosphate bond has been removed

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  • Sugar in ADP & ATPCalled ribosePentose sugarAlso found on RNA

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  • Importance of ATPPrincipal Compound Used To Store Energy In Living Organismscopyright cmassengale*

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  • Releasing Energy From ATPATP is constantly being used and remade by cellsATP provides all of the energy for cell activitiesThe high energy phosphate bonds can be BROKEN to release energyThe process of releasing ATPs energy & reforming the molecule is called phosphorylationcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Releasing Energy From ATPAdding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATPRemoving A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADPcopyright cmassengale*LooseGain

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  • Cells Using Biochemical EnergyCells Use ATP For:Active transportMovementPhotosynthesisProtein SynthesisCellular respirationAll other cellular reactionscopyright cmassengale*

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  • More on ATPCells Have Enough ATP To Last For A Few SecondsATP must constantly be madeATP Transfers Energy Very WellATP Is NOT Good At Energy Storagecopyright cmassengale*

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  • GlucoseGlucose is a monosaccharideC6H12O6One Molecule of glucose Stores 90 Times More Chemical Energy Than One Molecule of ATPcopyright cmassengale*

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  • History of Photosynthesis & Plant Pigmentscopyright cmassengale*

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  • PhotosynthesisInvolves the Use Of light Energy to convert Water (H20) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Oxygen (O2) and High Energy Carbohydrates (sugars, e.g. Glucose) & Starchescopyright cmassengale*

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  • Investigating PhotosynthesisMany Scientists Have Contributed To Understanding PhotosynthesisEarly Research Focused On The Overall ProcessLater Researchers Investigated The Detailed Chemical Pathwayscopyright cmassengale*

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  • Early Questions on PlantsSeveral Centuries Ago, The Question Was: Does the increase in mass of a plant come from the air? The soil? The Water?copyright cmassengale*

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  • Van Helmonts Experiment 1643Planted a seed into A pre-measured amount of soil and watered for 5 yearsWeighed Plant & Soil. Plant Was 75 kg, Soil The Same.Concluded Mass Came From Watercopyright cmassengale*

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  • Priestleys Experiment 1771Burned Candle In Bell Jar Until It Went Out.Placed Sprig Of Mint In Bell Jar For A Few Days.Candle Could Be Relit And Burn.Concluded Plants Released Substance (O2) Necessary For burning.copyright cmassengale*

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  • Ingenhouszs Experiment 1779copyright cmassengale*Repeated Priestly experiment with & without sunlight

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  • Results of Ingenhouszs ExperimentShowed That Priestleys Results Only Occurred In The Presence Of Sunlight.Light Was Necessary For Plants To Produce The Burning Gas or oxygencopyright cmassengale*

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  • Julius Robert Mayer 1845Proposed That Plants can Convert Light Energy Into Chemical Energycopyright cmassengale*

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  • Samuel Ruben & Martin Kamen1941Used Isotopes To Determine That The Oxygen Liberated In Photosynthesis Comes From Watercopyright cmassengale*KAMENRUBIN

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  • Melvin Calvin 1948First to trace the path that carbon (CO2) takes in forming GlucoseDoes NOT require sunlightCalled the Calvin Cycle or Light Independent ReactionAlso known as the Dark Reactioncopyright cmassengale*

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  • Rudolph Marcus 1992Studied the Light Independent ReactionsFirst to describe the Electron transport Chaincopyright cmassengale*

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  • The Photosynthesis Equationcopyright cmassengale*

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  • PigmentsIn addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires PigmentsChlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophsChlorophyll is found inside chloroplastscopyright cmassengale*

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  • Light and PigmentsEnergy From The Sun Enters Earths Biosphere As PhotonsPhoton = Light Energy UnitLight Contains A Mixture Of WavelengthsDifferent Wavelengths Have Different Colorscopyright cmassengale*

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  • Light & PigmentsDifferent pigments absorb different wavelengths of lightPhotons of light excite electrons in the plants pigmentsExcited electrons carry the absorbed energy Excited electrons move to HIGHER energy levels

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  • ChlorophyllThere are 2 main types of chlorophyll molecules:Chlorophyll aChlorophyll bA third type, chlorophyll c, is found in dinoflagellates

    copyright cmassengale*Magnesium atom at the center of chlorophyll

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  • Chlorophyll a and bcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Chlorophyll aFound in all plants, algae, & cyanobacteriaMakes photosynthesis possibleParticipates directly in the Light ReactionsCan accept energy from chlorophyll bcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Chlorophyll bChlorophyll b is an accessory pigmentChlorophyll b acts indirectly in photosynthesis by transferring the light it absorbs to chlorophyll aLike chlorophyll a, it absorbs red & blue light and REFLECTS GREEN copyright cmassengale*

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  • The Biochemical Reactionscopyright cmassengale*

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  • It Begins with Sunlight!copyright cmassengale*

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  • Photoautotrophs Absorb Light Energycopyright cmassengale*

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  • Inside A Chloroplastcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Structure of the ChloroplastDouble membrane organelleOuter membrane smoothInner membrane forms stacks of connected sacs called thylakoidsThylakoid stack is called the granun (grana-plural)Gel-like material around grana called stromacopyright cmassengale*

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  • Function of the StromaLight Independent reactions occur hereATP used to make carbohydrates like glucoseLocation of the Calvin Cyclecopyright cmassengale*

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  • Thylakoid membranesLight Dependent reactions occur herePhotosystems are made up of clusters of chlorophyll moleculesPhotosystems are embedded in the thylakoid membranesThe two photosystems are: Photosytem I Photosystem II copyright cmassengale*

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  • Photosynthesis Overviewcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Energy CarriersNicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)NADP+ = Reduced FormPicks Up 2 high-energy electrons and H+ from the Light Reaction to form NADPHNADPH carries energy to be passed on to another moleculecopyright cmassengale*

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  • NADPHcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Light Dependent ReactionsOccurs across the thylakoid membranesUses light energyProduce Oxygen from waterConvert ADP to ATPAlso convert NADP+ into the energy carrier NADPHcopyright cmassengale*

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  • Light Dependent Reactioncopyright cmassengale*

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  • Light Dependent Reactioncopyright cmassengale*

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  • Light Reaction SummaryReactants:H2OLight Energy

    Energy Products:ATPNADPH

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  • Light Independent ReactionATP & NADPH from light reactions used as energyAtmospheric C02 is used to make sugars like glucose and fructoseSix-carbon Sugars made during the Calvin CycleOccurs in the stromacopyright cmassengale*

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  • The Calvin Cyclecopyright cmassengale*

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  • The Calvin CycleTwo turns of the Calvin Cycle are required to make one molecule of glucose3-CO2 molecules enter the cycle to form several intermediate com