1 What is Ecology? copyright cmassengale. 2 Organisms and Their Environment copyright cmassengale

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  • *What is Ecology?copyright cmassengale

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  • *Organisms and Their Environmentcopyright cmassengale

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  • *What is Ecology??The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.It explains how living organisms affect each other and the world they live in.

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  • *Habitat & NicheHabitat is the place a plant or animal lives Niche is an organisms total way of life

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  • *The Nonliving EnvironmentAbiotic factors- the nonliving parts of an organisms environment.Examples include air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil.Abiotic factors affect an organisms life.copyright cmassengale

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  • *The Living EnvironmentBiotic factors- all the living organisms that inhabit an environment.All organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction, or protection.copyright cmassengale

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  • *Abiotic or Biotic?Bioticcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Abiotic or Biotic?Abioticcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Abiotic or Biotic?Abioticcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Abiotic or Biotic?Bioticcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Levels of Organizationcopyright cmassengale

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  • *What are the Simplest Levels?AtomMoleculeOrganelleCellTissueOrganSystemcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Levels of OrganizationEcologists have organized the interactions an organism takes part in into different levels according to complexity.

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  • *1st Level of OrganizationOrganism: An individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and developscopyright cmassengale

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  • *2nd Level of OrganizationPopulation: A group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same place at the same time.copyright cmassengale

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  • *3rd Level of OrganizationBiological Community: All the populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time.copyright cmassengale

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  • *4th Level of OrganizationEcosystem: Populations of plants and animals that interact with each other in a given area with the abiotic components of that area. (terrestrial or aquatic)copyright cmassengale

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  • *5th Level of OrganizationBiosphere: The portion of Earth that supports life.copyright cmassengale

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  • *The BiosphereLife is found in air, on land, and in fresh and salt water.The BIOSPHERE is the portion of Earth that supports living things.copyright cmassengale

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  • *What level of organization?Organismcopyright cmassengale

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  • *What level of Organization?Communitycopyright cmassengale

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  • *What level of Organization?Populationcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Energy Flow in an Ecosystemcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Energy FlowEnergy in an ecosystem originally comes from the sunEnergy flows through Ecosystems from producers to consumersProducers (make food)Consumers (use food by eating producers or other consumers)

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  • *ProducersSunlight is the main source of energy for most life on earth.Producers contain chlorophyll & can use energy directly from the suncopyright cmassengale

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  • *AutotrophsAn Autotroph is any organism that can produce its own food supply!Autotrophs are also called ProducersPlants, algae, some protists, & some bacteria are examples

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  • *Niche of a ProducerCaptures energy and transforms it into organic, stored energy for the use of living organisms.May be photoautotrophs using light energy (e.g. plants)May be chemoautotrophs using chemical energy (e.g. cyanobacteria)copyright cmassengale

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  • *PhotoautotrophProducer That Captures Energy from the sun by:PhotosynthesisAdds Oxygen to the atmosphereRemoves Carbon Dioxide from the AtmosphereAlgaecopyright cmassengale

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  • *On LandPlantsIn The SeaAlgaeTidal Flats & Salt MarshesCyanobacteriaHabitat of Photoautotrophscopyright cmassengale

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  • *ChemoautotrophsCapture energy from the bonds of inorganic molecules such as Hydrogen SulfideProcess is called ChemosynthesisOften occurs in deep sea vents or gut of animalsCalled a Black smoker (thermal vent)copyright cmassengale

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  • *ConsumersHeterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. (e.g. animals)HerbivoresEat Only PlantsCarnivoresEat Only Other Animalscopyright cmassengale

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  • *ConsumersHeterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy.Omnivores (Humans)Eat Plants & AnimalsDetritivores (Scavengers)Feed On Dead Plant & Animal Remains (buzzards)DecomposersFungi & Bacteriacopyright cmassengale

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  • *Feeding RelationshipsEnergy flows through an ecosystem in one directionfrom producers to various levels of consumerscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Feeding RelationshipsFood ChainSimple Energy path through an ecosystem

    Food WebMore realistic path through an ecosystem made of many food chainscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Food ChainProducer (trapped sunlight & stored food)1st order Consumer2nd Order Consumer3rd Order consumer4th Order Consumercopyright cmassengale

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  • *Name the Producer, Consumers & Decomposers in this food chain:copyright cmassengale

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  • *Food Webcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Trophic LevelsEach Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level.ProducersAlways The First Trophic LevelHow Energy Enters The SystemHerbivoresSecond Trophic Levelcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Trophic LevelsCarnivores/OmnivoresMake Up The Remaining Trophic Levels

    Each level depends on the one below it for energy.copyright cmassengale

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  • *Ecological PyramidsGraphic Representations Of The Relative Amounts of Energy or Matter At Each Trophic LevelMay be:Energy PyramidBiomass PyramidPyramid of Numberscopyright cmassengale

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  • *Energy Pyramidcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Biomass Pyramidcopyright cmassengale

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  • *Pyramid of Numberscopyright cmassengale

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  • Copyright CmassengaleBIOMES

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  • Biogeography - study of where organisms liveCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Dispersal of organismsMovement of organisms from 1 place to anotherDispersal is usually caused by wind, water or living thingsSpecies that evolve in an area are called native speciesSpecies that are carried to a location are exotic species.Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Climate and biomesThe typical weather patterns over a long period of time is the climate.Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Biomes are a group of ecosystems with similar climates (temperature and rainfall) and organisms.Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Rain Forest BiomesCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Tropical Rain Forest - found near the equator -Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Desert BiomesCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Deserts: areas that receive less than 25cm of rain per year. Most deserts get very hot during the day and get very cold at night.Copyright Cmassengale

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  • GrasslandCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Grasslands receive more rain than the desert - enough to support grasses and bushes, but not enough to support trees. Copyright Cmassengale

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  • TundraThe land here is very cold and dry. It has a permanent layer of frost all year (permafrost). Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Freshwater BiomesAlgae is the most abundant plant in the water biomes because sunlight has to be there in order for photosynthesis to occur.Freshwater biomes are divided into 2 groups: ponds and lakes and streams and riversCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Ponds and LakesLakes are deeper than ponds. Sometimes ponds are shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom which lets plants grow. Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Streams and RiversThe water runs fast in these areas. Few plants can survive in the fast current, so consumers must rely on leaves and seeds that fall in.Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Marine BiomesDivided into 4 sections: Estuaries, Intertidal Zone, Neritic Zone, and Surface/Deep Zone.Copyright Cmassengale

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  • EstuariesThis is where the wa

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