1 Evolution Diversity of Life copyright cmassengale

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1 Evolution Diversity of Life copyright cmassengale Slide 2 2 Nothing in biology makes sense EXCEPT in the light of evolution. Theodosius Dobzhansky Evolution Charles Darwin in later years copyright cmassengale Slide 3 3 History of Evolutionary Thought copyright cmassengale Slide 4 4 Early Ideas On Earths Organisms Aristotle believed species were fixed creations arranged by their complexity Aristotle believed species were fixed creations arranged by their complexity Idea lasted 2000 years Idea lasted 2000 years copyright cmassengale Slide 5 5 Early Ideas On Earths Organisms Linnaeus 1 st to group similar organisms and assign them Latin names Linnaeus 1 st to group similar organisms and assign them Latin names Two word name (Genus species) Two word name (Genus species) Known as Binomial nomenclature Known as Binomial nomenclature copyright cmassengale Slide 6 6 : Contributors to Darwins thinking included: Charles Lyell uniformintarianism (geologic processes still changing Earth)Charles Lyell uniformintarianism (geologic processes still changing Earth) Georges Cuvier species extinction (Catastrophism)Georges Cuvier species extinction (Catastrophism) Thomas Malthus struggle for existence (resources)Thomas Malthus struggle for existence (resources) copyright cmassengale Slide 7 7 : Contributors to Darwins thinking included: James Hutton - GradualismJames Hutton - Gradualism John Baptiste Lamarck Inheritance of acquired Characteristics and Law of Use and DisuseJohn Baptiste Lamarck Inheritance of acquired Characteristics and Law of Use and Disuse Alfred Russel Wallace organisms evolved from common ancestorsAlfred Russel Wallace organisms evolved from common ancestors copyright cmassengale Slide 8 8 Evolutionary Timeline copyright cmassengale Slide 9 9 Catastrophism Idea proposed by George Cuvier Idea proposed by George Cuvier Studied fossil in sedimentary rock strata of Paris Studied fossil in sedimentary rock strata of Paris Found some species completely disappeared in more recent layers Found some species completely disappeared in more recent layers copyright cmassengale Slide 10 10 Catastrophism Stated that species disappear due to a catastrophic event of the earths crust (volcano, earthquake) Stated that species disappear due to a catastrophic event of the earths crust (volcano, earthquake) copyright cmassengale Slide 11 11 Huttons Theory of Geological Change James Hutton, 1795, Scottish geologist James Hutton, 1795, Scottish geologist Studied invertebrate fossils in Paris Museum Studied invertebrate fossils in Paris Museum Described The Geological Forces That Have Changed Life on Earth Over Millions of Years (erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes) Described The Geological Forces That Have Changed Life on Earth Over Millions of Years (erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes) copyright cmassengale Slide 12 12 Huttons Theory of Geological Change Changes in Earths crust due to slow continuous processes Changes in Earths crust due to slow continuous processes Idea Known as Gradualism Idea Known as Gradualism copyright cmassengale Slide 13 13 Charles Lyell Proposed theory of Uniformintarianism Proposed theory of Uniformintarianism Geological processes at uniform rates building & wearing down Earths crust Geological processes at uniform rates building & wearing down Earths crust Proposed that the Earth was millions of years instead of a few thousand years old Proposed that the Earth was millions of years instead of a few thousand years old copyright cmassengale Slide 14 14 Principles of Geology Published by Lyell Just Before The Beagle Set Sail & read by Darwin Published by Lyell Just Before The Beagle Set Sail & read by Darwin Explained Geological Processes That Shaped The Earth Explained Geological Processes That Shaped The Earth Helped Darwin Understand Sea Shells In The Andes Mountains At 12,000+ Feet Helped Darwin Understand Sea Shells In The Andes Mountains At 12,000+ Feet Expanded Earths Age copyright cmassengale Slide 15 15 Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, 1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, 1809 One Of First Scientists To Understand That Change Occurs Over Time One Of First Scientists To Understand That Change Occurs Over Time Stated that Changes Are Adaptations To Environment acquired in an organisms lifetime Stated that Changes Are Adaptations To Environment acquired in an organisms lifetime Said acquired changes were passed to offspring Said acquired changes were passed to offspring copyright cmassengale Slide 16 16 Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Idea called Law of Use and Disuse Idea called Law of Use and Disuse If a body part were used, it got stronger If a body part were used, it got stronger If body part NOT used, it deteriorated If body part NOT used, it deteriorated copyright cmassengale Slide 17 17 Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Proposed That By Selective Use Or Disuse Of Organs, Organisms Acquired Or Lost Certain Traits During Their Lifetime Proposed That By Selective Use Or Disuse Of Organs, Organisms Acquired Or Lost Certain Traits During Their Lifetime These Traits Could Then Be Passed On To Their Offspring These Traits Could Then Be Passed On To Their Offspring Over Time This Led To New Species Over Time This Led To New Species copyright cmassengale Slide 18 18 Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Use & Disuse - Organisms Could Change The Size Or Shape Of Organs By Using Them Or Not Using Them Use & Disuse - Organisms Could Change The Size Or Shape Of Organs By Using Them Or Not Using Them Blacksmiths & Their Sons (muscular arms) Blacksmiths & Their Sons (muscular arms) Giraffes Necks Longer from stretching) Giraffes Necks Longer from stretching) copyright cmassengale Slide 19 19copyright cmassengale Slide 20 20 Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Inheritance Of Acquired Traits Inheritance Of Acquired Traits Traits Acquired During Ones Lifetime Would Be Passed To Offspring Clipped ears of dogs could be passed to offspring! copyright cmassengale Slide 21 21 Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Tendency Toward Perfection Tendency Toward Perfection Organisms Are Continually Changing and Acquiring Features That Help Them Live More Successfully In Their Environment Organisms Are Continually Changing and Acquiring Features That Help Them Live More Successfully In Their Environment Example: Bird Ancestors Desired To Fly So They Tried Until Wings Developed Example: Bird Ancestors Desired To Fly So They Tried Until Wings Developed copyright cmassengale Slide 22 22 Lamarcks Mistakes Lamarck Did NOT Know how traits were inherited (Traits are passed through genes) Lamarck Did NOT Know how traits were inherited (Traits are passed through genes) Genes Are NOT Changed By Activities In Life Genes Are NOT Changed By Activities In Life Change Through Mutation Occurs Before An Organism Is Born Change Through Mutation Occurs Before An Organism Is Born copyright cmassengale Slide 23 23 Charles Darwin the Naturalist copyright cmassengale Slide 24 24 Voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin Born Feb. 12, 1809 Born Feb. 12, 1809 Joined Crew of HMS Beagle, 1831 Joined Crew of HMS Beagle, 1831 Naturalist Naturalist 5 Year Voyage around world 5 Year Voyage around world Avid Collector of Flora & Fauna Avid Collector of Flora & Fauna Astounded By Variety of Life Astounded By Variety of Life copyright cmassengale Slide 25 25 A reconstruction of the HMS Beagle sailing off Patagonia. Darwins Voyage of Discovery copyright cmassengale Slide 26 26 Darwin Left England in 1831 Darwin returned 5 years later in 1836 copyright cmassengale Slide 27 27 HMS Beagles Voyage copyright cmassengale Slide 28 28 The Galapagos Islands Small Group of Islands 1000 km West of South America Small Group of Islands 1000 km West of South America Very Different Climates Very Different Climates Animals On Islands Unique Animals On Islands Unique Tortoises Iguanas Finches copyright cmassengale Slide 29 29 The Galapagos Islands Volcanic islands off the coast of South America Volcanic islands off the coast of South America Island species varied from mainland species & from island-to- island species Island species varied from mainland species & from island-to- island species Each island had long or short neck tortoises Each island had long or short neck tortoises copyright cmassengale Slide 30 30copyright cmassengale Slide 31 31 The Galapagos Islands Finches on the islands resembled a mainland finch Finches on the islands resembled a mainland finch More types of finches appeared on the islands where the available food was different (seeds, nuts, berries, insects) More types of finches appeared on the islands where the available food was different (seeds, nuts, berries, insects) Finches had different types of beaks adapted to their type of food gathering Finches had different types of beaks adapted to their type of food gathering copyright cmassengale Slide 32 32copyright cmassengale Slide 33 33 Darwins Observations & Conclusions The Struggle for Existence copyright cmassengale Slide 34 34 Voyage of the Beagle During His Travels, Darwin Made Numerous Observations And Collected Evidence That Led Him To Propose A Revolutionary Hypothesis About The Way Life Changes Over Time copyright cmassengale Slide 35 35 Darwins Observations Patterns of Diversity were shown Patterns of Diversity were shown Unique Adaptations in organisms Unique Adaptations in organisms Species Not Evenly Distributed Species Not Evenly Distributed Australia, Kangaroos, but No Rabbits S. America, Llamas copyright cmassengale Slide 36 36 Darwins Observations Both Living Organisms & Fossils collected Both Living Organisms & Fossils collected Fossils included: Fossils included: Trilobites Giant Ground Sloth of South America This species NO longer existed. What had happened to them? copyright cmassengale Slide 37 37