ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration CHAPTER 7 Copyright Cmassengale

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  • ADP, ATP and Cellular RespirationCHAPTER 7Copyright Cmassengale

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  • What Does ATP Do for You?It supplies YOU with ENERGY!

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  • When is ATP Made in the Body?During a Process called Cellular Respiration that takes place in both Plants & AnimalsCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Cellular RespirationIncludes pathways that require oxygenGlucose is oxidized and O2 is reducedGlucose breakdown is therefore an oxidation-reduction reactionBreakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP molecules Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration 6CO2 + 6H20 + e- + 36-38ATPsC6H12O6 + 6O2YIELDSCopyright Cmassengale

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  • What Carries the Electrons?NAD+ (nicotinadenine dinucleotide) acts as the energy carrierNAD+ is a coenzymeIts Reduced to NADH when it picks up two electrons and one hydrogen ionCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Are There Any Other Electron Carriers?YES! Another Coenzyme! FAD+ (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)Reduced to FADH2

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  • Other Cellular Respiration FactsMetabolic Pathway that breaks down carbohydratesProcess is Exergonic as High-energy Glucose is broken into CO2 and H2OProcess is also Catabolic because larger Glucose breaks into smaller moleculesCopyright Cmassengale

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  • What are the Stages of Cellular Respiration?GlycolysisThe Krebs CycleThe Electron Transport ChainCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Where Does Cellular Respiration Take Place?It actually takes place in two parts of the cell:Glycolysis occurs in the CytoplasmKrebs Cycle & ETC Take place in the MitochondriaCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Review of Mitochondria StructureSmooth outer MembraneFolded inner membraneFolds called CristaeSpace inside cristae called the Matrix

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  • Diagram of the ProcessOccurs in CytoplasmOccurs in MatrixOccurs across CristaeCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Glycolysis SummaryTakes place in the CytoplasmAnaerobic (Doesnt Use Oxygen)Requires input of 2 ATPGlucose split into two molecules of Pyruvate or Pyruvic AcidCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Glycolysis Summary

    Also produces 2 NADH and 4 ATPPyruvate is oxidized to Acetyl CoA and CO2 is removedCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Glycolysis DiagramCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Fermentation Occurs when O2 NOT present (anaerobic)Called Lactic Acid fermentation in muscle cells (makes muscles tired)Called Alcoholic fermentation in yeast (produces ethanol)Nets only 2 ATPCopyright Cmassengale

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  • A Little Krebs Cycle HistoryDiscovered by Hans Krebs in 1937He received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1953 for his discoveryForced to leave Germany prior to WWII because he was JewishCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Krebs Cycle SummaryRequires Oxygen (Aerobic)Cyclical series of oxidation reactions that give off CO2 and produce one ATP per cycleTurns twice per glucose moleculeProduces two ATP Takes place in matrix of mitochondria

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  • Krebs Cycle SummaryEach turn of the Krebs Cycle also produces 3NADH, 1FADH2, and 2CO2Therefore, For each Glucose molecule, the Krebs Cycle produces 6NADH, 2FADH2, 4CO2, and 2ATPCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Krebs CycleATPNETS: 3NADH, 1ATP, 1FADH2, & 2CO2Copyright Cmassengale

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  • Electron Transport Chain Summary34 ATP ProducedH2O ProducedOccurs Across Inner Mitochondrial membraneUses coenzymes NAD+ and FAD+ to accept e- from glucoseNADH = 3 ATPsFADH2 = 2 ATPsCopyright Cmassengale

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  • Electron Transport Chain AnimationCopyright Cmassengale

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