Teamwork revised

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  1. 1. Organizational Behavior
  2. 2. Groups and teams
  3. 3. Differences between group and team Team is a group that generates positivesynergy through coordinated effort. Collective performance in a team may be morethan the sum of individual performance. A team is formed for a limited time. Team tasks require members to workinterdependently.
  4. 4. Types of team tasks1.Generative2.Executing3.Negotiating4.Decision making
  5. 5. Types of teams Problem solving teams: Members share ideas andoffer suggestions on how a situation or a processcan be improved. Self-managed teams: are groups of employeeswho perform interdependent tasks and take theresponsibilities of their actions. Self-managed teams may be involved inplanning, scheduling, assigning tasks tomembers, collective controlling, decision making,and even selecting their own members.
  6. 6. Types of teams (continued) Cross-functional teams: consist of employees from differentwork areas but with similar hierarchical levels who cometogether to accomplish a task. The main idea in forming cross-functional teams is that everyaspect of a clients work can be handled within one teaminstead of separate departments.
  7. 7. Types of teams (continued) Virtual teams: collaboration on-line. Virtual teams can be effective in manysituations. However, it may have limitations innon-verbal communications and usingemotional signs. Some have recommended using virtual teamsfor task-oriented jobs.
  8. 8. Important factors in forming a team Inspirational team leadership; Clarification of team tasks; designing different roles to cover all aspects of team tasks; Allocation of roles based on individuals strengths; Considering appropriate size (5-10) Composition/Diversity (gender, age, expertise, ethnicbackgrounds, cultural/industrial/departmental values and norms,etc.); Socialization and trust building.
  9. 9. Some important factors inteam effectiveness Team composition Groupthink Social loafing and free riding Cohesiveness Communication Shared mental models and teamlearning Collective efficacy
  10. 10. Team composition
  11. 11. Types of composition Personality Gender Age Education Functional specialization Experience Cultural background
  12. 12. Heterogeneous or indigenous? Group composition must be formedbased on the nature of the team. Diversity is appropriate for cognitiveand creativity-demanding tasks. Similarity is appropriate for specificexecutive tasks.
  13. 13. Deep-level composition variables as predictors of teamperformance: A meta-analysisSuzanne T Bell. Journal of Applied Psychology. Washington:May 2007. Vol. 92, Iss. 3; pg. 595.Abstract (Summary)This study sought to unify the team composition literature by using meta-analytic techniques to estimate the relationships between specified deep-level team composition variables (i.e., personality factors, values, abilities) and team performance. The strength of the team composition variable and team performance relationships was moderatedby the study setting (lab or field) and the operationalization of the team composition variable. In lab settings, team minimum and maximum general mental ability and team mean emotionalintelligence were related to team performance. Only negligible effects were observed in labsettings for the personality factor and team performance relationships, as well as the value andteam performance relationships.In contrast, team minimum agreeableness and team mean conscientiousness, openness toexperience, collectivism, and preference for teamwork emerged as strong predictors of teamperformance in field studies. Results can be used to effectively compose teams in organizations and guide future teamcomposition research.
  14. 14. Groupthink effect
  15. 15. What is groupthink? It describes situations in which grouppressure for conformity deter the groupfrom critically evaluating unusual,minority or unpopular views. It is related to group norms.
  16. 16. How to overcome groupthink? Intellectual stimulation Brainstorming Nominal group technique
  17. 17. Social loafing
  18. 18. What is social loafing? Consciously or unconsciously, individuals maynot exert as much effort in group settings aswhen they are alone. Social loafing is based on the de-individuationthat can occur when people work in groupsas opposed to working alone.
  19. 19. Important antecedents of social loafing Lack of identification and uniqueness of individual contributionto the group; Low intrinsic involvement; Individualistic orientation; Lack of peer appraisal; Large group size; Task visibility (hiding in the crowed); Distributive justice
  20. 20. Social loafing and expectancy theory Expectancy: A group member may realizethat other factors aside from their own effortwill influence his/her groups performance. Instrumentality: A group member may realizethat valued outcomes (rewards) are dividedamong all group members, and she/he maynot receive a fair share given his or her levelof effort.
  21. 21. Cohesiveness
  22. 22. Definition The degree to which members areattracted to each other and aremotivated to stay in the group. This is an important predictor of teameffectiveness when performance normsare high.
  23. 23. How to improve cohesiveness? Make the group smaller; Encourage agreement with group goals; Increase the time members spend together; Increase the status of the group and perceiveddifficulty of attaining membership in the group; Stimulate competition with other groups; Give reward to the group rather than individualmembers; Physically isolate the group.
  24. 24. Communication processSourceEncoding ChannelDecoding Receiver Feedback
  25. 25. Important forms ofcommunication Oral communication; Non-verbal communication; Written communication.Actions can impact a receiver more than spoken words(93%). Spoken words 7%Nonverbal symbols 93%
  26. 26. Barriers to effective communication Hearing instead of listening; Information overload; Selective perception; Using jargons; Dysfunctional emotions; Lack of attention to non-verbalcommunication.
  27. 27. Non-verbal communication Body language:(1) the extent to which an individuallikes another and interested in theirviews;(2) the relative perceived statusbetween a sender and a receiver. Eye contact 10% of the time with Asians; 75% of the time with Americans; 100% of the time with the French. Facial expression; Physical distance and space.
  28. 28. Physical distance and space Public zone (over 3.6m) Social zone (1.2-3.6m) Personal zone (46cm-1.2m) Intimate zone (15-46cm)
  29. 29. Shared mental models andteam learning
  30. 30. Mental models Mental models can be thought of asknowledge structures, images,assumptions, beliefs, and attitudes inan individuals cognitions. Mental models such as belief systems,implicit theories, and assumptions affectour reasoning and behaviour
  31. 31. Mental models in teams Cannon-Bowers and colleagues (1993)have proposed one of the most popularconceptual framework for differenttypes of mental models in the contextof teamwork. They considered mental models to bemultidimensional, and categorisedmultiple mental models into four types.
  32. 32. Types of mental models equipment models equipment functioning andlimitations, technologies task model: procedures, strategies,environmental constraints team interaction model: roles, responsibilities,expectations team model: team members knowledge andskills, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences
  33. 33. Shared mental model Shared mental model (or sharedcognition) may improve and facilitategroup work and coordination and mayresult in high group performance andeffectiveness.
  34. 34. What does shared mean?Two approaches have been proposed toconceptualise shared mental models: the similarities of members mental models(Cannon-Bowers & Salas, 2001). In addition to similarity, the extent to whichgroup members are familiar with each othersmental models and their differences andsimilarities (Klimoski & Mohammed, 1994;Kraiger & Wenzel, 1997).
  35. 35. How to develop shared mental models? Job rotation and cross-training Team training Role playing Team learning activities
  36. 36. Team learningTwo important team skills for team learning: Reflection refers to slowing down our thinkingprocesses to become more aware of how weform our mental models (Senge et al., 1994, p.237). Inquiry refers to holding conversations wherewe openly share views and develop knowledgeabout each others assumptions (p. 237).
  37. 37. Team learning and developing sharedmental models learning as modifying mental modelsand developing shared mental modelsneeds openness to oneself and to otherteam members (Gibson, 2001). dialogue is a vital process for grouplearning, and distinct from discussion.
  38. 38. Collective efficacy
  39. 39. Collective efficacy According to Bandura (1997),collective efficacy is defined as agroups shared belief in its conjointcapabilities to organize and executethe course of action required toproduce given levels of attainments(p. 477). Sources of collective efficacy can besimilar to sources of self-efficacy.
  40. 40. Sources of self-efficacy Mastery experiences: Successful experiences are likely to enhance self-efficacy, while failures may reduce self-efficacy. These are the most influentialsources of self-efficacy. Vicarious experiences: refer to those by which people appraise theircapabilities in relation to others attainments. The information acquired fromthese experiences is likely to be more influential for ones self-efficacy whenthe others are similar to the individual. Verbal persuasion: persuasion that one possesses certain capabilities canaffect self-efficacy. However, verbal persuasion may be ineffective when it isused alone and inconsistent with other source