Gardening sheets aug 2013

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Garden Information Sheets to accompany Aug 2013 'Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden' lecture


  • 1. Common Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus (sim-for-ee-KAR-poss AL-bus lev-ee-GATE-us) Family: Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family) Native to: Western N. America from British Columbia to CA; streambanks, riparian sites, moist clearings and forest edges, open forests to shady woods, shrublands and thickets, roadsides and other moist to seasonally moist places. Growth characteristics: woody shrub mature height: 3-6+ ft. mature width: 3-6+ ft. Spreading, winter-deciduous woody shrub with numerous erect to drooping branches. Shape may be mounding or climbing/trailing. Spreads by rhizomes; may form thickets in wet sites. Leaves are small, light green; bark tan-gray. Moderate growth rate; lives 30-40+ years in wild. Delicate look. Blooms/fruits: Blooms spring/summer (usually May-July in our area). Flowers are small, pink/white, superficially reminiscent of manzanita. Showy white fruits remain on branches throughout winter very unique and lovely. Fruits can be cooked and eaten better as a mild soap! Uses in the garden: Once a popular foundation plant. Quite nice as a tall groundcover, particularly on banks & slopes, along streambeds. Gives a woodsy feel to the garden. Fine in mixed shrub beds and under trees. Make good informal or formal (clipped) hedges or combined with other species in hedgerows. Great for large containers. Sensible substitute for: Non-native berry-producing shrubs like Cotoneaster. Attracts: Excellent habitat plant. Provides cover and berries for birds (but often not their first choice). Pollinators, including hummingbirds, enjoy the flowers. Deer eat the foliage. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun (cooler gardens) to full shade; part-shade probably optimal. Soil Just about any, including heavy clays; any local pH: 6.0-8.0 Water Best with some summer water (Zone 2 or 2/3) but quite adaptable once established. Fine with winter flooding. Fertilizer Fine with an organic mulch; low needs. Other Management: Quite easy to grow. Remove suckers to control spread. Can be sheared or pruned, if desired, during winter dormancy. Propagation: from seed: fresh seed best; clean by cuttings: suckers, hard-wood, semi-softwood Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 6, 7, 8, 9, 13 10/29/08 Project SOUND

2. * Oregon Grape Mahonia (Berberis) aquifolium (ma-HOE-nee-uh a-kwi-FOE-lee-um) Family: Berberidaceae (Barberrry Family) Native to: Western N. America from N. Mexico to British Columbia; locally, in the San Gabriel Mtns. On slopes and in canyons in coniferous forest, oak woodland and chaparral. Growth characteristics: woody shrub mature height: 3-6+ ft. mature width: 2-6 ft. Upright, mound-shaped evergreen shrub. Stems are stiff, often un-branched. Leaves are stiff, dark green, leathery and holly-like. Quite showy. Moderate growth rate and lifespan (20+ years). Produces suckers from rhizomes. Blooms/fruits: Blooms early late winter to early spring. Flowers are bell-shaped, butter-yellow, in showy clusters. Flowers have sweet fragrance like honey. Fruits are dark blue, grape-like, ripening in summer. Fruits are tart can be eaten raw or used for juice, syrup or jellies. Uses in the garden: Most often used as an ornamental accent shrub or foundation plant. Works well as a hedge, particularly in shady areas. Can be used as a tall groundcover. Roots and bark make a bright yellow dye. Good for fall/winter leaf color. Cultivar Compactum is smaller (to 3 ft.). Sensible substitute for: Non-native hollies and other shrubs with unusual foliage. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: fruit-eating birds love the berries. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Part-shade to full shade. Soil Just about any, including heavy clays. Any local pH fine. Water Moist to dry (Zones 2 to 3). Fertilizer Light fertilizer fine Other Likes an organic mulch. Management: Prune out old stems and undesired suckers. Other than that, easy to grow. Propagation: from seed: cold/moist treatment by cuttings: hard & soft-wood, divisions Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 7-9, 11, 13, 14, 20, 28 2/17/11 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. county Project SOUND 3. *Pink Meadowsweet Spiraea splendens (spy-REE-uh SPLEN-dens ) Family: Rosaceae (Rose Family) Native to: Pacific Northwest from N. CA and Sierras to WA. ID; wet, open meadows, wooded or open, rocky slopes, stream banks in Yellow Pine Forest, Red Fir Forest, Lodgepole Forest, Subalpine Forest from 2000 to 11,000 ft. elevation. Growth characteristics: shrub/sub-shrub mature height: 2-4+ ft. mature width: 3-5 ft. Erect to mounding low shrub or sub-shrub. Winter-deciduous. Leaves simple, ovate and medium green. Plant spreads; may form dense thickets in favorable conditions. Bark red-brown, attractive. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in summer June-August. Flowers medium to bright pink, small in dense mounded clusters at the ends of branches. Very showy looks like a garden plant. Similar to other Spiraeas used in gardens world-wide. Flowers have light, sweet fragrance. Uses in the garden: Often used in woodland gardens or as a butterfly plant. Makes an attractive specimen plant or tall groundcover. Pretty in a large container or planter. Good filler around trees and shrubs requiring moderate to regular water. Lovely addition to pink-red themed garden. Sensible substitute for: Non-native sub-shrubs and flowering perennials. Attracts: Excellent butterfly plant: good nectar source for range of butterflies. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun (regular water) to part-shade; afternoon shade in hot gardens. Soil Most local soils; wide pH range. Water Regular water (Water Zones 2-3) to occasional water (Zone 2) in part-shade. Fertilizer Light doses OK; will spread with more. Other Organic mulch (leaf or bark) recommended. Management: Fairly garden tolerant. May need to contain or remove unwanted stems. Propagation: from seed: 1 mo. cold-moist treatment by cuttings: easy from cutting, off-shoots Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 8, 13 8/1/13 Project SOUND 4. * Western Columbine Aquilegia formosa (a-kwi-LEE-jee-a for-MOH-suh) Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family) Native to: Much of western N. America from AK to Baja. In CA, many areas but not on the southern coast; moist places in many plant communities including, Chaparral, Mixed-evergreen Forest and Riparian Woodland (along rivers & creeks; near lakes). Growth characteristics: herbaceous perennial mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. Mounded herbaceous perennial that dies back to the ground with summer drought (will be evergreen with some water). Leaves blue-green, delicate, almost fern-like. Very attractive foliage. Note: seeds and roots of all Columbines are toxic when eaten. Blooms/fruits: Blooms spring-summer; usually May-July in western L.A. county. Flowers are very attractive, large and typical for columbines. Flowers are red and yellow, held on slender stems. This is a very showy plant in bloom and the flowers attract hummingbirds. Uses in the garden: Best in a woodland garden, where it benefits from partial shade. Great under trees, including in the dry shade under native oaks. Great for north-facing walls. Lovely massed or as single specimen plant. Grow it where you can enjoy the flowers and the hummingbird visitors. Plants were used medicinally in small quantities by Native Californians. Sensible substitute for: Non-native columbines; other shade-loving perennials. Attracts: Excellent hummingbird habitat. Small seed-eating birds such as sparrows and Juncos enjoy the seeds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Part-shade to quite shady; great in dappled sun Soil Well-drained soils best (in nature grows in rocky soils) but will tolerate clays; pH: 4.0-8.0 (any local soil, including those amended to acidify) Water Best with regular water (Zone 2-3) but will take Zone 2 (occasional water); tolerates winter flooding in well-drained soils. Fertilizer Fine with an organic mulch (leaf mulch) Other Management: Easy to grow. Prune flower stalks to the ground in early spring. Self-sows freely; deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings. Propagation: from seed: easy. Dont cover seed. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, 24 1/31/11 * Native to CA but not to Western L.A. Co. Project SOUND 5. Island Alumroot Heuchera maxima (HOY (HEW)-ker-uh MAKS-ih-muh ) Family: Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage Family) Native to: Northern Channel Islands; primarily on moist, shady, north-facing canyon bottoms, walls, and seacliffs in chaparral, coastal sage scrub. Growth characteristics: clumping perennial rush mature height: 1-3 ft. mature width: 1-3 ft. The lobed, heart-shaped green leaves form a basal clump and are often mottled with gray or pale green markings. Leaves have long stalks (petioles) and are hairy. Leaf edges coarsely toothed. Blooms/fruits: Blooms late winter to mid-spring. Numerous small white/pink bell-shaped flowers on stalk held above the foliage. Hybrids between H maxima and H sanguinea range in color from light to blight pink, magenta very showy. Hybrids include 'Genevieve' (rose-magenta), 'Opal' (white), 'Santa Ana Cardinal' (large red), 'Susanna' (red), and 'Wendy' (pink) all developed at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Hybrids are readily available (see sources). Uses in the garden: Often used as a groundcover, but also nice in woodland and shade gardens or borders, along paths or in containers , and for cut flowers. Excellent under trees, including oaks. Sensible substitute for: Non-native periwinkle (Vinca major) and ivy (English & Algerian; Hedera) Attracts: Excellent habitat plant for bees and hummingbirds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun on the coast, part to full shade anywhere Soil Well-drained soils; any pH except very acidic Water regular water to establish, then water 2-4 times per month to keep nice looking in summer. Very drought tolerant in shade, but wont look as nice without water. Fertilizer Light application of organic fertilizers or mulch Other Management: Mulch, remove spend flower stalks for prolonged bloom and looks. Usually need dividing every four or five years (when blooming decreases). Divisions best done in early Spring. Plant self-seeds. Propagation: from seed: in spring by divisions: easy in early spring before growth spurt. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 3, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 20, 24 2/16/11 * CA native plant but not native to Western L.A. Co. Project SOUND 6. *Modesty/Common Whipplea Whipplea modesta ( WHIP-lee-uh mo-DES-tuh) Family: Philadelphaceae (Mock Orange Family) / Hydrangaceae (Hydrangea family) Native to: Northwest coast of N. America from Monterey County to WA; grows in a variety of settings in Redwood Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Yellow Pine Forest including in open or shady places, dry and rocky slopes, bare patched (balds) at less than 4600 feet. Growth characteristics: vine or sub-shrub mature height: 1-3+ ft. mature width: 3-5 ft. Usually a trailing/sprawling vine-like sub-shrub; widely variable depending on light, moisture. Evergreen with regular water; semi-deciduous otherwise. Leaves simple, medium green, aromatic. Stems are many-branched and will root in bare soil. Often forms dense groundcover in nature. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring March to June. Flowers small, white in dense clusters at the ends of branches. Lovely woodsy, delicate appearance. Uses in the garden: Best used as a groundcover in moist areas of garden. Fine in shady areas and on slopes. Combines well with Heucheras, Douglas Iris, Tellima grandiflora, North Coastal shrubs. Sensible substitute for: Non-native groundcovers like Ivy. Attracts: Good bird habitat: provides cover and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Part-shade to fairly shady in our area. Soil Well-drained soils best; native soils are rocky, slightly acidic (pH 5.0-7.0) Water Best with regular to occasional water (Water Zones 2 to 3) in S. CA. Fertilizer Ok with light fertilizer. Other Likes organic mulch leaf mulch best. Management: Easy to manage. Remove unwanted stems as needed. Propagation: from seed: no pre-treatment by cuttings: easy by layering, rooted cuttings. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 8, 11, 13 8/1/13 Project SOUND 7. *Brown Sedge Carex subfusca (CARE-ex sub-FUSS-kuh ) Family: Cyperaceae (Sedge Family) Native to: Much of western Northern America. In CA, mostly in mountain ranges locally in San Gabriel Mtns; seasonally moist mountain meadows, along watercourses in Douglas-Fir Forest, Yellow Pine Forest, Subalpine Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Southern Oak Woodland, Foothill Woodland, N. coastal Chaparral between 200 and 12,000 feet . Growth characteristics: spreading perennial sedge mature height: < 1 ft. mature width: 2-4+ ft. Grass-like sedge with dark green leaves. Spreads by rhizomes to form dense, lawn-like mat. Leaves narrow, upright. Evergreen with regular water. Blooms/fruits: Blooms in spring. Flowers are more showy than most sedges. Flowering clusters are dense, larger than many local sedges. Browning seeds are attractive. Uses in the garden: Useful as a green lawn substitute, particularly in areas with little foot traffic. Attractive sedge around garden ponds, rain gardens, dry swales. Combine with other local wetland species for a wet meadow. Fine for high and lower elevations. Sensible substitute for: Non-native sedges, ornamental grasses, pond plants. Attracts: Excellent bird habitat: provides cover and seeds for food. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun (regular water) to quite shady. Soil Most local soils; pH 5.0-8.0. Water Wide range of tolerance; best with moderate to regular water (Water Zones 2 to 3). Fertilizer Fine with occasional, low-dose fertilizer. Other Organic mulch (leaf mulch; bark chips). Management: Plants will spread consider containing. Other than that, easy to grow in wide range of light and water conditions. Propagation: from seed: yes by cuttings: easy by divisions. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 3, 9, 11, 13 8/1/13 Project SOUND 8. * Lilac (Cedros Island) Verbena Verbena lilacina (ver-BEE-nuh lie-luh-SEE-nuh) Family: Verbenaceae (Verbena Family) Native to: Endemic to Cedros Island off the coast of Baja California. Canyons & bluffs in ocean- influenced desert scrub. Growth characteristics: perennial shrub mature height: 2-4 ft. mature width: 3-5 ft. Dense, rounded shrub with lacy leaves and up-curving branches. Gray-green foliage is evergreen with water; drought deciduous. Contained growth habit with yearly pruning neat looking. Blooms/fruits: Blooms Apr-Sept. Very showy. Small lilac blossoms on stems above foliage. Long blooming period flowers continue to open up the stem. Flowers have a spicy scent. Uses in the garden: Many uses for this attractive plant. Good in mixed beds, containers, planters. Fine choice for foundation plant or on banks & slopes. Even does great in hanging baskets. Place where you can enjoy the scent and the butterfly visitors. Reliable bloomer to span the seasons. Sensible substitute for: Non-native shrubs with lilac flowers. Attracts: Excellent butterfly plant youll always have summer butterflies visiting. Birds also eat seeds. Requirements: Element Requirement Sun Full sun best; light shade also ok Soil Any well-drained soil; clays require very careful watering. Water Little to moderate. Tolerates some summer water (perhaps every other week) better than many natives. Fertilizer None needed Other Organic mulch fine Management: Easy to grow. Looks best with yearly pruning to shape. Can lightly shear in summer to promote more dense foliage. Propagation: from seed: yes by cuttings: probably; likely requires moist conditions for rooting. Plant/seed sources (see list for source numbers): 1, 8, 11, 13, 14 2/15/11 * Native to Baja CA Project SOUND