Energy Behaviour and Smart Meters

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Simon Moser gave some insights into the Austrian experience with changing behaviour using smart meter rollouts. At the IEA DSM Task 24 workshop in Graz, Austria October 13, 2014.

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<ul><li><p>Energy Efficiency &amp; User BehaviourIEA DSM Task 24</p><p>Energy Efficiency and Behavioral Change</p><p>Energy Behaviour and Smart Meter</p><p>Simon MoserEnergy Institute at the Johannes Kepler University of Linz</p><p>moser@energieinstitut-linz.at</p><p>Graz/Austria, 2014-10-13</p></li><li><p>Content</p><p> The smart meter</p><p> Microeconomic theory</p><p> Providing the smart meters information</p><p> Field test results &amp; biases</p><p> Persistence of savings</p><p>2</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p></li><li><p>The smart meter</p><p> The smart meter</p><p> Meter readings: frequently or near real time</p><p> Able to communicate</p><p> Advantages when installed: uncomplicated provision of data automated use of and functions</p><p>3</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p></li><li><p>Microeconomic theory Asymmetric information inefficient quantities</p><p> Bill: Price and quantity (kWh) per year Price for the quantity (kWh) Quantity (kWh) for the sum of actions</p><p> Missing information: price for one action</p><p> Consumption information based on frequent meter readings: Interval (daily / hourly) or real time consumption = hint for kWh/action</p><p> No evidence on actual consumption</p><p> No price connected (fix price components remain)</p><p> Feedback theoretically leads to more efficient consumption Adoptions in behaviour of energy/electricity consumption Adoptions in appliance stock (which in turn is consumption behaviour) 4</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p></li><li><p>Providing the smart meters information</p><p>5</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>Medium xy xz Seriousness of informationReal Time </p><p>InformationPersistency of </p><p>impact</p><p>Postal Mail</p><p>E-Mail</p><p>Website</p><p>App (Tablet)</p><p>App (Smartphone)</p><p>SMS</p><p>Callcenter</p><p>In-House-Display</p><p>Meters display</p><p>Ambient Equipment</p></li><li><p>Field test results International results</p><p> meta study from Sarah Darby (ECI Oxford) 2,5 % savings due to IHD in UK households (real life) Rather incomparable to other countries (Consumption volumes, appliances, )</p><p> Region Germany Austria Switzerland (number of studies reviewed = 10)</p><p>6</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>Medium &lt; 2 % 2 5 % &gt; 5 %</p><p>Monthly Mail 1 2 1*</p><p>Website 1 4 1*</p><p>In-House-Display 1 4 1*</p><p>Ambient Equipment 1 - -</p><p> Many problems with biases like selection of participants, number of participants, methodsof calculation</p><p> * 11% by combining website, app and mail. However: no provision of n and CI</p><p>Kollmann, Moser, de Bruyn, Schwarz, Fehringer (2013): Smart Metering in the Contextof Smart Grids. Final project report, in German.</p></li><li><p>Biases of field test results</p><p> Participants = persons interested When feedback is provided, they are more engaged than average people Thus the observed impact is higher than what the impact would be in the </p><p>whole/real population</p><p> Participants = persons interested As they are interested, participants had known about loads, appliance </p><p>consumption etc. and had already adopted their consumption patterns and appliances even before the feedback was provided </p><p> When feedback is provided, they are also more engaged than average people but find less opportunities.</p><p> Thus the observed impact is lower than what the impact would be in the whole/real population</p><p> Same starting point, different results only little empirical evidence on biases 7</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p></li><li><p>Persistency of savings People look at the In-House-Display for 3 months and then they are not </p><p>interested any more.</p><p> Results on persistency in load shift experiments are ambiguous CONSTANT</p><p> Savings due to Critical Peak Pricing: 12% in year 1, 13% in year 2 (Faruqui and Sergici, 2010) Constant savings in test period (eTelligence, Agsten et al., 2012) Interest remained in year 2 (Smart-A, Kollmann et al., 2014) Manual reactions in response to real-time pricing remained for a long period (Hillemacher et </p><p>al., 2013) Constant participation (Karg et al., 2013) </p><p> REDUCED Participation decreases to 33% after 3 months (Frey, 2013) Many expert interviews mention decreasing interest</p><p> Is any more interest necessary after behaviour and appliances are adopted?8</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p></li><li><p>Thank you for your attention!</p><p>9</p><p>m</p><p>o</p><p>s</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>@</p><p>e</p><p>n</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>g</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>s</p><p>t</p><p>i</p><p>t</p><p>u</p><p>t</p><p>-</p><p>l</p><p>i</p><p>n</p><p>z</p><p>.</p><p>a</p><p>t</p><p>Simon MoserEnergy Institute at the Johannes Kepler </p><p>University of Linz</p><p>moser@energieinstitut-linz.atT: +43 732 2468 5658</p></li></ul>