This presentation based from Jennifer M. George and Gareth R. Jones book, with title "Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior". Use Ms. Power Point 2013.
<ul><li> 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORPERSONALITY & ABILITYGROUP1SURAHMAH KURNIA (461 11 042)MULANI (461 11 045)ANGELA PUTRINY M (461 11 035)INDAYANI PAULA (461 11 040)</li></ul><p> 2. TEXT EXPAND INTERNETFACTCOMMERCIALMEDIA TALENTCOMMERCIALTOWERCOMMERCIALTALENTVIDEO TEXTDIVERSEFOLLOWVIDEODATARISKSPEEDPERSONALITYIMPROVEENGAGEINTERFACEANDCONSUME BUSINESSABILITYBUSINESSCOMMERCIALTEXTRISKAPPLICATIONSPEED INTERNETCAPITALMIRRORINFORMATIONRESOURCEVIDEOMEDIAECONOMICDIVERSEYESNOTRAININGTOWERLEADDESIGNCOMMERCIALIMPROVEFACTFICTIONEXPANDUNITEDENGAGEWEBNETWORKSOCIALBLOGTEXTAPPLICATIONSPEEDINTERNETNEWSCONSUME SECRETCAPITALRESOURCEMEDIAECONOMICYES NOTRAININGTOWERCOMMERCIALLEADFOLLOWDESIGNIMPROVEFACTFICTIONEXPANDUNITEDENGAGEWEBNETWORKMIRRORBLOGFICTIONINTERNET TEXTDATANOTELEVISIONTIMECLOCK WORLDDIGITALADVERTSMARTPHONEEDUCATIONTALENTPHONESPEEDINTERNETDATADIVERSETRAININGFICTIONWEBTEXTSPEEDRISKINTERNETDATAECONOMICDIVERSEYESNOTRAININGCOMMERCIALLEADWEBNETWORKWORLDTALENTMEDIACLOCKYESNO NETWORKTOWERBLOGFICTIONEXPANDTEXTINTERNETDIGITALINFORMATIONSECRETSTUDYKNOWLEDGEVIDEOENGAGENO TOWERSPEED TEXTINTERNETDATA DIVERSETRAININGFICTIONWEBTEXTRISKINTERNETDATA ECONOMIC DIVERSEYESNODEVELOPMENTTOWERLEADIMPROVEWEBNETWORKWORLDMEDIAFACTCLOCK YESNETWORKBLOGFICTIONEXPANDTEXTINTERNETDIGITALINFORMATIONSECRETSTUDYKNOWLEDGEVIDEO TRAININGCLOCKNO YESTOWERFACTNETWORKBLOGFICTIONDIGITALINFORMATIONSECRETINTERNETTOWERENGAGEVIDEOLANGUAGE 3. CONTENT OF SUBJECT 4. OVERVIEW Each member of an organization has his or her own style and ways of behaving. Effectivelyworking with others requires an understanding and appreciation of how people differ from oneanother. Indra Nooyi, for example, is persistent and determined, open to new experiences,and sociable and affectionate, qualities that have contributed to her success as CEO ofPepsiCo. In order to effectively work with Nooyi, it is important that Nooyis subordinates andcolleagues understand what she is like and what is important to her. In this chapter, we focus on individual differences, the ways in which people differ from eachother. Managers need to understand individual differences because they have an impact onthe feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of each member of an organization. 5. OVERVIEW . .. Individual differences may be grouped into two categories: Personality differences Differences in ability We focus on the nature, meaning, and determinants of personality and on the waysthat personality and situational factors combine to influence feelings, thoughts, andbehavior in organizations. We discuss specific personality traits that are particularlyrelevant to organizational behavior. We then turn our attention to differences inability. After describing various types of ability, we discuss the key issue formanagers: how ability can be managed to ensure that employees can effectivelyperform their jobs. 6. The Nature of PersonalityPeoples personalities can be described in a variety of ways.Some people seem to be perfectionists; they can be critical,impatient, demanding, and intense. Other kinds of people aremore relaxed and easygoing. You may have friends orcoworkers who always seem to have something to smile aboutand are fun to be around. Or perhaps you have friends orcoworkers who are shy and quiet; they are hard to get to knowand may sometimes seem dull. In each of these examples, weare describing what people are generally like without referringto their specific feelings, thoughts, and behaviors in any givensituation.Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways that aperson feels, thinks, and behaves. Personality is an importantfactor in accounting for why employees act the way they do inorganizations and why they have favorable or unfavorableattitudes toward their jobs and organizations. 7. The Nature of Personality . . . A manager who understands this interaction can capitalize on the personality strengths(creativity and achievement orientation) that propel Greene to develop successfuladvertising campaigns. The manager can also guard against the possibility of clients havinga negative reaction to Greenes shyness by teaming him up for presentations with agregarious executive whose strong suit is pitching campaigns to clients. If Greenes managerdid not understand how Greenes personality and the situation interacted to shapeGreenes performance, the advertising agency might lose clients because of Greenesinability to relate to them effectively and convince them of the merits of his campaigns. Effective managers recognize that the various situations and personality types interact todetermine feelings, thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors at work. An understanding ofemployees personalities and the situations in which they perform best enables a managerto help employees perform at high levels and feel good about the work they are doing. 8. Diversity Is NOT Affirmative ActionDiversityFOCUS ON DIVERSITYAffirmative Action A purposeful, establishedprogram Narrow focus Legal requirement Compensate for pastdiscrimination Controversial May exist without aprogram Broad focus Not legally based Create a positive workenvironment Generally accepted 9. General purposeof affirmative action compensate for pastdiscrimination prevent ongoingdiscrimination provide equal opportunitiesto all, regardless of race,color, religion, gender, ornational originof diversity no one is advantaged ordisadvantaged we is everyone everyone can do his or herbest work differences are respected andnot ignored everyone feels comfortableDIVERSITY . . . 10. Surface-Level DiversityAgeRace/EthnicityPersonality AttitudesDeep-Level DiversityValues/BeliefsGenderPhysicalCapabilitiesDIVERSITY LEVEL 11. Personality: A Determinant of theNature of Organizations Ben Schneider, a prominent organizational researcher at the University ofMaryland, has come up with an interesting view of the way in which personalitydetermines the nature of whole organizations. He calls his schema theattraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework. He suggests that individuals with similar personalities tend to be attracted to anorganization (attraction) and hired by it (selection), and individuals with othertypes of personalities tend to leave the organization (attrition). As a result of theinterplay of attraction, selection, and attrition, there is some consistency orsimilarity of personalities within an organization, and this typical personalitydetermines the nature of the organization itself. 12. The Big Five Model of PersonalityBig FiveModel of PersonalityOpenness to ExperienceConscientiousnessExtroversionAgreeableNeuroticismCaptures the extent to which an individual is original, open to a wide variety ofstimuli, has broad interests, and is willing to take risks as opposed to being narrow-mindedand cautious.The extent to which an individual is careful, scrupulous, and persevering.Individuals high on conscientiousness are organized and have a lot of self-discipline.A personality trait that predisposes individuals to experience positive emotionalstates and feel good about themselves and about the world around them.The trait that captures the distinction between individuals who get along well withother people and those who do not.Reflects peoples tendencies to experience negative emotional states, feeldistressed, and generally view themselves and the world around them negatively. 13. http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive 14. Other Organizationally RelevantPersonality TraitsSeveral other specific personality traitsare relevant to understanding andmanaging behavior in Organization:Organizationally relevantpersonality traits.Locus ControlSelf-monitoringSelf-esteemType A and TypeB personalityNeed forachievementNeed for affiliationNeed for power 15. LOCUS OF CONTROLExternals, or individuals with an external locus of control, tend tobelieve outside forces are largely responsible for their fate, and theysee little connection between their own actions and what happensto them. Internals, or individuals with an internal locus of control,think their own actions and behaviors have an impact on whathappens to them.In organizations, internals are more easily motivated than externals.Internals do not need as much direct supervision because they tendto believe their work behaviors influence important outcomes suchas how well they perform their jobs and the pay increases, praise,job security, and promotions they receive. 16. SELF MONITORINGSelf-monitoring is the extent to which people try to control the way they presentthemselves to others. High self-monitors want their behavior to be sociallyacceptable and are attuned to any social cues that signal appropriate orinappropriate behavior. They strive to behave in a situationally appropriate manner.In contrast, low self-monitors are not particularly sensitive to cues indicatingacceptable behavior, nor are they overly concerned about behaving in asituationally appropriate manner. People who are low self-monitors are guided bytheir own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and principles and are not too concernedabout what others think of their behaviors.High self-monitors are more likely than low self-monitors to tailor their behavior to fit agiven situation.Low self-monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to say what they think is trueor correct and are not overly concerned about how others will react to them 17. SELF ESTEEMSelf-esteem is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and theircapabilities.Self-esteem has several implications for understanding behavior inorganizations. Self-esteem influences peoples choices of activities and jobs.Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than individuals with low self-esteemto choose challenging careers and jobs. Once they are on the job,individuals with high self-esteem may set higher goals for themselves and bemore likely to tackle difficult tasks. High self-esteem also has a positive impacton motivation and job satisfaction. 18. TYPE A AND TYPE B PERSONALITYIndividuals who are Type A have an intense desire to achieve, are extremelycompetitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be hostile. Theyoften interrupt other people and sometimes finish their sentences for thembecause they are so impatient. More relaxed and easygoing individuals arelabeled Type B. Type As would seem to be ideal employees from theorganizations perspective, especially in situations in which a lot of work needs tobe done in a short amount of time. However, because they can be difficult toget along with, Type As may not be effective in situations that require a lot ofinteraction with others. Type A managers were more likely to have conflicts withtheir subordinates and with coworkers than were Type B managers. 19. NEEDS FOR ACHIEVEMENTIndividuals with a high need for achievement have a special desire toperform challenging tasks well and to meet their own personal standards forexcellence. They like to be in situations in which they are personallyresponsible for what happens, like to set clear goals for themselves, arewilling to take personal responsibility for outcomes, and like to receiveperformance feedback. 20. NEED FOR AFFILIATIONIndividuals with a high need for affiliation are especially concerned aboutestablishing and maintaining good relations with other people. They likeworking in groups, tend to be sensitive to other peoples feelings, and avoidtaking actions that would result in interpersonal conflict. In organizations,individuals with a high need for affiliation are especially likely to be found injobs that require a lot of social interaction. Individuals with a high need foraffiliation may also be less effective in situations in which they need toevaluate others because it may be hard for them to give negative feedbackto a coworker or a subordinatea task that might disrupt interpersonalrelations. 21. NEED FOR POWERIndividuals with a high need for power have a strong desire toexert emotional and behavioral control or influence overothers. These individuals are especially likely to be found inmanagerial jobs and leadership positions, which require oneperson to exert influence over others. Individuals with a highneed for power may actually be more effective as leadersthan those with a low need for power. 22. THE NATURE OF ABILITYAbility has important implications for understanding and managing organizational behavior.Two basic types of ability affect performance are cognitive or mental ability and physicalability. 23. COGNITIVE ABILITYThe most general dimension of cognitive ability is general intelligence Eight types of cognitive ability identified and described by psychologist, Jum Nunnally :GeneralIntelligenceVerbal AbilityNumericalabilityReasoningAbilityDeductiveabilityAbility to seerelationshipsAbility torememberSpacial abilityPerceptualability 24. Ability Description Examples of jobs in which theability is especially importantVerbal ability Ability to understand and use written and spokenlanguageComedians, teachers, lawyers,writersNumericalabilityAbility to solve arithmetic problems and deal withnumbersWaiters, investment bankers,engineers, accountantsReasoningabilityAbility to come up with solutions for problems andunderstand the principles by which different problemscan be solvedTherapists, interior designers, carmechanics, computer softwaredesignersDeductiveabilityAbility to reach appropriate conclusions from anarray of observations or evaluate the implications of aseries of factsMedical researchers, detectives,scientists,investigative reportersAbility to seerelationshipsThe ability to see how two things are related to eachother and then apply this knowledge to otherrelationships and solutionsAnthropologists, travel agents,consultants, wedding plannersCOGNITIVE ABILITY . . . 25. Ability Description Examples of jobs in which theability is especially importantAbility torememberAbility to recall things ranging from simpleassociations to complex groups of statements orsentencesTranslators, salespeople,managers, researchersSpatial ability Ability to determine the location or arrangement ofobjects in relation to ones own position and toimagine how an object would appear if its position inspace were alteredAir traffic controllers, architects,clothing designers, astronautsPerceptual Ability to uncover visual patterns and seerelationships within and across patternsProfessional photographers,airplane pilots, cruise shipcaptains, landscape designersCOGNITIVE ABILITY . . . 26. PHYSICAL ABILITYTwo types of physical abilities are motor and physical skills. A motor skill is the ability to physically manipulate objects in an environment. A physical skill is a persons fitness and strength. 27. WHERE DO ABILITIES COME FROM??Like personality, both cognitive ability and physical ability are determined bynature and nurture, General intelligence is determined by the genes we inheritfrom our parents (nature) and by situational factors (nurture). 28. EMOTION...</p>