Explain/give reasons: You are now being asked to say why something you have already described is happening. Use because to help you answer these questions. There are often two marks awarded for giving just one reason. Where this happens you will be expected to give a simple statement and its elaboration.Command words tell you exactly what type of information the examiner wants.Compare: Write what is similar and different between two pieces of information. Use the word whereas to help you compare.
Describe: Just write what you see. You may be asked to describe what you see on a photo, graph or map. Do not explain if you are only asked to describe.
Justify: You could be asked to justify a decision you have made. Explain your choices in terms of why they are better than other options open to you.
Suggest: This is similar to explain but tells you that you are expected to bring in ideas and understanding of our own and is not provided on the paper.
What is meant by?: You are being asked to give a definition of a geographical term. You must know the main terms for each of the four Units. When asked for a definition, giving an example is not enough.Measure: You may be asked to measure on a map or graph. Dont guess measure accurately using the scale provided.
Papers One & Two Each paper is 90 minutes long and has 90 marks. Once you have chosen a question to answer out of each pair, you will have a little less than one minute per mark. Your examiners will not expect you to write more. Go straight to the point dont waffle. Be guided by the marks in brackets as to how many points you need to make.Papers Three & FourEach of these papers is also 90 minutes long but has only 60 marks, so there should be less pressure on time. You will be given advice at the start of each of the three parts it is divided into as to how long you should spend on it. Make sure that you keep to these times.The final problem-solving task is in two parts, a table to help you organise your ideas and a final letter or report to write. When completing both, use elaborated statements. They will gain marks.The 2007 Geography exams tests the four units as follows:Papers One & TwoWater, Landforms and PeopleClimate, Environment and PeoplePeople, Work and DevelopmentPapers Three & FourPeople and Place
What is the difference between the two exams?The idea of Papers Three and Four is to ask you to solve a problem. In the early parts of the paper you will be introduced to a place and a problem to be solved. You will then be given a number of possible solutions. Your final task on the paper will be to write what you would do and then justify the decisions you have made. The final task is in two parts: a table to help you organise your ideas. When filling in the table, make sure you use elaborated, so what statements. They will help you gain marks and will make it easier to build up your letter or report to describe and explain the decisions you have made
Flashcards: On small cards, summarise a case study into one (or both) sides of the cards and refer to it regularly. Make sure that you include key facts and number as you condense the case study to fit the card. Colour coding: colour code large pieces of text into sections. For example, it could be the social, economic and environmental impacts of the London Docklands Redevelopment Memory tests: You could look at an important diagram (erg the cross section of a meander) for 20 seconds, then cover it over and draw what you remember. Then give yourself another 20 seconds to see what you missed and add it in. Eventually, you will be able to draw the sketch without looking at a copy. Key words test: You could ask someone to read out 10 definitions and you have to say what the key word is. Then you could try it the other way around which is harder with someone giving you a key word to define. Spider diagrams (mind maps): Write a key theme in the centre of an A3 piece of paper. Write the sub-themes around it with important ideas and case studies to back them up. Look at the example of migration on the next page to help you. Stick your finished spider diagram somewhere visible where you will be able to refer to it often (e.g. fridge door, bedroom wall). Take a look at the migration spiderdiagram on the next page! Practice exam questions: Look at the examples of past case study questions. Practice writing responses to these questions using the flashcards or colour coded case studies you have created. Summarising: Condense a section of text into a set number of bullet points. Reading aloud: Read a case study summary aloud, then try to say aloud all the facts and figures you remember without the summary. You could also read your keyword lists aloud. Repeated writing: Copy out pieces of information more than one time (five times would be appropriate). The repetition will help you to fix the facts in your memory.But I dont know how to revise! Here are some strategies you could use
MigrationRural-urban migrationPush factors: things that encourage, and sometimes force, people to leave the countryside
not enough jobs lack of investment few opportunities lack of food political fears modern machinery means fewer farmers needed lose jobs poor facilities e.g. schools, hospitals crop failure due to natural disasters such as floods and droughts overpopulationPull factors: things that attract people to the city
more jobs better housing education and medical care bright lights entertainment better way of life more chance of a good water supply and more reliable food supply life expectancy is longerThe movement of people from the countryside to the city (usually LEDCs)CounterurbanisationThe process by which people move away from the major cities to smaller settlements, often villages (usually MEDCs).
Employment: industry declined in inner cities and move to edge-of-city and rural sites. People move for promotion or simply to find a job Housing: people move away from the city for large, modern houses with garages and gardens Environmental factors: move away from noise, air and visual pollution created by increased traffic in cities to quieter, less polluted places with open space Social factors: move away because of increased crime rates and poorer educational facilities Forced migration: when people have no choice and either have to, or are made, to move.
natural disasters e.g. earthquakes man-made disasters e.g. war and ethnic cleansing overpopulation or a lack of resources, causing famine racial discrimination or religious and political persecution government schemes e.g. building of a damVoluntary migration: when people choose to move
improve standard of living e.g. better jobs improve quality of life e.g. retiring to live in warmer climate good services and amenities e.g. schools, hospitals, entertainment to be with friends or relativesEmigrants: people who leave a countryImmigrants: people who arrive in a country
Water, Landforms and People: KeywordsAbrasion (or corrasion): Erosion caused by the rubbing and scouring action of rock fragments carried by rivers.Alluvium: Fine soil left behind after a river floods; also called silt.Attrition: Erosion caused when rocks and boulders, transported by rivers and waves, bump into each other and break up into smaller pieces.Condensation: The cooling of a gas so that it changes into a liquid, for instance as water vapour cools, it condenses to become water droplets, which, when heavy enough, fall as rain. Confluence: The point where two rivers meet.Delta: A build up of sediment at the point where a river meets a sea or lake, due to the water velocity slowing and the river having less energy to carry the sediment. Deposition: The laying down of material carried by rivers or waves.Discharge: The amount of water in a river at a given time, usually measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second)Drainage Basin: The area of land drained by a major river and its tributaries. Also called a river basin.Drought: A prolonged period of weather that is drier than usual.Embankment: A raised riverbank built to prevent or reduce floodingErosion: The wearing away of the land by material carried by rivers and waves.Estuary: The point at which a river begins to meet the sea. The river will be tidal, meaning that it will have both salt water and fresh water in it. Evaporation: The process by which liquid, such as water, changes to water vapour when it is warmed.Evapotranspiration: The loss of moisture from water surfaces and the soil (evaporation) and vegetation (transpiration).Flood: The flow of water over an area that is usually dry.Floodplain: The wide, flat area at the bottom of a valley which is often flooded.Groundwater: Water stored underground in permeable rocks.Hydrograph: A graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time.Hydrological (water) cycle: The continuous recycling of water between the sea, air and land.
Hydraulic action: Erosion caused by the sheer force of water breaking off small pieces of rock.Impermeable: A rock or soil that does not let water pass through it.Infiltration: The downward movement of water that seeps into the soil or a porous rock. Interlocking spur: Ridges of high ground that project into V-shaped valleys. They occur on alternate sides of a valley and interlink.Lag time: The period of time between peak rainfall ad peak river discharge.Levee: An artificial embankment built to prevent flooding by a river or the sea.Meander: The winding course of a riverMouth: The end of the river, where it meets the sea, or a lake. Overland flow: When water flows over the surface of the ground. This occurs for a number of reasons: the soil may be saturated and therefore be unable to absorb any more water; the