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Revision Pack GCSE Geography

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  • Explain/give reasons: You are now being asked to say why something you have already described is happening. Use because to help you answer these questions. There are often two marks awarded for giving just one reason. Where this happens you will be expected to give a simple statement and its elaboration.Command words tell you exactly what type of information the examiner wants.Compare: Write what is similar and different between two pieces of information. Use the word whereas to help you compare.

    Describe: Just write what you see. You may be asked to describe what you see on a photo, graph or map. Do not explain if you are only asked to describe.

    Justify: You could be asked to justify a decision you have made. Explain your choices in terms of why they are better than other options open to you.

    Suggest: This is similar to explain but tells you that you are expected to bring in ideas and understanding of our own and is not provided on the paper.

    What is meant by?: You are being asked to give a definition of a geographical term. You must know the main terms for each of the four Units. When asked for a definition, giving an example is not enough.Measure: You may be asked to measure on a map or graph. Dont guess measure accurately using the scale provided.

  • Papers One & Two Each paper is 90 minutes long and has 90 marks. Once you have chosen a question to answer out of each pair, you will have a little less than one minute per mark. Your examiners will not expect you to write more. Go straight to the point dont waffle. Be guided by the marks in brackets as to how many points you need to make.Papers Three & FourEach of these papers is also 90 minutes long but has only 60 marks, so there should be less pressure on time. You will be given advice at the start of each of the three parts it is divided into as to how long you should spend on it. Make sure that you keep to these times.The final problem-solving task is in two parts, a table to help you organise your ideas and a final letter or report to write. When completing both, use elaborated statements. They will gain marks.The 2007 Geography exams tests the four units as follows:Papers One & TwoWater, Landforms and PeopleClimate, Environment and PeoplePeople, Work and DevelopmentPapers Three & FourPeople and Place

    What is the difference between the two exams?The idea of Papers Three and Four is to ask you to solve a problem. In the early parts of the paper you will be introduced to a place and a problem to be solved. You will then be given a number of possible solutions. Your final task on the paper will be to write what you would do and then justify the decisions you have made. The final task is in two parts: a table to help you organise your ideas. When filling in the table, make sure you use elaborated, so what statements. They will help you gain marks and will make it easier to build up your letter or report to describe and explain the decisions you have made

  • Flashcards: On small cards, summarise a case study into one (or both) sides of the cards and refer to it regularly. Make sure that you include key facts and number as you condense the case study to fit the card. Colour coding: colour code large pieces of text into sections. For example, it could be the social, economic and environmental impacts of the London Docklands Redevelopment Memory tests: You could look at an important diagram (erg the cross section of a meander) for 20 seconds, then cover it over and draw what you remember. Then give yourself another 20 seconds to see what you missed and add it in. Eventually, you will be able to draw the sketch without looking at a copy. Key words test: You could ask someone to read out 10 definitions and you have to say what the key word is. Then you could try it the other way around which is harder with someone giving you a key word to define. Spider diagrams (mind maps): Write a key theme in the centre of an A3 piece of paper. Write the sub-themes around it with important ideas and case studies to back them up. Look at the example of migration on the next page to help you. Stick your finished spider diagram somewhere visible where you will be able to refer to it often (e.g. fridge door, bedroom wall). Take a look at the migration spiderdiagram on the next page! Practice exam questions: Look at the examples of past case study questions. Practice writing responses to these questions using the flashcards or colour coded case studies you have created. Summarising: Condense a section of text into a set number of bullet points. Reading aloud: Read a case study summary aloud, then try to say aloud all the facts and figures you remember without the summary. You could also read your keyword lists aloud. Repeated writing: Copy out pieces of information more than one time (five times would be appropriate). The repetition will help you to fix the facts in your memory.But I dont know how to revise! Here are some strategies you could use

  • MigrationRural-urban migrationPush factors: things that encourage, and sometimes force, people to leave the countryside

    not enough jobs lack of investment few opportunities lack of food political fears modern machinery means fewer farmers needed lose jobs poor facilities e.g. schools, hospitals crop failure due to natural disasters such as floods and droughts overpopulationPull factors: things that attract people to the city

    more jobs better housing education and medical care bright lights entertainment better way of life more chance of a good water supply and more reliable food supply life expectancy is longerThe movement of people from the countryside to the city (usually LEDCs)CounterurbanisationThe process by which people move away from the major cities to smaller settlements, often villages (usually MEDCs).

    Employment: industry declined in inner cities and move to edge-of-city and rural sites. People move for promotion or simply to find a job Housing: people move away from the city for large, modern houses with garages and gardens Environmental factors: move away from noise, air and visual pollution created by increased traffic in cities to quieter, less polluted places with open space Social factors: move away because of increased crime rates and poorer educational facilities Forced migration: when people have no choice and either have to, or are made, to move.

    natural disasters e.g. earthquakes man-made disasters e.g. war and ethnic cleansing overpopulation or a lack of resources, causing famine racial discrimination or religious and political persecution government schemes e.g. building of a damVoluntary migration: when people choose to move

    improve standard of living e.g. better jobs improve quality of life e.g. retiring to live in warmer climate good services and amenities e.g. schools, hospitals, entertainment to be with friends or relativesEmigrants: people who leave a countryImmigrants: people who arrive in a country

  • Water, Landforms and People: KeywordsAbrasion (or corrasion): Erosion caused by the rubbing and scouring action of rock fragments carried by rivers.Alluvium: Fine soil left behind after a river floods; also called silt.Attrition: Erosion caused when rocks and boulders, transported by rivers and waves, bump into each other and break up into smaller pieces.Condensation: The cooling of a gas so that it changes into a liquid, for instance as water vapour cools, it condenses to become water droplets, which, when heavy enough, fall as rain. Confluence: The point where two rivers meet.Delta: A build up of sediment at the point where a river meets a sea or lake, due to the water velocity slowing and the river having less energy to carry the sediment. Deposition: The laying down of material carried by rivers or waves.Discharge: The amount of water in a river at a given time, usually measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second)Drainage Basin: The area of land drained by a major river and its tributaries. Also called a river basin.Drought: A prolonged period of weather that is drier than usual.Embankment: A raised riverbank built to prevent or reduce floodingErosion: The wearing away of the land by material carried by rivers and waves.Estuary: The point at which a river begins to meet the sea. The river will be tidal, meaning that it will have both salt water and fresh water in it. Evaporation: The process by which liquid, such as water, changes to water vapour when it is warmed.Evapotranspiration: The loss of moisture from water surfaces and the soil (evaporation) and vegetation (transpiration).Flood: The flow of water over an area that is usually dry.Floodplain: The wide, flat area at the bottom of a valley which is often flooded.Groundwater: Water stored underground in permeable rocks.Hydrograph: A graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time.Hydrological (water) cycle: The continuous recycling of water between the sea, air and land.

  • Hydraulic action: Erosion caused by the sheer force of water breaking off small pieces of rock.Impermeable: A rock or soil that does not let water pass through it.Infiltration: The downward movement of water that seeps into the soil or a porous rock. Interlocking spur: Ridges of high ground that project into V-shaped valleys. They occur on alternate sides of a valley and interlink.Lag time: The period of time between peak rainfall ad peak river discharge.Levee: An artificial embankment built to prevent flooding by a river or the sea.Meander: The winding course of a riverMouth: The end of the river, where it meets the sea, or a lake. Overland flow: When water flows over the surface of the ground. This occurs for a number of reasons: the soil may be saturated and therefore be unable to absorb any more water; the underlying rock may be impermeable or the ground may be frozen. Oxbow lake: A crescent-shaped lake which has been cut off from the main river channel and abandoned.Percolation: The movement of water through the soil or underlying porous rock. This water collects as groundwater. Permeable: A rock or soil that allows water to pass through it.Precipitation: The deposition of moisture usually from clouds. It includes rain, hail, snow, sleet, dew, frost and fog.Runoff: Rainfall carried away from an area by streams and rivers.Saltation: A process of transportation by rivers in which small particles bounce along the bed.Solution: A type of chemical weathering in which water dissolves minerals in rocks.Suspension: A process of transportation by rives in which material is picked up and carried along within the water itself.Throughflow: The movement of water within the soil sideways, towards the river.Traction: A process of transportation by rivers in which material is rolled among the bed.Transpiration: The process by which water from plants changes into water vapour.Transportation: The movement of materials by rivers and waves.Tributary: A small river that flows into a larger river.Velocity: The speed of the flow of the riverV shaped valley: A narrow, steep-sided valley formed as a result of rapid erosion by a stream or river.Waterfall: A sudden fall of water over a steep drop.Watershed: The boundary separating two river basins.

  • What are the main features of a river?

    Upper CourseMiddle CourseLower CourseLong ProfileSteeply sloping towards the lower sections of the riverShallow slopes towards the mouth of the riverAlmost at sea level, very gently sloping towards its mouthCross ProfileSteep sided v-shaped valley. Thin river channel, deep in placesv-shaped valley remains with a wider valley floor and the river begins to meander across it. The river channel begins to widen and become deeper.Wide, shallow valley, with large flood plains and meanders. The river channel is wide, deep and smooth sided.Erosion & DepositionPrimarily vertical erosion, through attrition, abrasion and hydraulic action. Large boulders deposited and eroded in situ.Continues to cut vertically. But it also begins to cut laterally as it gets closer to base level. Deposition occurs in the slower moving insides of meanders.Primarily cuts laterally as it has almost reached base level. The erosive energy of the river is almost totally concentrated on cutting sideways. Much deposition occurs.TransportationTraction and saltationSaltation, suspension and solutionMainly suspension and solution.FeaturesInterlocking spurs; waterfalls; V-shaped valley; gorgesMeanders; slip-off slopes; ox-bow lakesDeltas; flood plains; levees; meanders; ox-bow lakesVelocityRelatively slow moving. Despite areas of fast flowing water, the large amount of material on the river channel bed means that friction will slow the water down.The water has increased in speed as the channel widens and becomes smoother. Some boulders cause friction to slow it down a little.The fastest section of the river, as the channel is widest, with very smooth sides, and the greatest volume of water.

  • Water, Landforms and PeopleCase Study Questions for the Higher TierA place that has been affected by flooding Name the place that has been affected by flooding Describe the effects of flooding on people and the environment Explain what caused the place to floodCase Study: Boscastle. Lynmouth or Bangladesh floodsA landform that brings advantages and disadvantages to an area For a landform that you have studied: Name and locate the landform Describe how the landform was formed Explain how it brings advantages and disadvantages to an areaCase Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges DeltaThe effects of a flood and flood prevention For an area where flooding had taken place: Name the area Describe how the flood affected people and the environment Explain what is being done or could be done to prevent flooding in this areaCase Study: Bangladesh floodA scheme to change the supply of water Name a place where the supply of water had been, or is being, changed by people Describe how the supply of water was, or is being changed Explain how the changing water supply is affecting, or will affect, different groups of people or organisationsA landform formed by water that attracts people A landform formed by water action that attracts people Describe what attracts people to the landform Explain how peoples use of the landform brings advantages and disadvantagesCase Study: Niagara FallsA river landform Name a place where you have studied a river landform. Name the landform and state whether it was created by erosion or deposition Describe how the landform was created Explain how the river landform has been or is being used by people and/or organisationsCase Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges deltaA river landform Name and locate the landform Describe the landform Explain how it was formed. Use diagrams to helpCase Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges Delta

  • CASE STUDY: Flooding in Bangladesh, 1998What were the causes? Monsoon climate most places receive between 1800 and 2600mm of rain a year. 80% of the total is concentrated in four or five months Deforestation in Nepal and Himalayas increases runoff Deposition of silt which blocks the main channel and raises the river bed Human mismanagement building on floodplains (urbanisation) High temperatures increases the melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalayas Poorly maintained embankments (levees) may leak and collapse. 80% of Bangladesh is a huge floodplain and delta. It is flat, low lying and easily flooded. The water can spread over vast distances.What were the effects? They covered almost 70% of the country and affected two-thirds of the population The water in Dhaka, the capital, was two metres deep and covered three-quarters of the city Electricity supply was cut off for several weeks and there was no safe drinking water as the wells were flooded and the water polluted 7 million homes were destroyed and over 25 million were made homeless The death toll was over 1300 most deaths were due to drowning but others died from diseases such as dysentery and cholera There were shortages of food and medicines Two million tonnes of rice were destroyed a quarter of the normal crop yield Half a million cattle and poultry were also lost Thousands of kilometres of roads, a third of the railways and Dhakas international airport were all flooded Damage was estimated at US$1.5 billion

  • CASE STUDY: Lynmouth Flood15th August 1952What were the causes of the flood? 4 months worth of rain had fallen in the first 2 weeks of August. The streams on Exmoor were already full to overflowing. The streams dropped over 800m in just 10 miles. A storm sat over Exmoor on the evening of the flood and dropped 11 inches of rain in 24 hours. Streams flowed down narrow steep sided valleys, crossed by over 30 small stone bridges with limited span. Bridges created 'debris dams' as they were blocked by trees and boulders. When they burst they released a shock wave of water which surged down into the village. Around 200,000 tonnes of rock were washed downstream. What were the effects of the flood?34 people were killed, 28 bridges and 93 houses were totally destroyed or damaged beyond repair. 420 people were also left homeless and 66 cars damaged or washed out to sea. The army helped to evacuate people who were stranded in their homesWhy was it such a disaster? The normal population of only 450 people had been added to by around 700 holidaymakers. Signs such as the discolouration of the water were ignored. Houses had been built right up to the river. There was no warning system in place. A lot of people did not hear the flood warning because it was at night

  • CASE STUDY: Boscastle FloodWhat were the causes? The day had been very warm, drawing in sea breezes along the coast. When they joined forces with a wet southerly air flow they shot upwards with a dangerous mix of warm, moist, highly unstable air. The thunderclouds grew so tall that they created intense rain leading to more than 5 inches falling around Boscastle in just a few hours. With the ground already saturated from recent rains, the storm waters were funnelled down steep river valleys and burst What were the effects? 90% of Boscastles economy is dependent on tourism. After the flood, more than 20 accommodation providers were forced to shut Seven helicopters from the Coastguard, the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force hovered overhead, winching people to safety Cars, boulders and uprooted trees were strewn through the streets. Cars were swept out to sea, bridges were washed away and people clung to rooftops and trees Work has started on new 4.5m flood defences to protect the Cornish village of Boscastle from flooding. Background Boscastle is situated on the northwest coast of Cornwall, near Bude It is situated at the confluence of the River Valency and its tributaries It happened on Monday 16th August 2004

  • CASE STUDY: River Nile and the Aswan DamBackgroundThe Nile has been essential in providing water and nutrients for Egypts agricultural land. The annual floods led the Nile to deposit nutrients over the land it flooded assisting in the fertilising of crops and land. The irregularity of flooding and growing demands on the Nile for providing water led to the Egyptians wanting to control the Nile. A growing population led to an increase in demand for electricity and agricultural produce. The answer was to build the Aswan Dam.The Aswan Dam was built in 1971. It had a Hydroelectric Power Station and a large lake known as Lake Nasser behind it.The benefits and problems of the Aswan Dam Fewer nutrients reaching the sea Flood control Fewer crops grown for local Egyptians River navigable all year round Hydro electric power doubles Egypts previous output In time the lake will silt up More income from cash crops of sugarcane, cotton and maize Lack of nutrients reaching the sea has affected shrimp and sardine catches High evaporation losses The large lake can support a fishing industry Silt not deposited on flood plains because of flood control meaning fertilisers had to be added Increase in BilharziaThe Aswan Dam Facts Total cost of building the dam was estimated at over $1 billion One third of the cost was provided by Russia 400 Soviet technicians were employed in the Dams construction The Dam was completed in 1968 (but not opened till 1971) The dam covers an area of over 480km in length and 16 km wide The Hydro Electric producing capacity is 2,100 megawatts

  • CASE STUDY: A landform formed by deposition Ganges Delta The Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers slow down as they reach the mouth. They start to deposit the massive loads of sediment collected on their journeys. Now they are one river, but sediment blocks the main path. The river is forced to split its way to the ocean. These channels are called distributaries. The Ganges River has eight main distributaries, and there are hundreds of smaller ones. The entire delta region covers an area of around 75,000 square kilometres, which makes it the biggest in the world. Fertile floodplains Bangladeshs delta is one of the most populated in the world. Many of the countrys 132 million people depend on the delta for their survival. Two-thirds of Bangladeshis work in agriculture, and grow crops on the fertile delta floodplains. Jute fibre, used to make twine and sacking, is Bangladeshs main export crop. Farming depends on the annual flooding of the Ganges to bring fresh supplies of nutrient rich sediment to their fields. But living in the path of the Ganges is a dangerous. One way people have adapted to this risk is to build their homes on top of earthen platforms, or embankments. Economy Fishing has long played a part in the lives of the Bangladeshi people, and its fisheries are the biggest in the world after China and India. Where the freshwater of the Ganges mixes with the saltwater of the Indian Ocean, the brackish (slightly salty) water is ideal for producing shrimp by a new and fast-growing type of fish farming called aquaculture. Here, high-value fish like shrimp and salmon are farmed in containers or cages that are submerged in the open water. The fish are mainly sold for export.Global Warming One of the likely results of global warming is a gradual rise in sea levels. This could be 0.5 metres by 2100. It could mean that six million Bangladeshis loose their homes. It could permanently flood the low-lying delta region we have travelled through. It could also increase the frequency of cyclones, and after the timing and severity of monsoons.

  • CASE STUDY: Drought in the UK, 1995-96 The UK has a temperate climate and can expect to have rain throughout the year enough to supply the countrys needs. Since the 1950s the country has suffered two major droughts causing unexpected problems In the north of England water was so scarce that a fleet of 200 tankers working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week was used to transfer water to empty reservoirs. 1995 and 1996 were the two driest consecutive years for over 200 years.What were the short term effects? Garden hosepipes were banned and water rationing was introduced Clay soils dried out and buildings were damaged as their foundations moved. Grass stopped growing, leaving a shortage of cattle feed Crops died in the hot, dry conditionsWhat were the long term effects? Legislation was introduced to try to reduce water consumption by both private and industrial users. Water authorities planned to increase water storage capacity and link reservoirs to make transfers easier.What were the causes? The 1995 "high summer" in the UK was the warmest and driest on record. The exceptional warmth began in the last week of June, and the mean July and August Central England temperature was 3C higher than the average recorded between 1961 and 1990. Total England and Wales rainfall for July and August was only 47mm compared to a 1961-1990 average of 139mm.

  • CASE STUDY: Drought in the Ethiopia, 1983-84 Ethiopia is one of the worlds poorest countries Aid came from charities like Oxfam and Band Aid as well as from governments and other organisations. Sadly, civil war and poor transport left much of the donated foodstuffs rotting in portsWhat were the short term effects? serious shortage of food and water caused widespread starvation and illness about 500 000 people died. The young and elderly were especially affected. people migrated from areas that were too remote to receive food aid. Many ended up in refugee camps.What were the long term effects? up to a million people who were malnourished and poverty stricken continued to need aid regular aid from developed countries has imporved agricultural output and provided people with security

  • People and Place: KeywordsAccessibility: how easy a place is to get toBirth rate: the number of live births per 1000 people per yearBrownfield site: An area of land that has been built on and is ready for redevelopmentBustee: an Indian term for a shanty townCentral Business District (CBD): The commercial and business centre of a town or city where land values are at their highestCommuter: A person who lives some distance from their home to their place of workCounter urbanisation: the movement of people and employment away from large cities to smaller settlements within the countrysideDeath rate: the number of deaths per 1000 people per yearDemographic transition model: a model that tries to show how changes in birth and death rates over a period of time may be related to different stages of developmentDensely populated: an area of land that is crowded with peopleDeveloped countries: Countries that are usually quite rich, have many services and a high standard of living. Also called more economically developed countries (MEDCs)Developing countries: Countries that are often quite poor, have few services and a low standard of living. Also called less economically developed countries (LEDCs)Function: the main purpose of a town or settlement. Functions include markets, industry, port and resort facilities.Green belt: an area of land around a city where the development of housing and industry is severely restricted and the countryside is protected for farming and recreation.Greenfield site: an area of land that has not previously been built onGross national product (GNP) per capita: The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year divided by its total population. Hierarchy: a ranking of settlements or shopping centres according to some measure of their importance e.g. number of services, size, population etc

  • High order goods: products that are usually expensive and only bought occasionally Immigrant: a person who arrives in a country with the intention of living thereInfant mortality: the average number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live birthsInner city: the part of an urban area next to the city centre characterised by older housing and industryLife expectancy: The average number of years a person born in a particular country can be expected to liveLiteracy rate: the proportion of people who can read and writeLocation: the position of a place or featureLow order goods: products that are usually low cost and bought oftenMigration: the movement of people from one place to another to live or workNatural increase: the growth in population resulting from birth rates being greater than death ratesPopulation density: the number of people living in a given area, usually one square kilometre (1 km)Population distribution: how people are spread out over an areaPopulation explosion: a sudden rapid rise in the number of people in an areaPopulation growth: the increase in the number of people in an areaPopulation pyramid: a type of horizontal bar graph used to show the population structure of an areaPull factors: things that attract people to live in an areaPush factors: things that make people want to leave an areaQuality of life: a measure of how happy and content people are with their livesRedevelopment: attempts to improve an areaRefugees: people who have been forced to move away from their own country and are therefore homelessRegeneration: renewing or improving something that has been lost or destroyedRetailing: the sale of goods individually or in small quantities, usually to shoppersRural-urban fringe: the area where the city and countryside meet. There is often competition for land use here.

  • Rural-urban migration: the movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities where they wish to liveSelf-help scheme: a method of improving shanty town areas by encouraging and helping people to improve their own housingShanty town: a collection of shacks and poor quality housing which often lack electricity, a water supply or any means of sewage disposal. They are common in developing countries and may also be called squatter, spontaneous or informal settlementsSite: the actual place where a settlement is locatedSituation: the location of a settlement in relation to the places surrounding it.Sparsely populated: an area that has few people living in itSuburbanised villages: small settlements which have grown in size and become urban areas in countryside surroundings. Also called dormitory towns or commuter settlements, as many residents who live and sleep there travel to nearby towns for workSuburbs: a zone of housing around the edge of a cityUrban growth: the increase in the size of towns and citiesUrban land use model: a simple map to show how land is used in a cityUrban sprawl: the unplanned, uncontrolled growth of urban areas into the surrounding countrysideUrbanisation: the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities

  • People and PlaceCase Study Questions for the Higher TierPopulation change and how it affects a place Name a place where the population is changing Describe how the population is changing Explain to what extent the changes have affected the placeCase Study: Woodbury or Mexico to USADifferent types of housing in a town or city For a named town or city in an MEDC or an LEDC Name the town or city Describe the distribution of different types of housing Explain why different groups of people live in these housing areasCase Study: Rio de JaneiroAn area that had been improved in a town or city in an MEDC For a named town or city in an MEDC Name and locate an area that has been improved Describe the problems that needed solving in the area Explain how successful the improvements have been for different groups of people living in or close to this areaCase Study: London DocklandsChanges in land-use or a service Name a place you have studied where a land-use or a service has changed Describe how the land-use or service had changed Explain how the change affected different groups of people and the environmentCase Study: Metrocentre GatesheadA place from where people have migrated Name a place from where people have migrated Describe the place they migrated away from Explain why the moved away. Refer to push and pull factorsCase Study: Mexico to USA, Zimbabwe to South AfricaA place that people have migrated away from Name a place from where people have migrated Was this place urban or rural? Describe the factors that caused people to migrate. Refer to push and pull factors Explain how the areas they migrated away from was affectedCase Study: Mexico to USAImproving services Name a place where services have been improved State whether this place is an urban or rural area Describe how the services have been improved Explain how these improvements affected different groups of peopleCase Study: London Docklands or Metrocentre Gateshead

  • Social Improvements 22 000 new homes created luxury flats several huge shopping malls 10 000 refurbished former council terraced houses post-16 college and campus for new University of East London leisure facilities including water sports marinaEnvironmental Improvements 750 hectares of derelict land reclaimed 200 000 trees planted and 130 hectares of open space createdEconomic Improvements Jobs rose from 27 000 in 1981 to 90 000 in 2000 Many new firms and institutions e.g. ITV studios Many high rise office blocks Docklands Light Railway links the area with central London City Airport Jubilee Line Underground Extension Many new roads, including M11 link Why was redevelopment needed? During the 19th century, London was the worlds busiest port. By 1981, technology had created the decline and closure of the docks. Containerisation decreased the need for many dockers. Goods arriving in the port now came in big containers and were loaded and unloaded by cranes needing less workers. Larger ships could no longer reach the port. The area has become virtually derelict, with few jobs, few amenities and poor living conditions. How did they attract new businesses? They established the area as an Enterprise Zone means businesses can trade tax free for the first 10 years. Land rents were also lowered.Was it a success for everyone? local residents couldnt afford the expensive flats jobs in new high-tech industries are few in number and requires the skills that former dockers didnt have yuppie newcomers didnt mix with original Eastenders close knit communities broken up not enough services provided e.g. hospitals and care for the elderlyCASE STUDY: London Docklands

  • CASE STUDY: Urban problems in MEDCs - London There is an estimated 400 homeless people in London every night. Men make up 90% of those sleeping on the streets. London produces enough litter to fill an Olympic sized swimming pool every four hours! Graffiti artists cost London 100 million a year. This includes removing their art from the walls of schools, hospitals and businesses. It means that vital cash is not being used to improve public services. High unemployment in inner city areas (where the old industries were once located) leads to social problems. The government say a tax of 1p a packet is needed on chewing gum to help pay for the 150 million per year cost of cleaning it off the streets. Each year, 2 700 tonnes of smoking-related litter is thrown on Londons streets. Air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide in parts of London is almost three times higher than it should be. Rundown areas of London have been awarded a total of 2.5 million in grants to help pay for regeneration projects. The most expensive land in the UK is in London and the South East. The price of a hectare of land is now nearly 5.5 million. In 1983, it was just 759 000. Experts say that air pollution is quickening the death of 8 000 people per year who are already ill. Building new, affordable homes in urban areas is difficult. Land values are very high and land is in short supply. Racial tension was to blame for transforming Brixton in south London into a battlefield in 1981. Hundreds of black and white youths attacked the police, set cars alight and looted shops. Over 300 people were injured and an estimated 7.5 million damage was caused. Inner city areas are the worst affected by violence, robbery and burglary. Traffic is a problem. Car ownership and commuting means an increase in congestion and pollution. Wasteland is an eyesore and affects local communities. This might include areas such as disused factories, rundown parks, neglected council estates or pot-holed car parks.

  • CASE STUDY: Migration from Mexico into USABackgroundIn, 1998, there were 5 million migrants into the USA and only one million were legal. Over half, 2.7 million, were from Mexico. Last year there were 356 deaths along the border. The USA claims the main cause was exhaustion. Many try to cross the border in the hope of a better life. The border is 1, 950 miles long and patrolled by armed guards in jeeps, on horses and in helicopters with searchlights. Many become Jonaleros, Mexican migrants who wait on street corners in American cities to be collected for work such as painting, moving furniture, gardening and farming. Many try to cross the Rio Grande which forms half of the border to separate the two countries. Why do Mexicans risk their lives to get into the USA? Five percent of Mexicos population are undernourished. This isnt a problem in the USA. 88% of people in Mexico have access to safe drinking water. In the USA everybody has access to safe drinking water. The average hourly wage in Mexico is $ 3.49 but it is $ 6.75 in California, USA. Unemployment is rising in large parts of Mexico. Mining is no longer as profitable. The USA government spends more money on education and healthcare than Mexicos government. 18% of people in Mexico live on less than 60 pence per day, it is less than 1% in the USA. In the USA, 8 out of 10 have a car. In Mexico, 2 out of 10 have a car.

  • Case Study: MetroCentre, Gateshead an out of town shopping centreAdvantages of the site an enterprise zone allowed a relaxation in planning controls and exemption from rates the area was previously marshland and relatively cheap to buy, and the 47 hectare site had possibilities for future expansion It is adjacent to the western by-pass which links with the North Easts modern road network 1.3 million people live within 30 minutes drive It is next to a main railway line, with its own station The scheme Free parking for 10 000 cars with special facilities for the disabled driver, and new bus and rail stations for non-motorists. There are over 300 shops and 40 eating places pleasant shopping environment wide, tree-lined malls, air conditioning, one kilometre of glazed roof to let in natural light, numerous seats for relaxing, window boxes and escalators and lifts for the disabled a market effect has been created by traders selling goods fro decorative streets barrows, and there is a wide variety of places to eat leisure is a vital part there is a ten-screen cinema, a crche for children, a space city for computer and space enthusiasts, a covered fantasy land with attractions of the fair, a children's village with children's shops. A 150 room luxury hotel has been built as part of the complex

  • CASE STUDY: Problems in an LEDC city Rio de JaneiroLocation and growth Situated around a huge harbour in south-east Brazil In 2002, some 6 million people lived in the main urban area and 10 million in the metropolitan areaProblem 1: Housing Half a million homeless street dwellers, over 1 million people live in favelas and another 1 million in poor quality local authority housing (periferia) There are over 600 favelas, with the largest being Rocinha with a population of 100 000 The houses are made from any materials available wood, corrugated iron, broken bricks Most favelas are built on hillsides that are too steep for normal houses When it rains, flash floods and mudslides carry away the weak houses storms in 1988 killed over 200 people Theres a strong community spirit, a rich street life and plenty of football and samba music Problem 2: Crime Favelas perceived as areas associated with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking Well off Rio residents now moving out of the city to places such as Barra da Tijuca think its cleaner and safer Tourists are warned no to take valuables or wear jewellery or watches on the beachProblem 3: TrafficMountains contain the city and force traffic along a limited number of routes. There is severe congestion, pollution and 24 hour noiseProblem 4: Pollution Industrial haze, made worse by traffic fumes, hangs over Guanabara Bay. The beaches and sea are also polluted. Huge amount of waste produced. In the favelas waste is unlikely to be collected. Together with polluted water supplies and sewage in open drains causes health risks (outbreak of cholera in 1992)

  • CASE STUDY: Solutions to problems in LEDC cities Rio de JaneiroSelf-help schemes Rocinha Slowly transformed their favela into a small city. Most of the original temporary wooden buildings have been upgraded to brick and tile. Residents have set up their own shops and small industries (informal sector) and created places of entertainment. Authorities work with local residents associations. They have added electricity (satellite TV!), paved and lit some of the steeper streets and added water pipes. Improvements are restricted by the high density of housing.The city authoritys Favela Bairro project In the 1990s the city authorities set aside 200 million to improve living conditions in 60 of the 600 favelas. Authorities claimed that they wanted to transform the favelas socially and culturally and to integrate them as part of the cityWhat did the project involve? Replacing old buildings with brick-built housing the new houses are much larger (5 x 4 metres) and have a yard of equal size Widening selected streets so that emergency services and waste collection vehicles can get through Laying pavements, concrete paths, water pipes and electricity cables Improving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing sports areas Using labour within each favela so that residents can develop and use new skills in return residents have to pay taxes to the authorities.

  • Climate, Environment and People: KeywordsAcid rain: Rainwater containing chemicals that result from burning fossil fuelsAltitude: the height of a place above sea levelAnticyclone: an area of high pressure usually associated with fine, settled weatherAspect: the direction towards which a slope or building facesBiome: a large ecosystem containing the same types of vegetation and animal life. Examples include the tropical rainforest and savanna grasslandsClimate: the average weather conditions of a place over many yearsCondensation: the process by which water vapour changes to a liquid (rain) or a solid (snow) when cooledConservation: the care and protection of resources and the environmentConvectional rainfall: rain that is produced when the sun heats the ground causing warm air to riseDeforestation: the complete clearance of forested land. Depression: an area of low pressure usually associated with cloud, rain and strong windsDesertification: the gradual change of land into desertEcosystem: a system where plants and animals interact with each other and their natural surroundingsEnvironment: the surrounding in which people, plants and animals liveFood chain or food web: the transfer of energy through and ecosystem from primary producers to consumers and decomposersFossil fuels: energy resources such as coal, oil and natural gas which come from the fossilised remains of plants and animalsFront: the boundary between two masses of air one of which is colder and drier than the otherFrontal rainfall: rain that occurs where warm air rises over cold air in a depressionGlobal Warming: the increase in the worlds average temperature, believed to result from the release of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphereGreenhouse effect: the way that gases in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun

  • Hurricane: A severe tropical storm with low pressure, heavy rainfall, and winds of extreme strength which an cause widespread damage. Also called a tropical cycloneIsobar: a line joining points of equal pressureLatitude: the distance of a place north or south from the equatorNutrient recycling: the process by which minerals necessary for plant growth are constantly re-used. They are taken up from the soil by plants then returned when the plants shed their leaves or die.Ocean currents: the flow of water in certain directions within the seaOvercultivation: the exhaustion of the soil by growing crops especially the same crop on the same piece of land year after yearOvergrazing: where there are too many animals form the amount of food available, which may lead to the destruction and loss of the protective vegetation coverPhotosynthesis: the process by which green plants turn sunlight into plant growthPollution: noise, dirt and other harmful substances produced by people and machines which spoil an areaPrecipitation: the deposition of moisture usually from clouds. It includes rain, hail, snow, sleet, dew, frost and fogPrevailing wind: the direction from which the wind usually comesRelief: the shape and height of the landRelief rainfall: rain caused by air being forced to rise over hills or mountainsResource: an material or product that people find usefulSoil erosion: the wearing away and loss of topsoil, mainly by the action of wind, rain and running water.Storm surge: a rapid rise in sea level caused by storms especially tropical cyclones forcing water into a narrowing sea areaSynoptic chart: a map showing the state of the weather at a given timeWeather: the day to day conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, sunshine, rainfall and wind

  • Climate, Environment and PeopleCase Study Questions for the Higher TierA weather event Name a weather event you have studied Describe how the weather event affected different groups of people and the environment Explain why the weather event took placeCase Study: 1987 Great Storm or Hurricane KatrinaConserving an ecosystem that is being damaged Name and locate an ecosystem that is being damaged Describe how the ecosystem is being damaged Explain how different groups of people or organisations are trying to conserve this ecosystemCase Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforestThe effects of people on an ecosystem Name and locate an ecosystem Describe the structure of the ecosystem. Refer to plants and animals Explain how and why people are changing (or have changed) the ecosystemCase Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforestAn ecosystem that is being used in an unsustainable way Name a place where you have studied an ecosystem that is being used in an unsustainable way by people or organisations Name the type of ecosystem you have studied Describe how people or organisations are using this ecosystem Explain why this makes the ecosystem unsustainableCase Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforestA type of climate Name a type of climate you have studied Name a place where this type of climate can be found Describe the main features of this type of climate. Refer to a whole year Explain how plants and wildlife or different groups of people are affected by this type of climateCase Study: Equatorial climate

  • Narrow zone which extends roughly 5 north and south of the equator. The zone is not continuous it is broken by mountain ranges such as the Andes in South America.The main areas are the Amazon, Congo and extreme south-east of Asia Hot, wet and humid throughout the year There are no seasons and the daily weather pattern is repeated every day of the yearTemperatures High and constant throughout the year with a small annual range (2C) Position of the sun influences temperatures high angle in the sky Evening temperatures rarely fall below 22C while daytime temperatures, due to afternoon cloud and rain, rarely rise above 32C Places on the equator receive 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every dayRainfall Annual totals of places on the equator exceed 2000mm per year The rain falls most afternoons in heavy convectional thunderstormsEquatorial climateDaily pattern of weather Sun rises at 0600 hours and its heat soon evaporates the morning mist and heavy overnight dew By 0800 hours the temperatures are as high as 25C and by noon, when the sun is vertical, they reach 33C High temperatures cause air to rise in powerful convection currents. The rising air, which is very moist due to rapid evapotranspiration from swamps, rivers and the rainforest vegetation, cools on reaching higher altitudes When it cools and condenses large cumulonimbus clouds develop. By mid afternoon they produce torrential downpours, with thunder and lightning By sunset at about 1800 hours, the clouds have begun to break up

  • CASE STUDY: Deforestation in the Amazon BasinCause 1: Farming Slash and Burn: traditional method of forest clearance Subsistence farming: increase when the government gave land to 25 million landless people in Brazil. 10km strips of land cleared along highways and settlers from outside brought in Commercial cattle ranching: large transnational companies sell beef mainly to fast food chains. They burn the forest, replacing trees with grassCause 2: TransportOver 12 000km of new roads have been built, the largest being the 5300km Trans-Amazonian highway. These roads were built to transport timber, minerals, farm produce and people. A 900km railway has been built from Carajas to the coast.Cause 4: Resources Timber, mainly hard woods is cut down by logging companies little attempt made to replant Minerals including iron ore, bauxite, manganese, diamonds, gold and silver Hydro-electricity is an important renewable resource but the building of large dams and lakes has caused large areas of forest to floodCause 3: SettlementIncrease in population from 2 million in 1960 to 30 million in 2000. large areas claimed for new settlementsRates of forest clearanceSome environmental groups claim up to 40% of the Amazon rainforest has been destroyed since 1960. This would mean 15 hectares (about 15 football pitches) have been destroyed every minute!What are the effects? Of 30 million species on earth 28 million are found in the rainforest. Habitats of these species are being destroyed. We get half our medicines from rainforest Reduction in the number of Amerindians (6 million in 1960 to 200 000 today) traditional culture and way of life threatened No canopy to protect soil from heavy afternoon rain or roots to hold it together leads to soil erosion. Nutrients are washed (leached) out of the soil Rivers have been polluted due to mining operations Causing climate change less evapotranspiration meaning theres less moisture in the water cycle leading to droughts. Burning of forest releases carbon dioxide change the composition of the atmosphere over one-third of the worlds oxygen supply comes from the rainforest.

  • CASE STUDY: Tropical rainforest biome They grow in places with an equatorial climate. Luxuriant vegetation but its trees have to adapt to constant high temperatures, heavy rainfall and a continuous growing season. Over a third of the worlds trees are grown here. The continuous growing season allows trees to shed their leaves at any time. Vegetation grows in layers (see diagram). Trees have to grow rapidly to reach the sunlight Trees trunks are straight and in their lower parts branchless to help them grow tall. Large buttress roots stand above the ground to give support to the trees Lianas, which are vine like plants, use the large trees as a support in their efforts to reach the canopy and sunlight As only 1% of sunlight reaches the forest floor, there is little undergrowth. Shrubs and other plants here have had to adapt to the lack of light During the wetter months, large areas of land near the rivers may flood Leaves have drip tips to shed the heavy rainfall Fallen leaves soon decay in the hot, wet climate There are over 1000 different species of tree, including mahogany The rainforest is a fragile environment that relies on the rapid and unbroken recycling of nutrients. Once the forest is cleared (deforestation), the cycle is broken. Humus is not replaced and the underlying soil soon becomes unfertile.

  • CASE STUDY: Hurricane Katrina It formed over the Bahamas on August 23 2005 and crossed southern Florida as a moderate Category 1 hurricane before strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico. Flooded roughly 80% of the city. Katrina is estimated to be responsible for $75 billion in damages The storm killed at least 1,836 people. The storm rapidly got worse after entering the Gulf, due in part to the storms movement over the warm sea surface temperatures. It weakened to a Category 4 storm before hitting New Orleans. By 28 August it reached its peak with maximum sustained winds of 280km/h and a minimum central pressure of 902 millibars 1.3 million acres of forest lands in Mississippi were destroyed Hundreds of thousands of local residents were left unemployed Katrina redistributed New Orleanss population across the southern United States. Houston, Texas saw an increase of 35,000 people The storm surge caused substantial beach erosion - Dauphin Island was pushed closer towards land. The lands that were lost were also breeding grounds for marine mammals, turtles and fish as well as migratory species. There were early reports of fatalities amid mayhem at the Superdome, only six deaths were confirmed there, with four of these originating from natural causes, one from a drug overdose and one a suicide. Almost 900,000 people in Louisiana lost power. Some estimates claimed that 80% of the 1.3 million residents of the greater New Orleans metropolitan area were evacuated before the storm. People who couldnt leave went to the massive Louisiana Superdome, which sheltered approximately 26,000 people and provided them with food and water for several days. In Mississippi, 90% of the structures within half a mile of the coastline were completely destroyed. Approximately 58,000 National Guard personnel were activated to deal with the storms aftermath

  • People, Work and Development: KeywordsAid: help usually given by the richer countries of the world, or by international charities, to the poorer countries. It may be short term aid such as food given for an emergency, or long term aid such as training in health careAppropriate technology: development schemes that meet the needs of the local people and the environment in which they liveBusiness park: a group of new offices or modern factories built in pleasant surroundings, usually on the edge of a cityDevelopment: the use of resources and technology to increase wealth and improve standards of living a measure of how rich or how poor a country isEmployment structure: the proportion of people working in primary, secondary and tertiary occupationsExports: goods and services produced by a country and sold to other countriesFootloose industry: an industry that is not tied to raw materials and so has a wide choice of locationFormal sector employment: work that provides a regular income. It may be an office, a shop or an organised factoryFree trade: when governments neither restrict nor encourage the movement of goods between countriesHeavy industry: the manufacture of goods that require large amounts of bulky or heavy raw materialsHigh-tech industry: an industry using advanced techniques to make high value goods. Examples include computing, biotechnology and telecommunications.Human Development Index (HDI): a measure of development adopted by the United Nations to compare countries. It uses health, education and wealth to measure both social and economic progressImports: goods and services bought by a country from other countriesIndustry: any type of economic activity, or employment, that produces goods or provides services

  • Informal sector employment: self-employed work that is irregular and has little or no security. Examples include street trading and shoe shiningInterdependence: when countries work together and rely on each other for helpLight industry: the production of high value goods such as car stereos and fashion clothingMarket: a place where raw materials and goods are sold; or a group of people who by raw materials and goodsMultinational company: a large company which, by having factories and offices in several countries, is global because it operates across national boundaries. Also called a transnational corporation.Newly industrialised countries (NICs): Countries, mainly Pacific Rim of Asia, that have undergone rapid and successful industrialisation since the early 1980s.Primary industries: industries that extract raw materials directly from the land or sea. Examples include farming, fishing, forestry and miningQuaternary industries: industries that provide information and advice or are involved in research. Example of quaternary occupations include financial advisers and research scientistsRaw materials: natural resources that are used to make thingsScience park: an estate of modern offices and high tech industries having links which a universitySecondary industries: industries that make, or manufacture, things. They process raw materials or assemble components to make a finished product. Examples include steel making and car assembly.Tertiary industries: occupations such as health, education, transport and retailing that provide a service for people. They may also be called service industries.Trade: the movement and sale of goods and services between one country and another

  • People, Work and DevelopmentCase Study Questions for the Higher TierA country that had received aid Name a country that has received aid Describe the type of aid received by this country Explain the extent to which the country has benefited from this aidCase Study: TanzaniaA location where a Multi-national company (MNC) has created employment opportunities Name and locate where an MNC has created employment opportunities Describe the direct and indirect employment opportunities created Explain why the MNC located at this placeCase Study: Ford in USA, Panasonic in Japan, Pepsi in Sao PauloThe location of new job opportunities Name a place where new job opportunities have been created Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of this place Explain why new job opportunities were located in this place. You may annotate your map to show thisCase Study: Cambridge Science ParkOverseas investment in a MEDC Name a MEDC that you have studied Describe the nature of overseas investment in the MEDC Explain how the overseas investment had affected people and the environment in the MEDCThe location of a primary or tertiary economic activity Name a place where you have studied primary or tertiary economic activity Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of the economic activity Explain the advantages and disadvantages of this location nowCase Study: iron and steel in South WalesThe location of an economic activity Name a primary or secondary or tertiary economic activity you have studied Name the place where this economic activity can be found Draw a labelled map to show the location of this economic activity Explain how this economic activity affects different groups of people and the environment in the area around its locationCase Study: iron and steel in South WalesA country that trades with other countries Name a country that trades with other countries Describe this countrys pattern of trade Explain how this country is affected by this trade

  • CASE STUDY: Cambridge Science Park The M11 offers a very quick route to London and beyond. Stansted airport is 30 minutes down the motorway. There are close links with the university, allowing researchers from there to work in tandem with researchers from the companies of the Science Park. Much of the work is research and development in areas such as pharmaceuticals and micro-electronics, from kidney dialysis machines to lasers and computers. Established by Trinity College in 1970 on 50 hectares of land, Cambridge Science Park is the UK's oldest and most prestigious science park. Now home to 71 hi-tech companies and 5,000 personnel, Cambridge Science Park continues to attract new businesses The area is landscaped with trees, lakes and ornamental gardens The largest firm employs 320 people but more than half the companies have fewer than 20 people working for them. Most employees are university graduatesWhy did it locate there?

    large, flat Greenfield site on edge of city room on site for further expansion highly skilled and qualified workforce available closely linked with excellence of Cambridge University working links with other companies on site close to M11 and M25 motorways near to Stansted airport for international links good leisure facilities in nearby Cambridge pleasant housing and open space nearby

  • CASE STUDY: Industry in an MEDC Osaka-Kobe, JapanLocation The Osaka-Kobe conurbation is one of Japans major industrial areas. It is a natural harbour protected from typhoon winds by the island of Shikoku Osaka imports many of the raw materials needed in Japan. Many are processed within the port e.g. oil, iron ore. The port is also the outlet for Japans exports The land is one of the few areas of flat land in a country that is 83% mountainous. Land in Osaka Bay has been reclaimed for port development, new industries and an international airport It has a population of over 9 million which provides a highly skilled dedicated workforce and a large, wealthy market High-tech industries have grown rapidly as a consequence of Japanese inventiveness It is the centre of many banks and large Japanese companies Thousands of small, often family run, firms. Small firms, usually employing fewer than 6 people, account for 90% of Japanese companies Medium-sized companies which, together with small firms, produce 60% of Japans manufactured goods Large corporations, many of which have become transnationals such as Toyota, Nissan, Panasonic and Mitsubishi Up to 11 new science parks have been built in pleasant environments beyond the present urban limits Major problem facing Japan is the competition from the NICs, whose labour and other production costs are cheaper. Imports and Exports

  • CASE STUDY: Industry in a LEDC Sao Paulo Brazil is the most industrialised of the worlds developing countries mainly concentrated in and around Sao Paulo Sao Paulos rapid urbanisation and industrialisation took place during the 1960s and 1970s. At this time, half a million people a year migrated to the city looking for work. Today the city has a population of 23 million. The region around Sao Paulo had minerals including iron ore and had access to energy resources. This led to the development of iron and steel and engineering industries and the manufacture of machinery, aircraft and cars. Brazil is the worlds 9th largest producer of cars. Four large transnational corporations Ford, Volkswagen, General Motors and Mercedes all have assembly plants in Sao Paulo. Brazilian car workers may earn twice the average Brazilian wage, but to international manufacturers they are cheaper to employ than car workers in developed countries. Problems: Heavy industry and traffic have caused air pollution; the great number of cars has led to gridlock; and the location of commercial buildings (e.g. banks) and offices has created a sky scraper jungle, high land prices and a lack of open space. Some industry has moved to new towns. These have been made to attract industry, by building major roads and locating in a cleaner, less congested environment. Jundaia is a new town 100km from Sao Paulo. Several transnational companies have already located there, including Pepsi. Despite using mostly machinery, it still employs 350 people. Pepsi workers not only have a regular job with regular pay, they also get free lunches and free medical care. Many people living and working in Jundaia are experiencing a rising standard of living although others still have to seek low paid jobs. Nearer the CBD, some of the increasing wealth of the city is being used to turn run down areas into modern business, retail and leisure centres. However, this usually takes place by clearing existing favelas. One third of Sao Paulos population are still employed in the informal sector recycling materials, repairing goods, processing and/or selling food. They are not enjoying a rising standard of living.

  • CASE STUDY: Ford a transnational company Ford corporation originally located in Detroit in the 1980s. By the late 1990s, it was: Manufacturing and/or assembling cars worldwide. Bulk parts were produced in MEDCs such as the USA and Japan Increasingly locating it new factories in LEDCs such as Brazil Increasingly making parts in several countries so that each particular model is no longer made in one country (reduces strikes) Facing increased competition, especially from Japanese manufacturers. Working in Detroit with its previous rivals, Chrysler and General Motors, to produce a car that will use less fuel, cause less pollution and challenge Japanese cars.Detroit motor city Henry Ford saw Detroit as an ideal location for the worlds first mass production line. He built his factory on flat land next to the Detroit River at the heart of the Great Lakes waterway system. Steel was produced on an adjacent site using relatively local iron ore (brought by ship) and coal (brought by train). Ford developed a large local market by paying his workers $5 a day, when the national average was $9 a week, enabling them to buy their own cars. High wages attracted workers from all over the world. Later, Chrysler and General Motors located their main factories in Detroit.

  • CASE STUDY: Malaysia a newly industrialised country Since 1990, Malaysias annual economic growth was averaged 8%. This has been done without high inflation or unmanageable foreign aid. Much of this has been due to government policies. Malaysia Inc. is the governments aim of turning Malaysia into a fully industrialised country by 2020 (an MEDC) In 1983, the decision was made to privatise many of the industries and economic sectors. Government policy changed to one based on rapid industrialisation to one that should be successful and sustainable. The government is investing less money in industries that require large workforces and more in ones where the emphasis is on technology. A government Technology Action Plan covers automated manufacturing, micro electrics, biotechnology and information technology In 1997, there was little unemployment in fact the country has to rely on migrant workers from Indonesia and the Philippines. It has attracted many foreign investors and high-tech firms, and is building a new international airport, a new town and several science parks. In 1985, the government founded the Proton car company By the mid-1990s, industry was confined to specifically designed areas such as the new town of Shah Alam. Firms locating here did not have to pay taxes for the first 10 years. This encouraged many of the worlds transnationals to locate there. Malaysia has embarked on a series of expensive prestige projects including the Petronas (the worlds tallest building in 1998)

  • CASE STUDY: Iron and steel industry in South Wales1850 mid-20th century The valleys of South Wales were ideal for iron making. Coal and iron ore were found together on valley sides The valleys led to coastal ports where iron products and surplus coal were exported to many parts of the world. The industry was centred on areas like Ebbw Vale and Merthyr Tydfil By 1850 there were 35 ironworks in the area. Whole villages, built in a linear pattern, were totally dependent on the local ironworks. After 1860, steelworks replaced iron foundries due to an improvement in iron smelting.1970s onwards By the 1970s, there were only two steelworks left in South Wales. They were not in the valleys but on the coast at Port Talbot and Llanwern. The initial advantages for steelmaking had gone. Only a few coal mines remained open and the iron ore had long since been exhausted. Raw materials needed importing better to locate new modern steelworks on the coast at break of bulk locations. This is when a product has to be transferred from one form of transport to another a process that takes up time and money It was easier and cheaper to have the new steelworks where imported raw materials were unloaded. it was also a government decision as they were financially helping to locate new sites on the coast Port Talbot is one of Britains three remaining integrated steelworks and uses the latest technology. Integrated means all the stages in the manufacture take place on the same site the Llanwern works was closed in 2001 due to overseas competition, global overproduction and a fall in the price of steel.Port Talbot

  • Small Scale Aid (N.G.O.) Oxfam Aim: to help young people develop skills for the future Set up group called Youth Builders Train 1 person building & carpentry skills, he then trains others, this is a Cascading system of training At first they build cheap houses Cost to Oxfam aid was: 6200 to buy the tools As the team becomes more skilled they started to build more complex buildings (mill, clinic, school) these help the local community This scheme helps create local jobs & improves local community spirit and is based on cheap local raw materials All profits reinvested/shared amongst group Young people as a result stay in the local community & dont migrate to the city A good example of Self Reliance/Self Help Aid, based on local materials & teaching Permanent SkillsLarge Scale Aid (Bi-lateral) Tanzania Canada Wheat Project Hanang Plains. 17000ha, converted wheat production African bush has been converted into Prairies type landscape Canadians helped in finance, assistance, advice & equipment This is a High-Tech, large scale & highly mechanised project 80% of all wheat grown in Tanzania 50% of all wheat used in Tanzania, the rest is exported Highly mechanised few local jobs Machinery has to be imported from Canada, at the start it was free, but eventually Tanzania has to pay for it. Originally paid in Tanzanian Schillings, but eventually in Canadian Dollars. e.g. Tractor tyres $300 1000each.

    Impact on the people of Tanzania Nomads thrown off their land Limited job opportunities for the Nomads arable rather than pastoral Bread goes to the urban rich not the rural poor Wheat milled 2 days journey away Loaf costs 63p. Wages 10/week most cant afford itCASE STUDY: Aid in Tanzania, AfricaTanzanian economy based on subsistence agriculture, arable & pastoral nomads, based on traditional lifestyles