ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT PRESENTED BYSONDARVA YAGNESH MM .Sc.(AGRI) 1ST SEM REG NO : 04 -2664 -2015
is the individual's psychologicalattachment to theorganization. organizational commitment
An employees loyalty to the organization, willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, associated with the acceptance of the organizations goal and values and desire to maintain membership.
A workers feeling and attitudes about the entire work organizations.Organizational Commitment
predicts work variables such as turnover, organizational citizenship behavior, job performance. Some of the factors such as role stress, empowerment, Job insecurity employability, distribution ofleadershiphave been shown to be connected to a worker's sense of organizational commitment.Organizational commitment can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, job satisfaction : an employee's feelings about their job, organizational identification : the degree to which an employee experiences a 'sense of oneness' with their organization.
importance of Organizational commitment
The strength of an individuals identification with an organization.Three kinds of organizational commitment:AffectiveContinuanceNormativeOrganizational Commitment
Kinds of Organizational CommitmentAffective Commitment: The type of organizational commitment that is based on an individuals desire to remain in an organizationContinuance Commitment: The type of organizational commitment that is based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave.
Normative Commitment: The type of commitment that is based on an individuals perceived obligation to remain within an organization.
Meyer and Allen use the tri-dimensional model to conceptualize organizational commitment in three dimensions namely,
affective, continuance normative commitments.
These dimensions describe the different ways of organizational commitment development and the implications for employees behavior.
Figure presents the tri-dimensional organizational commitment model model of commitment
ORGANISATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Size Structure Climate. Etc. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Demographics Values Expectations, SOCIALISATION EXPERIENCES Cultural Familial Organisational MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Selection Training Compensation ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Unemployment rate Family responsibility Union Status RETENTION Withdrawal Cognition Turnover Intention Turnover PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR Attendance Performance Citizenship EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING Psychological Health Physical Health Career Progress
WORK EXPERIENCES Job scope Relationships Participation Support Justice
ROLE STATES Ambiguity Conflict Overload
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT Economic Exchange Social Exchange
AFFECT-RELATED Attribution Rationalisation Met expectations Person Job Fit Need satisfaction
NORM RELATED Expectations Obligations
COST RELATED Alternatives Investments
AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Organisation Union Team
CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT Organisation Union Team
NORMATIVE COMMITMENT Organisation Union Team
RETENTION Withdrawal Cognition Turnover Intention Turnover
PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR Attendance Performance Citizenship
EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING Psychological Health Physical Health Career Progress
Affective CommitmentA desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization because of an emotional attachment to, or involvement in, that organization
You stay because you want to
What would you feel if you left anyway
employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization.
Meyer and Allen Defined as the desire component of organizational commitment.
An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization.
This employee commits to the organization because he/she "wants to".
This commitment can be influenced by many different demographic characteristics: age, tenure, sex, and education but these influences are neither strong nor consistent.
The problem with these characteristics is that while they can be seen, they cannot be clearly defined.
Meyer and Allen gave this example that positive relationships between tenure and commitment maybe due to tenure-related differences in job status and quality
Continuance CommitmentA desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization because of an awareness of the costs associated with leaving
You stay because you need to
What would you feel if you left anyway
Continuance Commitment is the need component or the gains verses losses of working in an organization.
Side bets, or investments, are the gains and losses that may occur should an individual stay or leave an organization.
An individual may commit to the organization because he/she perceives a high cost of losing organizational membership
[Things like economic costs (such as pension accruals) social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) would be costs of losing organizational membership.
But an individual doesnt see the positive costs as enough to stay with an organization they must also take into account the availability of alternatives (such as another organization), disrupt personal relationships, other sidebets that would be incurred from leaving their organization.
The problem with this is that these side bets dont occur at once but that they accumulate with age and tenure
A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization because of a feeling of obligation
You stay because you ought to
What would you feel if you left anyway?
The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation, the last component of organizational commitment.
These feelings may derive from a strain on an individual before and after joining an organization.
For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.'
It may also reflect an internalized norm, developed before the person joins the organization through family or other socialization processes, that one should be loyal to one's organization.
The employee stays with the organization because he/she "ought to". But generally if an individual invest a great deal they will receive advanced rewards.
Normative commitment is higher in organizations that value loyalty and systematically communicate the fact to employees with rewards, incentives and other strategies.
Normative commitment in employees is also high where employees regularly see visible examples of the employer being committed to employee well-being.
An employee with greater organizational commitment has a greater chance of contributing to organizational success and will also experience higher levels of job satisfaction. High levels of job satisfaction, in turn, reduces employee turnover and increases the organizations ability to recruit and retain talent.
Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect A framework that includes potential responses to negative events.
ExitEnding or restricting organizational membership
VoiceA constructive response where individuals attempt to improve the situation
Exit-Voice-Loyalty-NeglectA framework that includes potential responses to negative events
Loyalty A passive response where the employee remains supportive while hoping for improvement
Neglect Interest and effort in the job is reduced
Job rotation moving workers from one specialized job to another.
Job enlargement the practice of allowing worker to take on additional , varied task in effort to make them feel that they are more valuable members of the organization.
Job enrichment raising the responsibility associated with a particular job by allowing workers a greater voice in the planning , execution and evaluation of their own activities.Changes in job structure
Skill-based pay paying employees an hourly rate based on their knowledge and skills.
Merit pay a plan in which the amount of compensation is directly a function of a employees performances.
Gainsharing make pay contingent on effective group performance.
Profit sharing all employees receive a small share of the organizations profits.Changes in pay structure
Compressed work weeks the number of workdays is decrease while the number of hours worked per day is increased.
Flextime a scheduling system whereby a worker is committed to a specified number of hours per week but has some flexibility concerning the starting and ending times of any particular workday.Flexible work schedules
Benefit programFlexible working hoursVariety of health care option Different retirement plansCareer development programs Health promotion programsEmployee-sponsor childcare
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors consists of efforts by organizational members that advance or promote the work organization , its image , and its goals.
Positive affect and employee well-being the role of positive emotions , or positive affect , in influencing employee attitudes , s