organizational commitment

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is the individual's psychologicalattachment to theorganization. organizational commitment

An employees loyalty to the organization, willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization, associated with the acceptance of the organizations goal and values and desire to maintain membership.

A workers feeling and attitudes about the entire work organizations.Organizational Commitment

predicts work variables such as turnover, organizational citizenship behavior, job performance. Some of the factors such as role stress, empowerment, Job insecurity employability, distribution ofleadershiphave been shown to be connected to a worker's sense of organizational commitment.Organizational commitment can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, job satisfaction : an employee's feelings about their job, organizational identification : the degree to which an employee experiences a 'sense of oneness' with their organization.


importance of Organizational commitment

The strength of an individuals identification with an organization.Three kinds of organizational commitment:AffectiveContinuanceNormativeOrganizational Commitment

Kinds of Organizational CommitmentAffective Commitment: The type of organizational commitment that is based on an individuals desire to remain in an organizationContinuance Commitment: The type of organizational commitment that is based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave.

Normative Commitment: The type of commitment that is based on an individuals perceived obligation to remain within an organization.

Meyer and Allen use the tri-dimensional model to conceptualize organizational commitment in three dimensions namely,

affective, continuance normative commitments.

These dimensions describe the different ways of organizational commitment development and the implications for employees behavior.

Figure presents the tri-dimensional organizational commitment model model of commitment

ORGANISATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Size Structure Climate. Etc. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Demographics Values Expectations, SOCIALISATION EXPERIENCES Cultural Familial Organisational MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Selection Training Compensation ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Unemployment rate Family responsibility Union Status RETENTION Withdrawal Cognition Turnover Intention Turnover PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR Attendance Performance Citizenship EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING Psychological Health Physical Health Career Progress

WORK EXPERIENCES Job scope Relationships Participation Support Justice

ROLE STATES Ambiguity Conflict Overload

PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT Economic Exchange Social Exchange

AFFECT-RELATED Attribution Rationalisation Met expectations Person Job Fit Need satisfaction

NORM RELATED Expectations Obligations

COST RELATED Alternatives Investments

AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT Organisation Union Team


NORMATIVE COMMITMENT Organisation Union Team

RETENTION Withdrawal Cognition Turnover Intention Turnover

PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR Attendance Performance Citizenship

EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING Psychological Health Physical Health Career Progress

Affective CommitmentA desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization because of an emotional attachment to, or involvement in, that organization

You stay because you want to

What would you feel if you left anyway

employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization.

Meyer and Allen Defined as the desire component of organizational commitment.

An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization.

This employee commits to the organization because he/she "wants to".

This commitment can be influenced by many different demographic characteristics: age, tenure, sex, and education but these influences are neither strong nor consistent.

The problem with these characteristics is that while they can be seen, they cannot be clearly defined.

Meyer and Allen gave this example that positive relationships between tenure and commitment maybe due to tenure-related differences in job status and quality

Affective Commitment

Affective Commitment

Continuance CommitmentA desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization because of an awareness of the costs associated with leaving

You stay because you need to

What would you feel if you left anyway

Continuance Commitment

Continuance Commitment is the need component or the gains verses losses of working in an organization.

Side bets, or investments, are the gains and losses that may occur should an individual stay or leave an organization.

An individual may commit to the organization because he/she perceives a high cost of losing organizational membership

[Things like economic costs (such as pension accruals) social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) would be costs of losing organizational membership.

But an individual doesnt see the positive costs as enough to stay with an organization they must also take into account the availability of alternatives (such as another organization), disrupt personal relationships, other sidebets that would be incurred from leaving their organization.

The problem with this is that these side bets dont occur at once but that they accumulate with age and tenure

A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization because of a feeling of obligation

You stay because you ought to

What would you feel if you left anyway?

Normative Commitment

The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation, the last component of organizational commitment.

These feelings may derive from a strain on an individual before and after joining an organization.

For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.'

It may also reflect an internalized norm, developed before the person joins the organization through family or other socialization processes, that one should be loyal to one's organization.

The employee stays with the organization because he/she "ought to". But generally if an individual invest a great deal they will receive advanced rewards.

Normative commitment is higher in organizations that value loyalty and systematically communicate the fact to employees with rewards, incentives and other strategies.

Normative commitment in employees is also high where employees regularly see visible examples of the employer being committed to employee well-being.

An employee with greater organizational commitment has a greater chance of contributing to organizational success and will also experience higher levels of job satisfaction. High levels of job satisfaction, in turn, reduces employee turnover and increases the organizations ability to recruit and retain talent.

Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect A framework that includes potential responses to negative events.

ExitEnding or restricting organizational membership

VoiceA constructive response where individuals attempt to improve the situation

Exit-Voice-Loyalty-NeglectA framework that includes potential responses to negative events

Loyalty A passive response where the employee remains supportive while hoping for improvement

Neglect Interest and effort in the job is reduced



Job rotation moving workers from one specialized job to another.

Job enlargement the practice of allowing worker to take on additional , varied task in effort to make them feel that they are more valuable members of the organization.

Job enrichment raising the responsibility associated with a particular job by allowing workers a greater voice in the planning , execution and evaluation of their own activities.Changes in job structure

Skill-based pay paying employees an hourly rate based on their knowledge and skills.

Merit pay a plan in which the amount of compensation is directly a function of a employees performances.

Gainsharing make pay contingent on effective group performance.

Profit sharing all employees receive a small share of the organizations profits.Changes in pay structure

Compressed work weeks the number of workdays is decrease while the number of hours worked per day is increased.

Flextime a scheduling system whereby a worker is committed to a specified number of hours per week but has some flexibility concerning the starting and ending times of any particular workday.Flexible work schedules

Benefit programFlexible working hoursVariety of health care option Different retirement plansCareer development programs Health promotion programsEmployee-sponsor childcare

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors consists of efforts by organizational members that advance or promote the work organization , its image , and its goals.

Positive affect and employee well-being the role of positive emotions , or positive affect , in influencing employee attitudes , s