IFPRI - Climate Change and Pulse Production- its impact in Sri-Lanka, Rohan Rajapakse

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  • Rohan Rajapakse, Janakie Rajapakse and Frank Niranjan

    University of Ruhuna, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka Council of

    Agriculture Research Policy

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND

    PULSE PRODUCTION: ITS

    IMPACT IN SRI LANKA

  • APWSS 2011, Cairns, Australia, 26-29 Sep 2011

    Overview of Presentation

    Introduction to Pulse Production

    Climate Change: Vulnerability of 3 districts

    Impact of Climate Change in Agriculture

    Experiments performed

    Screening of Pulse cultivars

  • APWSS 2011, Cairns, Australia, 26-29 Sep 2011

    Sri Lanka Pearl of the Indian Ocean

    Both rural and urban people value plants

    Possibly, reflecting hydrological civilisations of the past 2500 years

    Possibly, buddhism (dominant religion)

    Pulses are popularly grown pulse crops of DZ of Sri Lanka

  • APWSS 2011, Cairns, Australia, 26-29 Sep 2011

    Respect for plants is culturally inscribed

    Several Kings of the past were doctors in traditional medicine

    Utilization of plant resources for human welfare is natural

    Climate favors a very rich diversity of plants to grow

    Recognized Biodiversity hot spot

    Colombo

    Anuradhapura

    Sigiriya

    Kandy

    Famous for an ancient Civilization, World Heritage, Natural Beauty, Tea and Buddhism !

  • Mung bean or Green gram

    Cowpea

    Popularly Grown grain Legume Crops in the DZ of Sri Lanka

    Agro ecological regional Map of Sri Lanka.

    1L Region These crops are cultivated under rained conditions

    DL 1 and DLS Region Cultivation only in Major Maha season

    Both crops are cultivated in the upper slopes as a highland crop.

    However tremendous potential to grow these in rice lands during Yala

    Season where paddy fields are being fallowed due to shortage of water.

  • Increased Evidence of Global Climate

    Change

    1. Temperature Rise

    2. Sea level rise

    3. Droughts

    4. Floods

    5. Hurricanes

    6. Landslides

    In Sri Lanka 71% agricultural Land holdings are less than one acre 66% of cropland is Rain fed.

    Hence increasingly vulnerable to climate variability. This presentation aims to improve the understanding of climate change and its implication for the Pulse sector of Sri Lanka.

  • Based in ecological parameters Rf, Soil type and Topography.

    Sri Lanka is divided into 3 Principal agro ecological zones WZ, IZ and DZ

  • Sri Lanka the climatic factor that has the greatest impact in Rainfall.

    Two Main Monsoonal Seasons SWM May Sep NEM (Dec - Feb)

    Climate change is more severe on Non Plantation Agriculture because majority of farmers are small holders and predominantly cultivate Rice and Pulses.

  • Materials and Methods

    Overall objective improve understanding of the climate change (CC) and its impact on rural poor.

    Identify the best practices and institutional innovations for mitigating the effects of CC ,develop strategies to address social economic problems relating to CC.

    SLCARP with ICRISAT performed a study on CC in 3 districts of DZ Puttalam, Hambantota and Anuradhapura.

    1. Climate change analysis

    2. Map vulnerability for Agriculture

    3. Study Basic Climate trends

  • Based on the strategy it was felt the need to introduce high yielding of Pulse varieties for these Poor farmers engaged in Agriculture for livelihood

    Experiments were done in DZRS during 2007 2012

  • Results and Discussion

    SLCARP and ICRISAT research revealed

    1. Minimum and maximum temperature have increased

    2. Extreme temperature also increased with increase of temparature

    3. Behavior of Rf pattern erratic; Decadal variability has decreased, Inter seasonal variability is high.

    4. Onset and withdrawal of Yala and Maha seasons delayed by 3 4 weeks.

    5. Agricultural drought 19 times in Yala (1977 - 2008)

    2 times in Maha

    6. Supplementary irrigation requirements has increased especially for Yala season

    7. Social survey

    a). Alternative forms of agriculture changed from seasonal crops to Perennial crops due to drought.

  • b). Government aid and subside required during critical periods

    c). Prefer collective actions in Agriculture, social and economic events

    d). Vulnerability index Some districts remains critically vulnerable to CC.

  • Recommendations

    1. Enhance the knowledge of farmers about weather and climate grass root applications are recommended.

    2. Screen and release suitable Pulse varieties

    3. Pulse varieties screened thought the DZ stations under rain fed conditions.

  • Release of 3 Mung bean varieties MI5, MI6 and Ari

    2 Soybean varieties PM13 and PB1

    2 Black gram varieties MI 1 and Anuradha

    7 Cowpea varieties Dhawala, MI 35, Waruni, Wijaya, Bombay,Arlington and ANKCP 1

    This is a milestones in National Pulse Crop Research Program conducted by DA for Rain fed Yala season

    A third season is identified

    a). End of Yala season Brief Interval

    Beginning of Maha season

    b). End of Maha and Beginning of Yala A third season.

    Here the Pulse varieties are grown in stubble.

    Therefore shortage high yielding lines are required.

  • A program by DA in 2011 has selected 2 promising Mungbean lines for cultivation in third season which exhibit high level tolerance to water stress.

    These elite lines has the ability to produce 80% of the potential harvest at the First Pick and uniformity of seed color remains for long period of time.

  • The identified varieties of Mungbean for Climate Change is as follows to be released

    MB48, MB43

    The basic characteristics of above two Mung bean lines is their ability to exhibit uniform maturity and give 80% of the total yield at the first pick. Both are extremely short aged (55days) and retain the seed colour for a long period of time

  • Thank you

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