Effrective qs

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  1. 1. Layered Questioning Techniques for Diverse Learners Caryn Lewis Riverside County Office of Education
  2. 2. Session Outcomes Discuss effective questioning techniques can improve comprehension in students with limited English proficiency. Distinguish between instructional strategies and questioning techniques that can be used before, during and after the reading of the text. Identify questions that may be generated by the student and/or the teacher and apply them to different types of text.
  3. 3. Research/Application/Practice Lets take a look at instruction!
  4. 4. Supporting Comprehension 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ELL ALL Year 1 - prior to instructional strategies 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 ELL ALL Year 2 - with questioning strategies Comprehension results: Grade 6
  5. 5. The Artistry of Effective Questioning Student Student-to-self Student-to-student Student-to-teacher Teacher-to-self Teacher-to-teacher Teacher-to-student Teacher
  6. 6. Questioning Cycle During reading After reading Before reading
  7. 7. Effective Questioning Encourages cooperative learning Promotes group discussion Builds on prior knowledge Allows for choral response Uses differentiation techniques Develops increasing levels of cognition
  8. 8. Before Reading Questions about topic or genre Questions about words or language Questions that clarify learning objectives Questions that access prior knowledge or experience Student generated Teacher generated
  9. 9. Learning Objectives Content objective: Based on academic content standards What do I want them to do? Language objective: Based on English language development standards How do I want them to do it? J. Echevarria, M. Vogt & D.J. Short, Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners: The SIOP Model (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000)
  10. 10. Stages of Language Acquisition Beginning (pre-production) Beginning (early production) Beginning (early speech emergence) Early intermediate Intermediate Early advanced Advanced
  11. 11. Differentiating Language Objectives Example: Give a description of the setting using precise vocabulary. Beginning One- or two-word response Early intermediate Simple phrase Intermediate One or two simple sentences Early advanced Multi-sentence response with few errors Advanced Multi-sentence response with near native speech
  12. 12. Teacher-Focused Questions What are the learning objectives? Do my students have the prerequisite skills necessary to complete this task? What academic language or vocabulary will I need to preteach? What language will I require the students to use during the lesson? What will the final student product be?
  13. 13. Student-Focused Questions What is my purpose for reading? What are the learning objectives? Do I see any unfamiliar words or ideas? What is the culture, theme or topic? What are the key ideas? What is the activity or assignment I must complete?
  14. 14. Plan-Prepare-Present With your table group, fill out the questioning log. Look at the application process from both the teacher and student perspectives. How will the lesson be different with this questioning process?
  15. 15. During Reading Questions about key ideas Questions about words or language Questions that maximize language output Questions that guide learning objectives and promote higher-order thinking Student generated Teacher generated
  16. 16. Cues, Questions, Prompts Question-response-evaluation. The teacher asks a question and then appraises the answer. Question-response-feedback. The teacher asks a question, the student answers, and then the teacher provides feedback. The feedback includes paraphrasing the student answer, which leads to the student rephrasing his response. Student-organized interaction. Students ask and answer questions in small groups. The teacher becomes a facilitator and discussion participant. J. Hill, K. Flynn, Classroom Instruction That Works With English Language Learners (Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006).
  17. 17. Tiered Questioning Lowers the affective filter Builds confidence Increases oral language opportunities Allows access to the text for all students Color code the questioning chart to simplify lesson delivery and maximize language.
  18. 18. Text Walk-Text Talk With your table group, use the text to design a series of questions that focus specifically on language output. What do you notice about these questions? How does the questioning chart help to facilitate lesson delivery?
  19. 19. Question Student generated Literal: Who, what, where, when Inferential: Why, how, what if
  20. 20. Question-Answer Relationship Teach the four types of questions: Right there Think and search Author and you On your own Use non-linguistic representation to support student understanding and practice Use scaffolding model to build success - Taffy Raphael, 1982
  21. 21. QARs In the text In my head Right there Think and search Author and me On my own
  22. 22. Right There The answer is right in the text and usually easy to find. The words used to make up the question and the answer are usually the same. Question: What year did the Civil War end? Answer: The Civil War ended in 1865.
  23. 23. Think and Search The answer is in the text, but you need to put different parts together to answer it. Words for the question and words for the answer are not usually the same. Question: What are the primary organs of the digestive system? Answer: The esophagus, stomach and intestines make up the digestive system.
  24. 24. Author and Me The answer is not in the text, but the text will be used to find an answer. Think of what you already know and link it to what you know from the text. See how they fit together. Question: Using the graph, decide which team was most successful. Answer: I think the blue team was the most successful because
  25. 25. On My Own The answer is not in the text so prior knowledge and experiences must be used. The question can be answered without having read the text. Question: Why is it a good idea to conserve water? Answer: I think water should be conserved because ...
  26. 26. Visual Resources
  27. 27. After Reading Student identifies text connections with lesson questions Student responds to original focus questions Teacher reviews original focus questions Teacher poses final questions that allow students to formulate an opinion or conclusion Student generated Teacher generated
  28. 28. Instructional Strategies for Questioning in Grades 3-8 Focus questions Question-answer relationship (QAR) Reciprocal reading Tiered questioning Central question diagram Question the author Question tree and sea Question frames
  29. 29. Management Strategies Give up the lecture! Ask interactive questions. Increase oral language opportunities. Allow for choral response. Encourage cooperative learning. Use questioning frames. Pair students with alternate ranking. PRETEACH!
  30. 30. Caryn Lewis clewis@rcoe.us
  31. 31. Implementation Activities With a team of teachers, select a language arts or content area lesson and identify the learning objectives for both academic content and language. Use the lesson map to create a plan for questioning that will take place before, during, and after a text- based lesson. Create a system for easy recognition of levels of English proficiency with the students in your classroom, or school site. Color code the student names to correlate with the stages of language acquisition.