Digital Library Initiatives in India : An Overview

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This topic was presented at a "Workshop On Best Practices in Library: Digital Library" Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar on November 29, 2013

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  • 1.Digital Library Initiatives in India : An Overview Dr. Manoj Kumar Sinha Associate Professor and Head Department of Library and Information Science Assam University, Silchar-788011 E-mail: mksinha1965@gmail.com , dr_mk_sinha@yahoo.com 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 1

2. Break Up of Paper Introduction Digital Library : Concept and Definition Characteristics of Digital Library Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Library Digital / Electronic Resources Digitisation and Preservation IPR and DRM Issues of Digital Resources Digital Library initiatives in India 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 2 3. Introduction The emergence of Internet has added a new dimension to information technology which gave birth to the new concepts of Digital Libraries (DLs), Knowledge Management (KM), and archiving of indigenous culture and heritage materials. The Digital Libraries have emerged as a crucial component of global information infrastructure, adopting the latest Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to promote an organisational structure that encourages communication and resource sharing between the academician and scholars across the nations. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 3 4. Definition and Concept of Digital Library An electronic library (referred to as a digital library) is a library in which collections are stored in electronic media formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible via computers. The electronic content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. An electronic library is a type of information retrieval system. 12/5/2013 4 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 5. Digital Library The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content). 12/5/2013 5 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 6. Definition and Concept of Digital Library A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g. paper, by digitizing. It should also be noted that not all electronic content is in digital data format. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and electronic collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Indian University Libraries are also in the transition phase and representing Hybrid Library 12/5/2013 6 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 7. Definition and Concept of Digital Library In the context of the DELOS, a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, and DL.org, a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability, Best Practices and Modelling Foundations, Digital Library researchers and practitioners and software developer produced a Digital Library Reference Model which defines a digital library as: "A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according to comprehensive codified policies." 12/5/2013 7 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 8. Definition and Concept of Digital Library The Digital Libraries are electronic libraries where the information is acquired, stored and retrieved in digital form. Digital Libraries are the group-interlinked workstations connected to the high-speed networks. In the context of digital imaging, librarians face greater challenges in capturing, storing, formatting, retrieval and reproduction of non- textual materials. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 8 9. Definition and Concept of Digital Library (Contd--) In digital libraries the e-resources are mounted on the servers located at remote places and the member libraries using user login and password on yearly subscription basis may access the information. The digital collection resources may be e-journals, bibliographic and full text databases, e-books, e-prints etc called e-resources that may be shown in the digital collection and catalogue of the member libraries for a particular period of time. The member libraries can access the resources simultaneously at a time or at different time. Therefore many libraries may use the digital collection available at one site at the same time without any problems over the Internet through Dial Up, DSL, Lease Line or VSAT Connectivity. So the digital libraries are libraries without wall and it is also known as virtual library in broader sense. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 9 10. Definition of Digital Library Digital Library has been defined by a UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of Digital Libraries Workshop as Digital Libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching and using information In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds, static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed network. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describes various aspects of the data (e.g. Representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationship to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 10 11. Advantages of Digital Library No physical boundary. Round the clock availability ; Multiple access; Information retrieval; Preservation and conservation; Space.; Added value.; and Easily accessible 12/5/2013 11 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 12. Elements of Digital Libraries The U.S. Association of Research Libraries identified five elements common to all definitions of digital libraries: The Digital Library is not a single entity; The Digital Library requires technology to link the resources; Linkage between Digital Libraries and Information Services are transparent; Universal Access to Digital Library must be a goal; Digital Library Collections are not restricted to document surrogates but include digital artifacts that have no printed equivalent. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 12 13. 12/5/2013 13 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 14. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 14 15. 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 15 16. Information Infrastructure Requirement for Establishing Digital Library For establishing digital libraries in the university/ institutional libraries, some basic information infrastructure are required in terms of : Necessary Hardware with latest configuration; Digital Library Software and Other Supporting Software like DSpace , Greenstone ; Electronic Resources : Born and Digitized ; Internet connectivity with high Bandwidth ; Specialised equipments like digital camera, scanners, sheet feeders, barcode printers etc 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 16 17. Basic Components for Establishing Digital Library System : Hardware Digital Computer powered by Pentium IV with high capacity hard disk for Server and Clients in the LAN, Web Servers and FTP Server etc; Desktop Workstations PCs; Capture Devices such as Scanners, Cameras Cards etc. Cartridge Tape or Disk for backup; 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 17 18. Hardware Components High Power UPS (10 or 20 KV) Printers (Laser and Ink jet printers (latest model), Consoles and Test Computers; Secondary Storage or Output Devices comprising of CD- ROM Disk (R and RW), DVD, CD-Tower, Flatbed Scanners and Optical Character Recogniser (OCR), Data Compression Device; High Speed Local Area Network (LAN, WAN), Internet Connectivity ether through Dial-up Connectivity or V-SAT, or through Lease Line or Radio Modem etc 12/5/2013 Workshop on Best Practices : Digital Library , Organised by Rabindra Library, Assam University, Silchar, November 29, 2013 18 19. Software Component Operating System software: Latest Versi

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