Lecture presented by Fernan R. Dizon at PAARL's Conference on the theme "The Power of Convergence: Technology and Connectivity in the 21st Century Library and Information Services" held on Nov. 11-13, 2009 at St Paul College, Pasig City
Rizal Librarys Digitization Projects
Fernan R. DizonRizal LibraryAteneo de Manila University
OutlineDefinition of TermsRizal Librarys MissionRizal Librarys Photoduplication Services Section Mission and VisionRizal Librarys Preservation and Digitization TimelineLatest Digitization Projects and ActivitiesRizal Librarys Digital Library ConsiderationsSome Technical IssuesSome Points to Consider
Definition of TermsPreservation: The activities associated with maintaining library and archival materials for use, either in their original physical form for in some other usable way. Preservation tends to include conservation, but also comprehends techniques of partial conservation of the physical object (e.g. new binding), as well as procedures for the substitution of the original artifact by materials conversion, whereby the intellectual content of the original is at least partially preserved. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983).
Definition of TermsPreservation: According to IFLA, all the managerial and financial considerations including storage and accommodation provisions, staffing levels, policies, techniques and methods involved in preserving library and archive materials and the information contained in them. Digitization is increasingly used as a technique to allow access to content without the risk to original materials (Feather, Matthews, and Eden, in Harrods Librarians Glossary and Reference Book, 2000).
Definition of TermsPreservation Microfilming: The microfilming for preservation purposes of books, serials, manuscripts, and other documents, using for this purpose materials and processing methods of maximum permanence, and creating a store of camera microfilm which is housed under controlled conditions and used only to make distribution copies (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983).
Definition of TermsDigitization: The process of transferring information content from a traditional format into a digitally-readable version. Typically, a scanner would be used for this purpose when digitizing a printed book.; digital imaging of manuscripts, paintings, prints, etc. Is also covered by this term. Digitization is now much favoured as part of the drive to improve preservation techniques., as fragile originals need not be handled afterwards except in specialized circumstances. Access is greatly improved as digitized texts can be readily searched, and digital images of faded or difficult originals can be computer-enhanced (Harrods Librarians Glossary and Reference Book, 2000).
Definition of Terms Digital Preservation: The process of maintaining, in a condition suitable for use, materials produced in digital formats, including preservation of the bit stream and the continued ability to render or display the content represented by the bit stream. The task is compounded by the fact that some digital storage media deteriorate quickly ("bit rot"), and the digital object is inextricably entwined with its access environment (software and hardware), which is evolving in a continuous cycle of innovation and obsolescence. Also refers to the practice of digitizing materials originally produced in non-digital formats (print, film, etc.) to prevent permanent loss due to deterioration of the physical medium. Synonymous with e-preservation and electronic preservation (ODLIS, 2009).
Definition of TermsDigital Library: A library in which a significant proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format (as opposed to print or microform), accessible by means of computers. The digital content may be locally held or accessed remotely via computer networks. In libraries, the process of digitization began with the catalog, moved to periodical indexes and abstracting services, then to periodicals and large reference works, and finally to book publishing (ODLIS, 2009).
Definition of TermsDigital Library: an umbrella term for a) conceptual models of libraries of the future that focus on the provision of services associated almost totally with digital content and b) used to describe those aspects of existing library services that have a significant digital component. Also referred to as electronic library (Harrods Librarians Glossary and Reference Book, 2000).
Rizal Librarys MissionTo select, acquire, develop, organize, maintain, preserve and make readily available up-to-date information sources needed to support the teaching, scholarship, research and community service programs of the Loyola Schools.To facilitate speedy and systematic access to useful information both from within the librarys in-house collections as well as from outside resources through professional instruction in the identification and use of such resources, interlibrary cooperation, outreach services and other linkages.
Rizal Librarys MissionTo nurture for both library users and staff a caring and learning environment conducive to the transformation of information into knowledge by utilizing appropriate information and automation technology, providing adequate library equipment and facilities, employing competent library personnel and requiring the highest standard of personal excellence in skills employed and services rendered.To develop and maintain cooperative relationships with the university community and world of community of scholars for mutually advantageous sharing of resources.
Rizal Librarys VisionInline with the Past and Online with the Future, the Rizal Library seeks to become the heart of the Ateneo de Manila University's Loyola Schools in the flow of scholarly information, collecting and accessing information sources from throughout the world and disseminating them to teachers and administrators, students and researchers.
Through its library instruction programs and professional services, the Rizal Library also seeks to help its users in the transformation of information into knowledge in support of the teaching, scholarship, research, and community service programs of the Ateneo de Manila University's Loyola Schools.
Photoduplication Services SectionMission To preserve, through microfilming, historical and educational materials for research. To make rare Philippine materials in microforms readily accessible to students of the Ateneo de Manila University. To produce quality microform that conforms with international set standards on preservation microfilming. To migrate service microfilms to digital format for fast and easy retrieval of information. To make available upon request, through duplication in microforms and digital format, material in the collection to researchers and libraries.
Photoduplication Services SectionVision: In line with latest technology, the Photoduplication Services, through microfilming, seek to become a center for preservation and distribution of research materials with historical value.
Rizal Librarys Preservation and Digitization Timeline
Rizaliana Digital Library Scanning/Digitization of Dr. Jose Rizals works that are already under public domain using Greenstone to organize the materials (on-going).
Electronic Reserve (E-Reserve)- Scanning of book chapters and journal articles and providing access to bonafide students using password given by faculty members for specific class/section and accessible on-campus only (implemented).
Greenstone (http://www.greenstone.org/)Greenstone is a suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections. It provides a new way of organizing information and publishing it on the Internet or on CD-ROM. Greenstone is produced by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, and developed and distributed in cooperation with UNESCO and the Human Info NGO. It is open-source, multilingual software, issued under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
Rizal Librarys Digital Library ConsiderationsStaff (Highly skilled and competent)Financial support, viability, and sustainability.SoftwareHardwareMaintenance (providing ideal environment for digital library storage )Security (hacking)Technology planningCopyright
Some Technical IssuesMost digitization projects have been launched or are conceived without long-term archiving in mind. These projects are started to improve access to the assets through databases and the Internet. But as soon as the first digital data arrives, the question of archiving arises: The digitization process is slow, expensive, and cumbersome and therefore will usually not be repeated in foreseeable time. As a consequence, anybody involved in digitization processes is suddenly facing the problem of long-term archiving of digital data (Rosenthaler, 2007).
Points to Consider (Rosenthaler, 2007)At the moment, for most cases the longevity of digital data can be best achieved by implementing a migration model based on the following rules:Redundancy Data must be kept with a high level of redundancy. At least three copies on a minimum of two different types of storage media (such as two copies on hard disk and one copy on magnetic tape) should be kept at geographically different locations.Checksums For all data files, checksums should be calculated and archived with the data files. This allows for checking data files at any time for aging-related changes or errors.Proofreading Every 12 to 24 months, the data should be proofread and the checksums compared. If errors are detected, a migration should be launched immediately.
Points to Consider (Rosenthaler, 2007)Migration: Migrations have to be planned in advance, including financing. A bit stream migration is necessary about every 5 years. A format migration is advised if a new file format becomes standard and the conversion can be done without loss of data.Documentation: Every step has to be documented in detail and all media must be labeled properly.By following these rules, you may preserve digital data indefinitely. However, constant care is required. If this care is not possible for a certain length of time, the data will be lost, and only digital archaeology may possibly recover part of the data.
ReferencesAtkinson, Ross. 1996. Library Functions, Scholarly Communication, and the Foundation of the Digital Library: Laying Claim to the Control Zone. The Library Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 3 (Jul., 1996), pp. 239-265 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4309129
Digital Archive. [Online]. http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_d.cfm#digitalarchive [accessed 11-06-09].
ReferencesDigital Preservation. [Online]. http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_D.cfm# [accessed 11-06-09].
Digitization. [Online]. http://lu.com/odlis/search.cfm [accessed 11-07-09].
Harrods Librarians Glossary and Reference Book. (2000). Ray Prytherch (comp.) 9th ed. England: Gower Publishing Co.
ReferencesRosenthaler, Lukas. "Digital Archiving." Focal Encyclopedia of Photography: Digital Imaging, Theory and Applications, History, and Science. Ed. Michael R. Peres. 4th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007. 359-364. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Ateneo de Manila University. 6 Nov. 2009 .
Young, Heartsill (ed.) 1983. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago: American Library Association.