- 1.Digital Libraries:the process, initiatives and developmental issues in IndiaBy Sudesh Kumar SoodChief Librarian, H.P. Central State Library, Solan (H.P) firstname.lastname@example.org
2. Features A digital library may alloweither online or offline accessto the elements it organizesand houses. May include multimedia aswell as multilingual data. 3. Objectives and Workflow Enhance the digital collection in a substantialway. Embrace popular digital standards , formats andsoftware platforms. Emphasis on maximize the efficiency andeffectiveness of the information access Standard workflow patterns are to be identifiedfor the system for: content selection, content acquisition, content publishing, content indexing and storage, and content accessing and delivery. The system should also concern about suchrelated issues, preservation, usage monitoring, access management,interoperability, administration and management etc. 4. Meta-data Standards andProtocols Metadata, or data about data, is a criticalelement for searching information through adatabase A major governing body of the Web hasdeveloped de facto standards including RDF At present, digital library initiatives in India makeuse of Dublin Core for web-based publications, Encoded Archival Description (EAD) for archiving and Visual Resources Association (VRA) for visual data. Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI_PMH) to automatically extract metadata information from digital libraries and enhance interoperability between systems. 5. Selection of the Software It should be robust in technical architecture aswell as the content architecture. The system should address all major digitallibrary related issues such as design criteria,collection building, contentorganization, access, evaluation, policyand legal issues including intellectualproperty rights. The system should also provide a powerfulsearch engine and the interface should be easyto navigate and there should be provision forcustomization. 6. There are many digital library soft waresavailable, proprietary as well as opensource, and most of them conform tointernational standards. VTLS and ACADO are the commercialones available and popular in the Indianmarket. Some of the popular Open SourceSoftware for digital libraries, which arein use internationally, are DSpace,Dienst, Eprints, Fedora,Greenstone etc. 7. Some Initiatives of India Institutional Repositories Open Courseware Initiatives Open Access Journals Metadata HarvestingServices and Others 8. Digital Repositories in India Institutional repository (IR) systems by libraries, using Greenstone Dspace EPrints Some open access repositories are specially created todisseminate intellectual outputs of the country in theform of electronic theses and dissertations Vidyanidhi ETD@IISc. Other national level open access repositories provideall kinds of scholarly materials on particular discipline. The OpenMED@NIC Librarians Digital Library 9. Some of such repositories are: Digital Repository of IIT Bomaby DRS@ino (National Institute of Oceanography) DSpace@NITR (National Institute of Technology,Rourkela) DSpace@MDI (Indian Institute of ManagementKozhikode) DSpace at National Chemical Laboratory, Pune DSpace@INFLIBNET Digital Collections@INFLIBNET Centre ePrints@SVNIT (Sardar Vallabhbai National Institute ofTechnology) eGyanKosh (IGNOU) ePrints@IIT Delhi 10. ePrints@IISc ePrints@Catalysis (National Centre for CatalysisResearch) ePrings@SBTMKU (School of Biotechnology, MaduraiKamraj University) Indian Institute of Astrophysics Repository National Aerospace Laboratories Kautilya Digital Repository of IGIDR (Indira GandhiInstitute of Development Research, Mumbai) NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository OpenMED@NIC (Medical) NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository RRI Digital Repository (Raman Research Institute DigitalRepository) 11. Open Courseware Initiatives CEC Learning Object Repository www.cec-lor.edu.in eGyankosh A National Digital Repository www.egyankosh.ac.in Indo-German eGurukul on Digital Libraries http://drtc.isibang.ac.in/mmb/ National Programme on Technology EnhancedLearning (NPTEL) www.nptel.iitm.ac.in NCERT Online Textbooks www.ncert.nic.in/textbooks/testing/Index.htm UNESCO-SALIS e-Learning Portal http://salisonline.org 12. Open Access Journals e-Journals @ INSA www.insa.ac.in Indian Academy of Sciences published OpenAccess Journals www.ias.ac.in/pubs/journals/ IndianJournals.Com hosted Open AccessJournals www.indianjournals.com Kamla-Raj Enterprises published Open AccessJournals www.krepublishers.com/KRENew- J/index.html MEDIND@NIC: Biomedical Journals from India http://medind.nic.in 13. Metadata Harvesting Services Cross Archive Search Service for IndianRepositories (CASSIR) http://casin.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/oai/ Open Index Initiative http://oii.igidr.ac.in Open J-Gate www.openj-gate.com Scientific Journal Publishing in India:Indexing and Online Management (SJPI) http://sjpi.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/ Search Digital Libraries (SDL) http://drtc.isibang.ac.in/sdl/ 14. Other Digital Libraries Archives of Indian Labour: Integrated Labour History ResearchProgramme www.indialabourarchives.org Child Trafficking Digital Library www.ChildTrafficking.com CSIR Explorations http://csirexplorations.com/ Cultural Heritage Digital Library in Hindi http://mobilelibrary.cdacnoida.in Digital e-Library (Dware Dware Gyan Sampadaa/ProvidingBooks at Your Doorsteps) www.new.dli.ernet.in Digital Library of India http://dli.iiit.ac.in India Education Digital Library www.edudl.gov.in 15. Kalasampada: Digital Library Resources ofIndian Cultural Heritage (DL-RICH) www.ignca.nic.in/dlrich.html Muktabodha: Digital Library and ArchivingProject www.muktabodhalib.org/digital_library.htm Traditional Knowledge Digital Library www.tkdl.res.in Vidyanidhi www.vidyanidhi.org.in Vigyan Prasar Digital Library www.vigyanprasar.gov.in/digilib/ 16. Digital library development issues in India Lack of proper Information &Communication Technology (ICT)Infrastructure Lack of Proper Planning and Integration ofInformation Resources Rigidity in the publishers policies and dataformats Lack of ICT Strategies and Policies Lack of Technical Skills Management Support Copyright / IPR Issues 17. Conclusion The effect of focused capacity building programmers inthe areas of digital preservation, digital libraries andopen access to literature is encouraging in a country likeIndia, where significant proliferation of open access anddigital library initiatives have been achieved in the lastdecade, which has seen fantastic accomplishments andthe future presents exciting possibilities and challenges.The key to commitment and development in this field liesin the sensitization of stakeholders as which has beendone in India, in order to achieve that paradigm shift inuniversal access to information, knowledge and heritage 18. Bibliography Ambati, Vamshi... [et al] (2006). The Digital Library of IndiaProject: Process, Policies and Architecture. Bhatnagar, S. & Schware, R. 2000. Technology in Development:Cases from India. Sage Publications. Bruce, B. C. (1997). Searching for digital libraries in education:Why computers cannot tell the story. Library Trends, 45(4), 746-770. 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