Mammalian Organ Systems Digestive System e/health-and-human-body/human- body/digestive-system-article.htmle/health-and-human-body/human- body/digestive-system-article.html Alimentary Canal Alimentary canal Digestive system that includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus About 30 feet in length Alimentary Canal Hard and soft palates Separate the oral cavity from the nasal cavity Alimentary Canal Epiglottis cartilaginous structure that protects the superior opening of the larynx When food is swallowed, the larynx is pulled upward and the epiglottis blocks the larynx Breathing stops when swallowing occurs Alimentary Canal Esophagus Long muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach Alimentary Canal Stomach Holds and digests food Muscular walls contract and churn food with hydrochloric acid that break down proteins Alimentary Canal Small intestines Absorbs approximately 90% of nutrients and water Duodenum the first portion of the small intestine Alimentary Canal Jejunum the long, coiled middle portion of the small intestine Ileum the final portion of the small intestine Alimentary Canal Large intestines Absorb the remaining nutrients and water from indigestible foods, compacts the remaining matter, and eliminates it as feces Accessory Organs Accessory organs aid in digestion Liver the bodys largest gland; detoxifies the blood and produces bile Bile used to break down fats Accessory Organs Gallbladder - green muscular sac that hangs from the liver; collects, stores, and concentrates bile from the liver Accessory Organs Pancreas produces insulin and enzymes that aid in digestion Insulin helps regulate the amount of sugar in the blood Cardiovascular System Sensory Organ: Eye Internal Anatomy of the Eye The eyeball is consisted of three tunics (coats) Sclera outer tunic (white of the eye) Choroid middle tunic (has a dark pigment that prevents light from escaping the eye) Retina inner tunic (has photoreceptors called rods and cones) Internal Anatomy of the Eye Sclera Choroid Retina Internal Anatomy of the Eye Cornea Clear membrane that forms the front of the eye Iris pigmented portion of the eye Pupil The expanding and contracting opening in the iris through which light passes to the retina Pupil Cornea Iris Internal Anatomy of the Eye Lens Allows light to reach the retina to focus an image Lens Suspensory ligaments Respiratory System Glottis Urinary System Kidney Forms and excretes urine Ureter Tube that connects a kidney to a bladder Bladder Stores urine