Download pdf - English Portofoliu

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    Portofoliu Engleza1.TensesPresent Simple

    -action in the present taking place once , never or several timesForm:+ S + verb (+ -s/-es in third person) + .

    S + do/ does not + verb + .

    ? Do/ Does + S + verb + ?

    Use: 1. Repeated actions -e.g.I play tennis.

    She does not play tennis.Does he play tennis?

    2.Facts or Generalizations -e.g. Cats like milk.

    Birds do not l ike milk.Do pigs like milk?

    3.Scheduled Events in the Near Future -

    e.g. The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.When do we boardthe plane.

    4.Now (Non-Continuous Verbs) -

    e.g. I am here now.She is not here now.

    Do you have your passport with you?

    Present Continuous

    -action taking place in the moment of speakingForm: + S + am/ is/ are + verb + -ing + .

    S + am / is/ are not + verb + -ing + .

    ? Am/ Is/ Are + S + verb + -ing + ?

    Use: 1.Now -e.g. You are learning English now.

    You are not swimming now. Are yousleeping?

    2.Longer Actions in Progress Now -

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    e.g. I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.I am not reading any books right now.Are you working on any special projects at work?

    3. Near Future -e.g. I am meeting some friends after work.

    I am not going to the party tonight.Is he visiting his parents next weekend?

    4. Repetition and Irritation with "Always" -

    e.g. She is always coming to classlate.

    Adverbs of frequency

    -expresses how oftensomething happens

    e.g. a) daily, weekly, yearly

    b) often, always, never

    -they answer the quetion How frequency? or How often?

    Position:1. before the main verb

    Adverb of frequency Verb I always get up at 6.45.Peter can usually play football on Sundays.Mandy has sometimes got lots of homework.

    2. after a form of to be am, are, is (was, were)

    Verb Adverb of frequency Susan is never late.Obs.1. The adverbs often, usually, sometimes and occasionally can goat the beginning of a sentence.s

    e.g. Sometimes I go swimming. Often we surf the internet.2. Sometimes these adverbs are put at the end of the sentence.e.g. We read books occasionally.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    Past Simple-action happened in the Past

    Form: + S + verb 2nd form or verb + -ed + . S + did not (didn't) + verb + .? Did + S + verb + ?

    Use: 1.Completed Action in the Past -e.g. Last year, I traveled to Japan.

    Last year, I didn't travel to Korea. Did you have dinner last night?

    2. A Series of Completed Actions -

    e.g. I finishedwork, found a nice place to go and walked to the beach.Did you add flour, pour in the milk and then add the eggs?

    3.Duration in Past -e.g. They did not stay at the party the entire time.

    A: How long did you wait for them?B: We waited for one hour.

    4. Habits in the Past -e.g. He played the violin.

    He didn't play the piano.Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?

    5. Past Facts or Generalizations -e.g. She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.

    He didn't like tomatoes before.Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?

    Used to


    indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is

    not usually done now

    Form: + S + used to + verb + .

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    S + didn't use to + verb + .

    ? Did + S + use to + verb + ?

    Use: 1. Habit in the Past -

    e.g. I used to live in Paris.Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.George used to be the best student, but now Lena is the best.

    2. Past Facts and Generalizations -e.g. I used to live in Paris.

    Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.George used to be the best student, but now Lena is the best.

    Past Continuous

    -action going on at a certain time in the pastForm: + S + was/ were + verb + -ing + .

    S + was/ were not + verb + -ing + .

    ? Was/ Were + S + verb + -ing + ?

    Use: 1. Interrupted Action in the Past -e.g. What were you doing when the earthquake started?

    I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm.You were no t l istening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.

    2. Specific Time as an Interruption -e.g. Last night at 6 PM, I was eatingdinner.

    At midnight, wewere


    through the desert.Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

    Obs. In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action

    began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts

    the action.

    e.g. Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. (ISTARTEDEATINGAT6 PM.)Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. (ISTARTEDEARLIER;ANDAT6 PM, IWASINTHEPROCESSOFEATINGDINNER.)

    3. Parallel Actions -

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    e.g. While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.What were you doing while you were waiting?Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.

    4. Atmosphere

    e.g. When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing ,some were talkingon the phones, the boss was yelling directions, andcustomers werewaiting to be helped.

    5. Repetition and Irritation with "Always" -

    e.g. She was always coming to class late.He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

    Present Perfect Simple

    - finished action happened in the pastthat has an influence on the


    Form: + S + has/ have + verb (3rd form/ -ed) + .

    - S + has/ have not + verb (3rd form/ -ed) + .

    ? Has/ Have + S + verb (3


    form/ -ed) + ?

    Use: 1.Unspecified Time Before Now -e.g. People have traveled to the Moon.

    People have not traveled to Mars.Have you read the book yet?

    How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

    It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:1.Experience - e.g. I have been to France three times.2.Change Over Time - e.g. You have grown since the last time Isaw you.3.Accomplishments - e.g. Man has walked on the Moon.4.An Uncomplited Action You Are Expecting - e.g. Therain hasn't stopped.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    5.Multiple Actions at Different Times - e.g. The army hasattacked that city five times.

    2. Duration From the Past Until Now -e.g. I have had a cold for two weeks.

    She has been in England for six months.Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.


    Form Will

    + S + will + verb + .

    S + will not (won't) + verb + .? Will/ Shall + S + verb + ?

    Form Going to

    + S + am/ is/ are + going to + verb + .

    S + am/ is/ are not + going to + verb + .

    ? Am/ Is/ Are + S + going to + verb + ?

    Use: a) Will1. Express a Voluntary Action e.g. I will send you the information

    when I get it.

    2. Express a Promise e.g. I promise I will not tellanyone.

    b) Going to

    1. Express a plan e.g. He is going to spend hisvacation in Hawaii.

    c) Will or Going to1. Express a prediction

    e.g. The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.

    2. Questions

    Wh- questions

    -We use question words to ask certain types of questions.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    -We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters

    WH (for example WHy, HoW).

    Pattern (Passive): Wh- word + am/ is/ are/ was/ were + S +verb(3rd form/-ed) + by/ with/ + ?Exemples of Wh- words:


    Function Example

    what asking for information about


    Whatis your name?

    asking for repetition or


    What? I can't hear


    You did what?

    what...for asking for a reason, asking why Whatdid you do that


    when asking about time Whendid he leave?

    where asking in or at what place or


    Wheredo they live?

    which asking about choice Whichcolour do youwant?

    who asking what or which person or

    people (subject)

    Whoopened the door?

    whom asking what or which person or

    people (object)

    Whomdid you see?

    whose asking about ownership Whoseare these


    Whoseturn is it?

    why asking for reason, asking


    Whydo you say that?

    why don't making a suggestion Whydon't I help you?

    how asking about manner Howdoes this work?

    asking about condition or Howwas your exam?

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu



    how + adj/adv asking about extent or degree see examples below

    how far distance How faris Pattaya

    from Bangkok?

    how long length (time or space) How longwill it take?

    how many quantity (countable) How manycars are


    how much quantity (uncountable) How muchmoney do

    you have?

    how old age How oldare you?

    how come


    asking for reason, asking why How comeI can't see


    Question Tags

    e.g. Theyplayfootball on Sundays, don'tthey?Theydon 't play football on Sundays, do they?She plays football on Sundays, do esn't she?

    Theyplayed football on Sundays, didn 't they?Pattern: If the main sentence is positive, then the tag is negative.

    If the main sentence is negative, then the tag is positive.

    Main Sentence Tag

    + -

    Present Simple verb (-s/ -es) do(es) not + S ?

    Past Simple verb (-ed/ 2nd) did not + S ?

    Pres. Perf. Simple have/ has verb (-ed/ 3rd) have/ has not + S ?

    Present Continous am/ is/ are + verb(-ing) is/ are not + S ?*

    Past Continuous was/ were + verb (-ing) was/ were not + S?

    *am + I + not ? or are not I ?

    Main Sentence Tag

    - +

    Present Simple do(es) not + verb do(es) + S ?

    Past Simple did not + verb did + S ?

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    Pres. Perf. Simple have/ has not verb (-ed/ 3rd) have/ has + S ?

    Present Continous am/ is/ are not + verb(-ing) am/ is/ are + S ?

    Past Continuous was/ were not + verb (-ing) was/ were + S?

    3. Adjectives

    Order of Adjectives

    Opinion Fact

    e.g. nice

    Obs. To describe an object are used only three or less


    -ing Adjectives

    -adjectives that end in ing are used to describe things andsituationse.g. Working hard all day is tiring.

    -ed Adjectives

    -adjectives that end in ed are used to describe how peoplefeele.g. She felt tiredafter working hard all day.Degrees of Comparison

    1.Short Adjectives

    1.monosyllabic e.g. old

    2.bisyllabic e.g. easy

    Positive Comparative of Superioty Superlative

    E.g. old olderthan the oldest of/in


    a.adj. care











    thebiggest of/in



    shape colour

    origin material


    big old square black French wooden table

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu



    yin iinainte

    de a sufixa








    theeasiest of/in

    theprettiest of/in

    c.adj. cu

    terminatia e

    pierd vocalafinala inainte

    de sufixare

    nice nicerthan the nicestof/in

    2.Long Adjectives

    - adjectives with more than two syllables: beatiful, interesting,important etc.

    Positive Comparative of Superioty SuperlativeE.g. beautiful more beautiful than the most beautiful of/in

    3.Irregular Adjectives

    Positive Comparative of Superioty Superlative

    good/ well better the bestbad/ ill worse the worst


    more the most

    little less/ lesser the leastfew fewer the fewestnear farther/ further the farthest/

    furthestlate later/ latter the latest/ last

    4. comparation of equality as as

    comparation of inferiority less than ; the least of

    absolute superlative very

    4. Noun

    Plural Forms

    sg. + -s e.g. book - books

    cat cats

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    girl girlssg. + -es -s buses -sh brushes

    -ss dresses -ch churches-x boxes -tch watches-ge oranges

    Obs.1. -y vocala + -y vocala + -ys - boy boys

    consoana + -y consoana + -ies fly flies

    2. -f/-fe -ves wolf wolves

    Exceptii: roof roofs ; chief chiefs ; hankerchief hankerchiefs3. -o -es potatoes, tomatoes, mosquitoes, volcanoes

    -s pianos, sopranos, photos, radios

    Irregular Nouns

    man menfoot feetchild childrenperson peopletooth teethmouse miceSubstantive cu pluralul indentic cu singularul:fruit, fish,sheep, deer

    Countable Nouns

    Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can



    dog, cat, animal, man, person

    bottle, box, litre

    coin, note, dollar

    cup, plate, fork

    table, chair, suitcase, bag

    Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

    My dog is playing. My dogs are hungry.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    We can use the indefinite articlea/an with countable nouns: A dog is an animal.

    When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word

    like a/the/my/this with it: I want an orange. (notI want orange.) Where is my bottle? (notWhere is bottle?)

    When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:

    I like oranges.

    Bottles can break.

    We can use some and any with countable nouns: I've got some dollars. Have you got any pens?

    We can use a few andmany with countable nouns: I've got a few dollars. I haven't got many pens.

    Uncountable NounsUncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot

    divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them.


    music, art, love, happiness

    advice, information, news

    furniture, luggage

    rice, sugar, butter, water

    electricity, gas, power

    money, currency

    We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular

    verb. For example:

    This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    We do not usually use the indefinite articlea/an with uncountablenouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can

    say a something of : a piece of news a bottle of water

    a grain ofrice

    Containers: bottle, carton, glass, cup, loaf (pl. loaves), slice,jar, packet, jug, can, piece, bowl, kilo, bar, We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:

    I've got some money. Have you got any rice?

    We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns: I've got a little money. I haven't got much rice.

    Uncountable nouns are also called mass nouns.

    Here are some more examples of countable and uncountable nouns:

    Countable Uncountable

    dollar money

    song music

    suitcase luggage

    table furniture

    battery electricity

    bottle wine

    report information

    tip advice

    journey travel

    job work

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    view scenery

    Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable,often with a change of meaning.

    Countable Noun Uncountable

    There are two hairs in my

    coffee!hair I don't have much hair.

    There are two lights in our

    bedroom.light Close the curtain. There's too

    much light!

    Shhhhh! I thought I heard a


    There are so many differentnoises in the city.


    It's difficult to work when

    there is so much noise.

    Have you got a paper to read?


    Hand me those student



    I want to draw a picture. Have

    you got some paper?

    Our house has seven rooms. room Is there room for me to sithere?

    We had a great time at the


    How many times have I told

    you no?

    timeHave you got time for a cup of


    Macbethis one of

    Shakespeare's greatest


    workI have no money. I need work!

    5. Modals


    Use Examples

    ability to do sth. in the present

    (substitute form: to be able to)I can speak English.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    permission to do sth. in the

    present (substitute form: to be

    allowed to)

    Can I go to the cinema?

    request Can you wait a moment, please?offer

    I can lend you my car tilltomorrow.

    suggestionCan we visit Grandma at theweekend?

    possibility It can get very hot in Arizona.Could

    Use Examples

    ability to do sth. in the past

    (substitute form: to be able to)I could speak English.

    permission to do sth. in the past

    (substitute form: to be allowed to)I could go to the cinema.

    polite question Could I go to the cinema, please?polite request Could you wait a moment, please?

    polite offer

    I could lend you my car tilltomorrow.

    polite suggestionCould we visit Grandma at theweekend?

    possibility It could get very hot in Montana.Need

    Use Examples

    necessaryI need go to the supermarket, wedo not have any sugar left.

    Need not

    Use Examples

    not necessary

    I needn'tgo to the supermarket,we're going to the restauranttonight.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu



    Use Examples

    force, necessity I must go to the supermarket.possibility You mustbe tired.advice, recommendation

    You mustsee the new film withBrad Pitt.

    Must not

    Use Examples

    prohibitionYou mustn'twork on dad'scomputer.


    Use Examples

    adviceYou should drive carefully in badweather.

    obligationYou should switch off the lightwhen you leave the room.

    6. Conditionals

    Type 0


    If + simple presentIf you heat ice

    If it rains

    simple presentit melts.

    you get wet

    In 'zero' conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of thesentence is the simple present .NOTE:The order of the clauses is not fixed - the 'if' clause canbe first or second:

    Ice melts if you heat it.

    You get wet if it rains.

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    In these sentences, the time is now or always and thesituation is real and possible . They are used to makestatements about the real world, and often refer to general

    truths, such as scientific facts.


    a. If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.b. Plants die if they don't getenough water.c. If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.d. If public transport isefficient, people stop using their cars.e. If you mix red and blue, you get purple.The structure below is often used to give instructions, using

    the imperative in the main clause:

    If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema. Ask Pete ifyou're not sure what to do.Type 1


    If + simple presentIf it rainsIf you don't hurry

    Simple futureyou will get wetwe will miss the train.

    In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause isthe simple present, and the tense in the main clause isthe simple future.

    In these sentences, the time is the present orfutureand thesituation is real. They refer to a possible conditionandits probable result. They are based on facts, and they areused to make statements about the real world, and aboutparticular situations. We often use such sentences to givewarnings:

    If youdon't leave , I' ll call the police. If youdon't drop the gun, I'llshoot ! If youdrop that glass, it willbreak . Nobody willnotice if you make a mistake.

    If I have time,I'llfinish that letter. What willyou do if you miss the plane?

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    NOTE:We can use modals to express the degree of certainty of theresult:

    If youdrop that glass, itmight break . Imay finish that letter if Ihave time.

    7. Infinitives vs Ing FormWhen to use the infinitive

    The infinitive form is used aftercertain verbs:- forget, help, learn, teach, train

    - choose, expect, hope, need, offer, want, would like

    - agree, encourage, pretend, promise

    - allow, can/can't afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse

    I forgotto closethe window. Mary needsto leaveearly. Why are they encouragedto learnEnglish? We can't affordto takea long holiday.

    The infinitive form is always used afteradjectives, for example:- disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised

    I was happyto helpthem. She will be delightedto seeyou.

    This includes too + adjective: The water was too coldto swimin. Is your coffee too hotto drink?

    The infinitive form is used afteradjective + enough: He was strong enoughto liftit. She is rich enoughto buytwo.

    When to use -ing

    The -ing form is used when the word is the subject of a sentence orclause:

    Swimming is good exercise.

    Doctors say that smoking is bad for you.The -ing form is used after a preposition:

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    I look forward tomeetingyou. They left withoutsaying"Goodbye."

    The -ing form is used aftercertain verbs:- avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, mind/not mind, practise

    I dislikegetting upearly. Would you mindopeningthe window?

    8. Passive Voice

    Form: S2 + to be + verb(-ed/ 3rd form) + + Ag.Def. A grammatical category which shows that the action is done

    by the agent, not by the grammatical subject.

    Active: The old man walks three times a day the dog.

    S1 D.O.

    Passive: The dog is walked three times by the old man. S2 Ag.

    Tense Simple Continuous

    Present am/ is/ are am/ is/ are being

    Past was/ were was/ were being

    9. Reported Speech

    Direct Speech = the actual words spoken by a person;Reported Speech = the words are reported by somebody

    else.e.g. I am very curious about the film.

    She/He said (that) she/he was very curious about the film.

    Form: + S1 + said (that/ to + S2) + verb (right tense) + .+ S1 + told + S2+ verb (right tense) + .? S1 + asked + S2 + verb (right tense) + .

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu


    Change of Tense from Direct Speech to ReportedSpeech

    Direct Speech Reported Speech

    Simple present Simple pastPresent continuous Past continuousSimple past Past perfectPresent perfect Past perfectPast perfect Past perfectPresent perfect continuous Past perfect continuousPast continuous Past perfect continuousFuture Present conditionalFuture continuous Conditional continuous

    10. Pronouns


    - we use reflexive pronouns when the action is done by and on the

    same person

    Personal Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun

    I myselfyou yourselfsheheit


    we ourselves

    you yourselvesthey themselves

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu



    Who = refers to people ;Which = refers to objects and animals ;Whose = refers to people and objects (showing possesion).Are also relative pronouns:When = refers to time ;Where = refers to place ;Why = refers to reason .

  • 7/27/2019 English Portofoliu