226 Tiie U$pv Coat
XX.- The Upper Coal .Measures West of the Alleghanp Mountains.
BY JNO. J. STEVFJYSON,PH.D.
Read December 16,1872.
WHILE connected with the Geological Survey. of Ohio, I: was employed in investigating the Upper Coals as displayed in the First Geological District of the state. The relations of the coal beds to each other, and the marked ohangee in the intervening strata, seemed to be at variance with some accepted opinions and induced me to make diligent compari- son of the Ohio coals with those of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The results of this examination appear, to me, of sufticient importance to warrant publication in advance of the Ohio Report. This I am permitted to do by the courtesy of Prof. Newberry, chief geologist of Ohio.
The observations recorded in this paper cover only that portion of the field xiorth of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad in West Virginia and Ohio.
LIMITS OF THE: UPPER COALS.
The autcrop of the Pittsburg cod, the base of tha Upper Coal Measures, beginning ati the Baltimore and Ohio rail- road in West Virginia runs northward, rudely parallel to Laurel Hill, through Marion and MonongaJia counties, W. Vai, and Eayetta and Westmoreland, Penn., thence westwardly, though Westmoreland and Alleghany into Han- cockl W. Va. CrossiDg the Ohio just above Steubenville it passes through Jefferson, Harrison and Belmont into Guernsey where it reaches the Baltimore and Ohio railroad at SalesviUe, thirty-seven miles west from the Ohio rivar. That this is by no means the original extent is evident from several facts. In Pennsylvania, the Frostburg and Broad Top basins lying to the east of the main outcrop have been
West of $he AZZeglTian y Mountains. 5327
proved to contain the upper coals, anit some of our leading geologists profess to find equivalents of the same beds in tbe anthracite region. 'in Ohio, west of the line of outcrop, isolated patohes areA found iu the synclinal paasing through Guernsey county, ten to fifteen miles away. At New Con- cord, Muskingum Co,, Ohio, twenty-three miles west from Salesville, there is a thin coal resting on a heavy buff colored fossiliferous limestone and occupying both sides of the syn- clinal trough, of which the bottom is at that village, About fifty feet below it is a hard limestone, bluish-gray in color and fossilil'erous, known in the Ohio section as the Crinoidal Limestone, a persistent stratum traceable in to Pennsylvania and Westi Virginia.
Alang the western outcrop of the Pittsburg coal the Ci.inoida1 Limestone is found at a distance, varyiug little from one hundred and fifty feet, below the coal, and the interval is occupied by variegated shales and shaly sand- stones, with no coal or even bituminous shale. From four to ten feet below the coal there is a tough limestone, varying in color, four to six feet thick and more or less fossiliferous, f t mould seem then from the accompanying rocks that the New Concord coal is the western prolongation of the Pith- burg. It is true that the interval between it and the Cyrhoidal Limestone is at that place very much less than at Salesville, twenty-three miles east, but even this is an additional proof of identity, for this interval increases eastward. Three miles northwest from New Concord it is barely thirty-five feet ; at Concord it is fifty ; at Salesville it is one hundred and fifty; while in the Monongahela Valley it is two hun- dred and fifty.
The C'lrinoidal Limestone has been traced to within three miles of the Muskingum river on the west and thence round to the borders of Tuscarawas and Stark, on the northwest and into Columbiana and Mahoning on the north, So constant and regular is it in its relations to the Pittsburg coal, that we may regard its distriblxtion as an indication of
228 Tlte Uper Coal Measures
the original extent of that bed, Accepting this then as a basis for the calculation we conclude that that coal once reached as far west as Sonora on the Central Ohio railroad, seventy-one mite5 west from Wheeling, and to a point north- ward not less than fifty miles from that city, a tortuous boundary 'line connecting the two points.
1. Sandstone, 7'
2. CoaZ,Waynesbnrg, 3' 3. Shale, 33'
5. Sandstone, 3'
6. Limestone and Shale, 95' 7. Shale, 3' 8. Coat, 18'
10. Coal, 1'
12. Sandstone, 8' 13. CoaZ,Sewickly, 18' 14. Limestone, 24' 15. Coal, Bedstone, 1' 16. Limestone, 20'
4. Limestone, 15'
9. Shale, 6'
ll. Clay, 6.'
17. Shale, 6' 18. Coal, Pittsburg, 8'
RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL COAL BEDS IN OHIO, PENNSYLVANIA AND WEST VIRGINIA.
1, Deb~ia, 160' 2. C o a l m , 1% 3. Sandstone, 70' 4. Coa2xn, l$'
5. ShaleandSandstone, 40' 6. Coalxl, 2'
7. Sandstone With thin Limestoue, loo'
To ascertain the relation of the Ohio coals to those of Pennsylvania and West Virginia thq followiiig sections are compared :
2. Coal ~ m , 3. Sandstone, 4. Coal XU, ti. Shale, 6. Coal XI, 7. Sandstone,
I. From Kirkwood Township, Belmont Co., Ohio.
II. From the Central Ohio railroad be- tween the Ohio river and the Barnes- ville summit.
IX. from Wheeling, W. Va.
IV. From Wheeling creek, W. Va. V. From Scott's Run, Monongdia Co.
TI. From Uniontown, Fayette Co., Penn. W. Va.
11. I .I. m. I
a. C O ~ Z X , 9. Sandstone.
Limestone, Shale, Coat vm.
8. Coal X, 9. Sandstone,
40' 10. Coal TX, 11. Limestone,
2i' 70' - -
12. Coat vmc, 13. Sandstone,
8' 14, Coal vm b, 16. Limestone, 16, Coal Vm a,
14. Fireclay, 5' 16. Limestone, 6'
17. Limestone, 18. Shale, 19. Coal my
We& of the AZZegha& Mountains. 229
1. Sandstone, 6' 2. Limestobe and shale, 3' 3. Coal, Waynesbnrg, 3' 4. Shale, 38'
Iv. I V. 1 VI. 1. Sandstone, 40' 1, Limestone, ia 2. Shale, 1-20' 2. Not well exposed 3. Coal, Waynesbnrg, 9' much limestone. - 4, Sandstone, 16' 3. Shale, 16'
6, Limestone, 6. Shale,
6. Shale, 6. Limestone,
4. Sandstone and lime- stone, 110'
?,*Limestone and shale, 100'
10.. Sandstone, 15'
8. Coal, 3'
9. Clay, 2'
11. Coat, Sewickly, 38' 12. Limestone, 13. Shale,
7. Shale, 4' 6. Coal, Semickly, 4' 8. Sandstone and shale, 16' 6. Shale, 2' 9. Limestone and shale, 30' 7. Liestone, 6' 10. Shale and sandstone, 26' 8. Shale, 41'3 11. Limestone, 6' 9. Coat, Bedstone, 2'
65' 12. Sandstone, 6' 13. Limestone, I 16' 7'
10. Shale with CalCa= reous nodules, 16'
11. Sandstone, 6' 12. Shales, 16' 13. Coal, Pittsburg, 10'
14. Coal, Pittsburg, 7' 16. Fireclay, 2'
14. Sandstone, 15. Limestone, 16. Shale, 17. Sandstone, 18. Arenaceons shale, 19. Coal, Sewickly,
21. Limestone, !22.2i.Snndstone, 23. Limestone, W . Coal, Redstone, 25. Limestone, 26. Shale, 27. CoaZ, Pittsburg,
The discrepancy between the two Ohio sections will be discussed in another portion of the paper.
Taking Coal VIII of the Ohio section as our basis, we have a definite starting point, as that is the Pittsburg. VIII a is present at Wheeling; does not appear at Wheeling creek, owing probably to imperfect exposure, but reappears on the east side as the Redstone. V I I I b is seen in all the sections
230 The Upper Coal Xeasures
Cod w. CoaZxr.
coal x. coal zx, CoaZ vm c. cw2m 6, Coa2 vm a. CoaZ vm..
and is the 8ewic7cZy. T3.U c crosses the Ohio, is traceable dong Wheeling creek for several miles, but soon runs under and does not reappear on the other side, IX and X do not cross the river into West Virginia, the former disappearing two miJes west from the Ohio, while the latter i s seen as a mere streak in the hills opposite Wheeling. It is possible, however., that; careful. tracing round by the norrth may estab- lish some connection between our Caal X and the Uniontown coal of Penmylvania. Coal XI is persistent thpoughsut, and is the Wayrzesburg. xu[ was not seen by me at Wheeling, though it is probably the bed noted by Mr. Briggs, eighty= two feet above the last. At Waynesburg and Uniontown, the interval is from fifty to Eiixty feet. Erosion has so removed Coal XIII and its adjoining rocks that it is to be seen at no point near the Ohio river, but its equivalent in Penn- sylvania is doubtless the top coal at Waynesburg and Union- town, fifty-five feet above the last. These two beds exist in West Virginia on the east side of the basin, but owing to the poverty of exposures no definite statement can be made respecting them.
The relations of the coals in the several states may there- fore be represented as folIows :
PENNSYLVANSA. WEST VIRGJXIA.
Top at Waynesburg. ? X&&k at Waynesburg. ? WaynesBurg. . Wagnesbzwg.
U&mtozon? Not present. Not present. Not. present. Not present. Not presene (east side of basin). Setpick&. SetaickZy. Redstone. Redstone. FdttsbuTg . Pittsburg.
We& of the Alleghatzy &!buntaim. 231
DESCRIF!PION OF THE! BEDSr
Coals XII and XIII of the Ohio section are well at faw localities and are of economical importance nowhere. The former is enormously developed in the hills opposite Wheel- ing, where it is a dry coal, six feet thick, but heavily charged with pyrites.
The Waynesbzcrg (