XX.—The Upper Coal Measures West of the Alleghany Mountains

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<ul><li><p>226 Tiie U$pv Coat </p><p>XX.- The Upper Coal .Measures West of the Alleghanp Mountains. </p><p>BY JNO. J. STEVFJYSON,PH.D. </p><p>Read December 16,1872. </p><p>WHILE connected with the Geological Survey. of Ohio, I: was employed in investigating the Upper Coals as displayed in the First Geological District of the state. The relations of the coal beds to each other, and the marked ohangee in the intervening strata, seemed to be at variance with some accepted opinions and induced me to make diligent compari- son of the Ohio coals with those of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The results of this examination appear, to me, of sufticient importance to warrant publication in advance of the Ohio Report. This I am permitted to do by the courtesy of Prof. Newberry, chief geologist of Ohio. </p><p>The observations recorded in this paper cover only that portion of the field xiorth of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad in West Virginia and Ohio. </p><p>LIMITS OF THE: UPPER COALS. </p><p>The autcrop of the Pittsburg cod, the base of tha Upper Coal Measures, beginning ati the Baltimore and Ohio rail- road in West Virginia runs northward, rudely parallel to Laurel Hill, through Marion and MonongaJia counties, W. Vai, and Eayetta and Westmoreland, Penn., thence westwardly, though Westmoreland and Alleghany into Han- cockl W. Va. CrossiDg the Ohio just above Steubenville it passes through Jefferson, Harrison and Belmont into Guernsey where it reaches the Baltimore and Ohio railroad at SalesviUe, thirty-seven miles west from the Ohio rivar. That this is by no means the original extent is evident from several facts. In Pennsylvania, the Frostburg and Broad Top basins lying to the east of the main outcrop have been </p></li><li><p>West of $he AZZeglTian y Mountains. 5327 </p><p>proved to contain the upper coals, anit some of our leading geologists profess to find equivalents of the same beds in tbe anthracite region. 'in Ohio, west of the line of outcrop, isolated patohes areA found iu the synclinal paasing through Guernsey county, ten to fifteen miles away. At New Con- cord, Muskingum Co,, Ohio, twenty-three miles west from Salesville, there is a thin coal resting on a heavy buff colored fossiliferous limestone and occupying both sides of the syn- clinal trough, of which the bottom is at that village, About fifty feet below it is a hard limestone, bluish-gray in color and fossilil'erous, known in the Ohio section as the Crinoidal Limestone, a persistent stratum traceable in to Pennsylvania and Westi Virginia. </p><p>Alang the western outcrop of the Pittsburg coal the Ci.inoida1 Limestone is found at a distance, varyiug little from one hundred and fifty feet, below the coal, and the interval is occupied by variegated shales and shaly sand- stones, with no coal or even bituminous shale. From four to ten feet below the coal there is a tough limestone, varying in color, four to six feet thick and more or less fossiliferous, f t mould seem then from the accompanying rocks that the New Concord coal is the western prolongation of the Pith- burg. It is true that the interval between it and the Cyrhoidal Limestone is at that place very much less than at Salesville, twenty-three miles east, but even this is an additional proof of identity, for this interval increases eastward. Three miles northwest from New Concord it is barely thirty-five feet ; at Concord it is fifty ; at Salesville it is one hundred and fifty; while in the Monongahela Valley it is two hun- dred and fifty. </p><p>The C'lrinoidal Limestone has been traced to within three miles of the Muskingum river on the west and thence round to the borders of Tuscarawas and Stark, on the northwest and into Columbiana and Mahoning on the north, So constant and regular is it in its relations to the Pittsburg coal, that we may regard its distriblxtion as an indication of </p></li><li><p>228 Tlte Uper Coal Measures </p><p>40' </p><p>1' </p><p>70' </p><p>1' </p><p>35' </p><p>14' 100' </p><p>44' </p><p>2&amp;' </p><p>36' </p><p>70' </p><p>4' </p><p>35 </p><p>fr' 30' </p><p>&amp; 20' </p><p>10' </p><p>the original extent of that bed, Accepting this then as a basis for the calculation we conclude that that coal once reached as far west as Sonora on the Central Ohio railroad, seventy-one mite5 west from Wheeling, and to a point north- ward not less than fifty miles from that city, a tortuous boundary 'line connecting the two points. </p><p>1. Sandstone, 7' </p><p>2. CoaZ,Waynesbnrg, 3' 3. Shale, 33' </p><p>5. Sandstone, 3' </p><p>6. Limestone and Shale, 95' 7. Shale, 3' 8. Coat, 18' </p><p>10. Coal, 1' </p><p>12. Sandstone, 8' 13. CoaZ,Sewickly, 18' 14. Limestone, 24' 15. Coal, Bedstone, 1' 16. Limestone, 20' </p><p>4. Limestone, 15' </p><p>9. Shale, 6' </p><p>ll. Clay, 6.' </p><p>17. Shale, 6' 18. Coal, Pittsburg, 8' </p><p>RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL COAL BEDS IN OHIO, PENNSYLVANIA AND WEST VIRGINIA. </p><p>1, Deb~ia, 160' 2. C o a l m , 1% 3. Sandstone, 70' 4. Coa2xn, l$' </p><p>5. ShaleandSandstone, 40' 6. Coalxl, 2' </p><p>7. Sandstone With thin Limestoue, loo' </p><p>To ascertain the relation of the Ohio coals to those of Pennsylvania and West Virginia thq followiiig sections are compared : </p><p>1. Sandstone, </p><p>2. Coal ~ m , 3. Sandstone, 4. Coal XU, ti. Shale, 6. Coal XI, 7. Sandstone, </p><p>I. From Kirkwood Township, Belmont Co., Ohio. </p><p>II. From the Central Ohio railroad be- tween the Ohio river and the Barnes- ville summit. </p><p>IX. from Wheeling, W. Va. </p><p>IV. From Wheeling creek, W. Va. V. From Scott's Run, Monongdia Co. </p><p>TI. From Uniontown, Fayette Co., Penn. W. Va. </p><p>(Rogers.) </p><p>11. I .I. m. I </p><p>a. C O ~ Z X , 9. Sandstone. </p><p>10. </p><p>11. </p><p>1% </p><p>13. </p><p>Con2 IxI </p><p>Limestone, Shale, Coat vm. </p><p>8. Coal X, 9. Sandstone, </p><p>40' 10. Coal TX, 11. Limestone, </p><p>2i' 70' - - </p><p>12. Coat vmc, 13. Sandstone, </p><p>6' </p><p>8' 14, Coal vm b, 16. Limestone, 16, Coal Vm a, </p><p>14. Fireclay, 5' 16. Limestone, 6' </p><p>17. Limestone, 18. Shale, 19. Coal my </p><p>91 </p></li><li><p>We&amp; of the AZZegha&amp; Mountains. 229 </p><p>1. Sandstone, 6' 2. Limestobe and shale, 3' 3. Coal, Waynesbnrg, 3' 4. Shale, 38' </p><p>Iv. I V. 1 VI. 1. Sandstone, 40' 1, Limestone, ia 2. Shale, 1-20' 2. Not well exposed 3. Coal, Waynesbnrg, 9' much limestone. - 4, Sandstone, 16' 3. Shale, 16' </p><p>but containing </p><p>1' </p><p>40' </p><p>6, Limestone, 6. Shale, </p><p>6. Shale, 6. Limestone, </p><p>8' </p><p>5' </p><p>4. Sandstone and lime- stone, 110' </p><p>?,*Limestone and shale, 100' </p><p>10.. Sandstone, 15' </p><p>8. Coal, 3' </p><p>9. Clay, 2' </p><p>11. Coat, Sewickly, 38' 12. Limestone, 13. Shale, </p><p>7. Shale, 4' 6. Coal, Semickly, 4' 8. Sandstone and shale, 16' 6. Shale, 2' 9. Limestone and shale, 30' 7. Liestone, 6' 10. Shale and sandstone, 26' 8. Shale, 41'3 11. Limestone, 6' 9. Coat, Bedstone, 2' </p><p>65' 12. Sandstone, 6' 13. Limestone, I 16' 7' </p><p>10' 8' </p><p>l2! </p><p>10. Shale with CalCa= reous nodules, 16' </p><p>11. Sandstone, 6' 12. Shales, 16' 13. Coal, Pittsburg, 10' </p><p>14. Coal, Pittsburg, 7' 16. Fireclay, 2' </p><p>1'1 8' </p><p>14. Sandstone, 15. Limestone, 16. Shale, 17. Sandstone, 18. Arenaceons shale, 19. Coal, Sewickly, </p><p>21. Limestone, !22.2i.Snndstone, 23. Limestone, W . Coal, Redstone, 25. Limestone, 26. Shale, 27. CoaZ, Pittsburg, </p><p>20. Shale, </p><p>7' 10' </p><p>22' 4' </p><p>J2' 8' </p><p>14' </p><p>The discrepancy between the two Ohio sections will be discussed in another portion of the paper. </p><p>Taking Coal VIII of the Ohio section as our basis, we have a definite starting point, as that is the Pittsburg. VIII a is present at Wheeling; does not appear at Wheeling creek, owing probably to imperfect exposure, but reappears on the east side as the Redstone. V I I I b is seen in all the sections </p></li><li><p>230 The Upper Coal Xeasures </p><p>OHIO. </p><p>CoaZ XIIT. </p><p>Cod w. CoaZxr. </p><p>coal x. coal zx, CoaZ vm c. cw2m 6, Coa2 vm a. CoaZ vm.. </p><p>and is the 8ewic7cZy. T3.U c crosses the Ohio, is traceable dong Wheeling creek for several miles, but soon runs under and does not reappear on the other side, IX and X do not cross the river into West Virginia, the former disappearing two miJes west from the Ohio, while the latter i s seen as a mere streak in the hills opposite Wheeling. It is possible, however., that; careful. tracing round by the norrth may estab- lish some connection between our Caal X and the Uniontown coal of Penmylvania. Coal XI is persistent thpoughsut, and is the Wayrzesburg. xu[ was not seen by me at Wheeling, though it is probably the bed noted by Mr. Briggs, eighty= two feet above the last. At Waynesburg and Uniontown, the interval is from fifty to Eiixty feet. Erosion has so removed Coal XIII and its adjoining rocks that it is to be seen at no point near the Ohio river, but its equivalent in Penn- sylvania is doubtless the top coal at Waynesburg and Union- town, fifty-five feet above the last. These two beds exist in West Virginia on the east side of the basin, but owing to the poverty of exposures no definite statement can be made respecting them. </p><p>The relations of the coals in the several states may there- fore be represented as folIows : </p><p>PENNSYLVANSA. WEST VIRGJXIA. </p><p>Top at Waynesburg. ? X&amp;&amp;k at Waynesburg. ? WaynesBurg. . Wagnesbzwg. </p><p>U&amp;mtozon? Not present. Not present. Not. present. Not present. Not presene (east side of basin). Setpick&amp;. SetaickZy. Redstone. Redstone. FdttsbuTg . Pittsburg. </p></li><li><p>We&amp; of the Alleghatzy &amp;!buntaim. 231 </p><p>DESCRIF!PION OF THE! BEDSr </p><p>Coals XII and XIII of the Ohio section are well at faw localities and are of economical importance nowhere. The former is enormously developed in the hills opposite Wheel- ing, where it is a dry coal, six feet thick, but heavily charged with pyrites. </p><p>The Waynesbzcrg (XI) is commonly known in western Belmont Co., Ohio, as the jumping six-foot seam owing to its shdden variations in thickness. In Harrison and Jef- ferson oounties, it is worthless, never more than two feet thick, and is seen only near the tops of the highest hills. In western Belmont it is not worked and varies from six inches to nearly six feet in thickness. This change is seen in a cut we&amp; from Barnesville; at one end of which it; ia;J barely six inches while at the other it shows the following section : </p><p>Coal, 1 ft. ; shale, 4 in. ; coal, 4 in. ; shale, 4 in. ; coal, 4 in. ; shale, 2 ft. ; coat, 1 ft. Total, 5 ft. 4 in. </p><p>Seven miles east from Barnesville it is seen in a cut, about one foot thick and parted in the middle by a thin layer of limestone. Near St. Clairsville, in the same county, it is rudely worked and shows three feet of very impure coal, resting almost immediately upon ft foot of limestone. Near Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling, it is three feet six inches thick, roofed by six inches of impure black band which is overlaid by two feet of alternating bands of bituminous and ordinary shale. Here the limestone is eighteen inches below the coal. On 8 run four miles west from Belleair and just south of the railroad, it soddenly thickens out and &amp;becomes a con- fused mass of coal and shale nut less than fiifteen feet thick; and -totally worthless. </p><p>Pollowed into West Virginia it is seen on the top of Wheeling Hill, just back of the city. On Wheeling week it is worked at&gt; Roneys Point, ten miles from the city, and proves to be a very good coal varying from two feet four </p></li><li><p>232 me Upper Coat Measures inches to three feet thick. It is seen somewhat thicker on the south fork of the creek, Om the eastern side of the basin it is seen at several points along Scotts and Robinsons Runs, in Monongalia Co., W. Va., as well as in Greene c0.9 Penn. Its greatest development is seen on Scotts Run, where its changes are almost as interesting 88 in Belmont Co. Ohio. TWO miles and a half up the run several openings are seen which give tho following section : </p><p>Coal, 1 ft. 9 in. ; Bituminous shale, 8 in. Coal, 4 ft. 8 in4 Two miles farther up the run the shale has disappeared, </p><p>.and at an opening near Cassville, the bed shows full nine feet of coal. One mile beyond, the following section was obtained : </p><p>Blue clay, 6 in. ; slaty coal, 1 ft. 3 in. ; clay, with many impressions of plants, 3 to 6 in.; c o d , 2 in.; day, 2 in.; coal, 74 in. ; clay, 1 ft. 1 in. ; coal, seen, 4 ft. 2 in. </p><p>This opening is likely to prove of considerable interest as the fossils are very numerous and well preserved, while the horizon at which they occur is more than one hundred feet higher than any other yet discovered in the northern portion of the trough. On Robinsons Run the bed shows a tendency to develop in the same manner as follows : </p><p>Bituminous shale, with thin laminm of coal, 2 ft. ; c o d , 1 ft. 6 in. ; clay, 7 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 8 in. </p><p>Towards the south it rapidly diminishes in thickness and apparentIy thins out. </p><p>I n Pennsylvania the bed is usually double, but is nowhere SO greatly developed as on Scotts Run. Near Waynesburg it shows coal, 1 ft. 8 in. ; clay, 1 ft. 2 in. ; coal, 3 ft. 2 in. Near Carmichaeltown, Greene Co., it shows coal, 3 ft. ; clay, 3 in. ; coal, 3 ft. The clay is so,rnetimes replaced by black slate with innumerable thin laminae of coal (Rogers). Near Brownsville it is five feet thick and single. </p><p>I n West Virginin the coal from this bed is dry, almost open-burning, gives a strong fire and is highly valued for domestic purposes. It contains n large proportion of pyrites, </p></li><li><p>West of the Alleghany Miuntuhas. 233 </p><p>sufficient probably to render it unfit for general use. In Pennsylvania its quality is inferior to that of coal from the Pzttsburg, mhilo in Ohio, it is, for the most part, utterly worthless. </p><p>Coal X of the Ohio section is traceable through Belmont, Harrison and Jefferson counties, Ohio. It is u8ually a double bed and in some localities is still further divided. At the most westerly opening seen, iu Warren Township, Belmont Co., it shows : slaty coal, 1 ft 6 in. </p><p>At Badgersburg in the adjoining township it diaplays the double character more clearly as follows : </p><p>Laminated shale, 4 ft. ; cod, slaty, 1 ft. 7 in. ; shale and clay,, 1 ft. 8 in. j c o d , 5 ft. j fireclay, 1 ft. </p><p>Here the coal is of good quality and compares favorably with that obtained from the Pittsburg, but the bed is much cut up by ccclay-vein~ and horse-backs both from above and from below, difficulties which Beem to beset it generally. In Union township the bed is seen triple in Section 25 as folJows : </p><p>Coal, 1 ft. ; clay, 1 ft. 3 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 6 in. ; shale, 1 ft. ; C Q U Z , slaty, 1 ft. ; fireclay, 1 ft. 3 in. </p><p>Kear the village of Flushing it is worked at many openings. While varying little in thickness it is exceedingly uncertain in quality ; some banks yielding coal well fitted for black- smiths use, while that from others iu the immediate neigh- borhood is hardly fit for the coarsest of domestic purposes, The general section there is </p><p>Coal, 1 ft. 2 in. ; shale and clay, 1 ft. 4 in. ; c o d , 3 ft. to 4 ft. </p><p>As this bed is followed ea8twnrd toward the Ohio river it is seen to lose its thickness gradually, soon becoming of no ecouomical importance and finally thinning out near the river. I n Harrison Co., it is frequently seen at the road- sides ; but few openings are found owing to the ready accessi- bility and better quality of the Pittsburg. Near New Athens the following section was obtained : </p><p>Coal, good, 3 ft. </p></li><li><p>234 The Upper Caul Neusures </p><p>Shale, 6 ft. ; coal, 1-0 in. ; fireclay, It0 in. ; shale, 1 ft. 8 int ; coal, 4 ff. 8 in. ; shale, 3 ft. j coaZ, 4 in, ; shah, 3 ft. </p><p>Near Gadiz the sam...</p></li></ul>