WATER PROFILING OFF SARAWAK COASTAL AREAS Profiling Off Sarawak Coastal...  Water Profiling off Sarawak

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WATER PROFILING OFF SARAWAK COASTAL AREAS

Ann Aletheia A Manson

S Bachelor of Science with Honours595 (Aquatic Resource Science and Management)Ml89 20i52015

\.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

Grade: _____

Please tick (~ Final Year Project Report [ZJ Masters D PhD D

DECLARATION OF ORIGINAL WORK

J This declaration is made on the .... .?Q. ..... .. day of...~~ .. . .. year ....lQ.!.?.. .

Student's Declaration:

I !1~f.1___ALr..ltl_~!/Lf!__~!J)_~!~9!!_+__~_~fLl.LEfJ!gd!JJiE~r~~trf_f~~f~-:{!~~}-~-~(C{j!J----(PLEASE INDICATE NAME, MATRIC NO. AND FACULTY) hereby declare that the work entitled, JtL'}t~!:.1!:.l!tl!!'J_~ffs..qr..~1Kff!..~f!~"!Jrr_(._q,L______________ -- -------- is my original work. I have not copied from any other students' work or from any other sources with the exception where due reference or acknowledgement is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part of the work been written for me by another person.

~OJUN~ ').015 ANN AL~THfIA Ii ,.,ANSON(2 'I, /2) Date submitted Name of the student (Matric No.)

Supervisor's Decle,ration:

I, ___ [)r..:A!-!'_?'_c!"'!_~____I':0.-'IJ-'!_~_{tt___________________ (SUPERVisOR'S NAME), hereby certify that the work entitled, Wljt~r..!!!!!{t1Jl~j-qff.f..4!:.~_JY..~k_.fa.tJl':t!!_LItr~g_L _______ (l'ITLE) was prepared by the aforementioned or above mentioned student, IJlld was submitted to the "FACULTY" as a * partial/full fulfillment for the conferment of _~_~f.ifl.r___of-_.fg~'=!!.f(__ ~~____ tfE~_q-'!I_~L_ ---------(PLEASE INDICATE THE DEGREE TITLE), and the aforementioned work, to the best of my knowledge, is the said student's work

Rec,iv,d for examination by, ~- Date: t'S/D--:;Y/W f)" (Name of e supervisor) rl

http:Wljt~r..!!!!!{t1Jl~j-qff.f..4!:.~_JY..~k_.fa

II

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I II

Acknowledgement

First and foremost, I would like to thank God for strengthening me and have granted

me wisdom, faith and blessings that had kept me working continuously throughout this

project.

My most sincere gratitude and greatest heartfelt thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Aazani

Mujahid, for her kind help, dedicated guidance, insights and encouragement along my way to

the completion of my Final Year Project. I would like to extend my gratitude also to Siti

Kartini binti Mohd Mahdi who have been a dear friend that have aid, accompanied and shared

ideas with me throughout the completion of my dissertation. I honestly can say that I would

not be able fmish this dissertation without them. With that, I thank both of them from the deep

down of my heart.

Big appreciation goes to the crew and scientist of KD Perantau who involved during

the Prime Marine Scientific Expedition (EPSP) 2009. Other big thanks to scientific research

cruises and the Malaysian National Oceanographic Directorate (NOD) who have initiated

EPSP 2009.

For being' my biggest inspiration, all my love and greatest appreciation goes to my

dearest father, Mr Anthony Manson and mother, Mrs Regina Tunggaak and my brother, Mr

Ryn Roderick for their love, unwavering support and motivational words in every single

aspect. Thank you so much. Last but not least, thank you to everyone that have helped me

directly or indirectly along the way in completing this project till the end.

1

Declaration

I hereby declare that this dissertation entitled "Water Profiling off Sarawak Coastal Waters"

submitted to Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

(UNIMAS) is a presentation of my original work except for the citation and references which

have been fully acknowledged. No portion of the work referred to in this thesis has been

submitted in support of an application for another degree qualification of any other university

or institution of higher learning. This work was done under the supervision of Dr Aazani

Mujahid and submitted to partially fulfill the requirement for the degree qualification of

Bachelor Science with Honours in Aquatic Science Resource and Management.

.' .... J~. {~.~.~.. lp.l5................... .

Ann Aletheia A Manson Date

Department ofAquatic Science

Faculty ofResource Science and Technology

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

II

Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akorlemik

UNlVERS TJ M; L Y If, A AWAK

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement ....... , .......................................................................................................... i

Declaration ............................................................................................................................ ii

List of Abbreviations ........................................................................................................... iv

List of Tables ........................................................................................................................ vi

List of Figures ..................................................................................................................... vii

Abstract ................................................................................................................................. 1

1.0 Introduction............................................................................................. '" ..................... 2

2.0 Literature review ............................................................................................ 4

2.1 South China Sea (SCS) .................................................................................................. 4

2.2 Previous studies done on South China Sea ...................................................... .4

2.3 Ocean water properties .................................................................................................. 5

2.4 Water mass and its definition ........................................................................................ 7

2.5 Temperature-salinity (T -S) diagrams ........................................................................... 11

3.0 Methods and methodology ............................................................................................ 13

3.1 Study site .......................................... : .......................................................................... 13

3.2 Voyage expedition ....................................................................................................... 14

3.3 Conductivity-temperature depth (CTD) profiler ........................................................... 14

3.4 Data analysis ............................................................................................................... 15

4.0 Result .......................................................................................... : .................................. 17

4.1 Temperature and salinity profile .................................................................................. 17

4.2 Water mass definition .................................................................................................. 21

5.0 Discussion .... :~ ................................................................................................................ 26

5.1 Temperature and Salinity .......................................