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  • vSphere Resource ManagementVMware vSphere 6.5

    VMware ESXi 6.5vCenter Server 6.5

    This document supports the version of each product listed andsupports all subsequent versions until the document isreplaced by a new edition. To check for more recent editions ofthis document, see


  • vSphere Resource Management

    2 VMware, Inc.

    You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at:

    The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates.

    If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to:

    [email protected]

    Copyright 20062017 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright and trademark information.

    VMware, Inc.3401 Hillview Ave.Palo Alto, CA[email protected]://

  • Contents

    About vSphere Resource Management 7

    1 Getting Started with Resource Management 9

    Resource Types 9Resource Providers 9Resource Consumers 10Goals of Resource Management 10

    2 Configuring Resource Allocation

    Settings 11Resource Allocation Shares 11Resource Allocation Reservation 12Resource Allocation Limit 12Resource Allocation Settings Suggestions 13Edit Resource Settings 13Changing Resource Allocation SettingsExample 14Admission Control 15

    3 CPU Virtualization Basics 17

    Software-Based CPU Virtualization 17Hardware-Assisted CPU Virtualization 18Virtualization and Processor-Specific Behavior 18Performance Implications of CPU Virtualization 18

    4 Administering CPU Resources 19

    View Processor Information 19Specifying CPU Configuration 19Multicore Processors 20Hyperthreading 20Using CPU Affinity 22Host Power Management Policies 23

    5 Memory Virtualization Basics 27

    Virtual Machine Memory 27Memory Overcommitment 28Memory Sharing 28Types of Memory Virtualization 29

    6 Administering Memory Resources 33

    Understanding Memory Overhead 33How ESXi Hosts Allocate Memory 34

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  • Memory Reclamation 35Using Swap Files 36Sharing Memory Across Virtual Machines 40Memory Compression 41Measuring and Differentiating Types of Memory Usage 42Memory Reliability 43About System Swap 43

    7 Configuring Virtual Graphics 45

    View GPU Statistics 45Add an NVIDIA GRID vGPU to a Virtual Machine 45Configuring Host Graphics 46Configuring Graphics Devices 47

    8 Managing Storage I/O Resources 49

    About Virtual Machine Storage Policies 50About I/O Filters 50Storage I/O Control Requirements 50Storage I/O Control Resource Shares and Limits 51Set Storage I/O Control Resource Shares and Limits 52Enable Storage I/O Control 52Set Storage I/O Control Threshold Value 53Storage DRS Integration with Storage Profiles 54

    9 Managing Resource Pools 55

    Why Use Resource Pools? 56Create a Resource Pool 57Edit a Resource Pool 58Add a Virtual Machine to a Resource Pool 58Remove a Virtual Machine from a Resource Pool 59Remove a Resource Pool 60Resource Pool Admission Control 60

    10 Creating a DRS Cluster 63

    Admission Control and Initial Placement 63Virtual Machine Migration 65DRS Cluster Requirements 66Configuring DRS with Virtual Flash 68Create a Cluster 68Edit Cluster Settings 69Set a Custom Automation Level for a Virtual Machine 71Disable DRS 72Restore a Resource Pool Tree 72

    11 Using DRS Clusters to Manage Resources 73

    Adding Hosts to a Cluster 73Adding Virtual Machines to a Cluster 75Removing Virtual Machines from a Cluster 75

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  • Removing a Host from a Cluster 76DRS Cluster Validity 77Managing Power Resources 82Using DRS Affinity Rules 86

    12 Creating a Datastore Cluster 91

    Initial Placement and Ongoing Balancing 92Storage Migration Recommendations 92Create a Datastore Cluster 92Enable and Disable Storage DRS 93Set the Automation Level for Datastore Clusters 93Setting the Aggressiveness Level for Storage DRS 94Datastore Cluster Requirements 95Adding and Removing Datastores from a Datastore Cluster 96

    13 Using Datastore Clusters to Manage Storage Resources 97

    Using Storage DRS Maintenance Mode 97Applying Storage DRS Recommendations 99Change Storage DRS Automation Level for a Virtual Machine 100Set Up Off-Hours Scheduling for Storage DRS 100Storage DRS Anti-Affinity Rules 101Clear Storage DRS Statistics 104Storage vMotion Compatibility with Datastore Clusters 105

    14 Using NUMA Systems with ESXi 107

    What is NUMA? 107How ESXi NUMA Scheduling Works 108VMware NUMA Optimization Algorithms and Settings 109Resource Management in NUMA Architectures 110Using Virtual NUMA 110Specifying NUMA Controls 111

    15 Advanced

    Attributes 115Set Advanced Host Attributes 115Set Advanced Virtual Machine Attributes 118Latency Sensitivity 120About Reliable Memory 120

    16 Fault Definitions 123

    Virtual Machine is Pinned 124Virtual Machine not Compatible with any Host 124VM/VM DRS Rule Violated when Moving to another Host 124Host Incompatible with Virtual Machine 124Host has Virtual Machine that Violates VM/VM DRS Rules 124Host has Insufficient Capacity for Virtual Machine 124Host in Incorrect State 124Host has Insufficient Number of Physical CPUs for Virtual Machine 125


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  • Host has Insufficient Capacity for Each Virtual Machine CPU 125The Virtual Machine is in vMotion 125No Active Host in Cluster 125Insufficient Resources 125Insufficient Resources to Satisfy Configured Failover Level for HA 125No Compatible Hard Affinity Host 125No Compatible Soft Affinity Host 125Soft Rule Violation Correction Disallowed 125Soft Rule Violation Correction Impact 126

    17 DRS Troubleshooting Information 127

    Cluster Problems 127Host Problems 130Virtual Machine Problems 133

    Index 137

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  • About vSphere Resource Management

    vSphere Resource Management describes resource management for VMware ESXi and vCenter Serverenvironments.

    This documentation focuses on the following topics.

    n Resource allocation and resource management concepts

    n Virtual machine attributes and admission control

    n Resource pools and how to manage them

    n Clusters, vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), vSphere Distributed Power Management(DPM), and how to work with them

    n Datastore clusters, Storage DRS, Storage I/O Control, and how to work with them

    n Advanced resource management options

    n Performance considerations

    Intended AudienceThis information is for system administrators who want to understand how the system manages resourcesand how they can customize the default behavior. Its also essential for anyone who wants to understandand use resource pools, clusters, DRS, datastore clusters, Storage DRS, Storage I/O Control, or vSphereDPM.

    This documentation assumes you have a working knowledge of VMware ESXi and of vCenter Server.

    Task instructions in this guide are based on the vSphere Web Client. You can also perform most of the tasksin this guide by using the new vSphere Client. The new vSphere Client user interface terminology, topology,and workflow are closely aligned with the same aspects and elements of the vSphere Web Client userinterface. You can apply the vSphere Web Client instructions to the new vSphere Client unless otherwiseinstructed.

    Note Not all functionality in the vSphere Web Client has been implemented for the vSphere Client in thevSphere 6.5 release. For an up-to-date list of unsupported functionality, see Functionality Updates for thevSphere Client Guide at

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  • Getting Started with ResourceManagement 1

    To understand resource management, you must be aware of its components, its goals, and how best toimplement it in a cluster setting.

    Resource allocation settings for a virtual machine (shares, reservation, and limit) are discussed, includinghow to set them and how to view them. Also, admission control, the process whereby resource allocationsettings are validated against existing resources is explained.

    Resource management is the allocation of resources from resource providers to resource consumers.

    The need for resource management arises from the overcommitment of resourcesthat is, more demandthan capacity and from the fact that demand and capacity vary over time. Resource management allows youto dynamically reallocate resources, so that you can more efficiently use available capacity.

    This chapter includes the following topics:

    n Resource Types, on page 9

    n Resource Providers, on page 9

    n Resource Consumers, on page 10

    n Goals of Resource Management, on page 10

    Resource TypesResources include CPU, memory, power, storage, and network resources.

    Note ESXi manages network bandwidth and disk resources on a per-host basis, using network trafficshaping and a proportional share mechanism, respectively.

    Resource ProvidersHosts and clusters, including datastore clusters, are providers of physical resources.

    For hosts, available resources are the hosts hardware specification, minus the resources used by thevirtualization software.

    A cluster is a group of hosts. You can create a cluster using vSphere Web Client, and add multiple hosts tothe cluster. vCenter Server manages these hosts resources jointly: the cluster owns all of the CPU andmemory of all hosts. You can enable the cluster for joint load balancing or failover.