Urban LandscapeNotes to Handouts (08-09 version)
I. What is a settlement?I. The what and where of settlements- site, location (situation), size, form, structure, morphology, function, quality of environment, households, people and interaction
II. Types of settlementsWhat is an urban settlement? How is it different from a rural settlement? Functional definition of urban settlementStatistical definition of urban settlement- Why is it difficult to set a universal minimum size of an urban settlement?Refer to Urban Data 2008Refer to T.B. p.388-389, 392-397, 516-517
Comparing north & south in the USA
Not all types of society will develop an urban structure. There was, for a long period, a marked contrast between the economies of the northern & southern regions of the young USA.
II. Types of settlements - Settlement patterns: Causes of dispersion and nucleation: T.B. p.397Nearest neighbour analysis: T.B. p.402-404 Interaction / gravity models: T.B. p.410-411
III. Urban ProcessesUrban growth - trends and distribution (refer to fact notes Urban Data 2008, T.B. p.418-419)Urbanization - it is not simply a matter of an increasing % of people living in towns and cities - it is a multi-dimenstional process involving: physical, economic, social and demographic changes (refer to notes p. 3)
III. Urban ProcessesUrbanization - On demographic level, urbanization involves two processes: natural increasemigration (with push and pull factors)
The average size of the worlds 100 largest cities, 1800-2000
The growth of large urban areas (cities) has been especially notable over the last 50 years.
The recent feature of urbanization: the emergence of mega-cities with populations of over 5 million.
III. Urban ProcessesUrbanization - The rate of natural increase in cities are often significantly higher than those in more rural areas. Why? Higher fertility rate in urban areas due to a low age profileWhich is often the result of migration, esp. rural-urban migration (highly selective) do ex.
III. Urban ProcessesWhat are the processes and features of urbanization? (notes p.3)How did the % of the worlds urban population change with time? (notes p.3 & Urban Data 2008)
III. Urban ProcessesThe proportion of world population living in urban areas (notes p.4)Proportion by different continents
No. of cities with > 1 million people, 1800-2000Source: Advanced Geography Edexcel (A), 2005, p. 461
Region1800190019502000Africa00034Asia1326136Europe193061Latin America00739North America041436Oceania0025Total21681311
Distribution of the worlds100 largest cities, 1800-2000Source: Advanced Geography Edexcel (A), 2005, p. 461
Region1800190019502000Africa4236Asia64233244Europe29513719Latin America35816North America0161813Oceania0222Total10099100100
Urbanization in the developed countries1. The invention of agricultural machinery2. Improvement in transport3. Development of new manufacturing industries4. Attractiveness of urban life
Counter-urbanizationIt is a trend that involves the movement of people and enterprises out of urban areas to more rural areas.The trend experienced by UK after 1950s:- 1. improved transport - 2. a decline in the heavy industries which had been concentrated in a few areas - 3. a greater development of services which favoured edge-of-city environments
Reurbanization since 1980sthe return of people to the cities is directional in naturewith majority of movement happens in the inner citieswhich formerly suffer from dereliction and unemploymentthe scale of return is large and impose an obvious effect within the city, both positive and negativethe return is particularly significant in large cities, especially global cities in MEDCswhere population has grown rapidly
Reurbanization in most MEDC cities in the 1990s
the recognition of an urgent need to revive & redevelop flagging city / central city areasa response to the changing world economy: globalizationeffect of switching employment structure, from manufacturing industry to service industrythe derelict part of the cities, mainly the inner part, usu. captures the awareness of the government
Reurbanization in most MEDC cities in the 1990s
major aims: to stop the loss of population & employment, improve housing stock and upgrade the city image
ultimate goal: to attract the mobile, global investment
case study in UK (1) - Birmingham the principal area of development: - the derelict areas in the NE part of the city Heartlands initiative: - developing office space within the city other city projects:- building an international convention centre, national indoor arena, etc. aiming at the creation of a safe, profitable and pleasure environment through growth coalition, several flagship schemes have been promoted.
case study in UK (2) - Nottingham revival of the past textile centre into an important centre for financial & business pulling down small workshops to create more office space and space for houses renovation of the historic Lace Market redevelopment of the Borad Marsh and Trinity Square shopping areas, crating a further 77 000 sq. metre for retail spacefurther investment on key city centre sitesdevt of national & international sports facilities the National Ice Centre, the National Water Sports Centre & the Nottingham International Tennis Centre
Urbanization in the less developed countriesin the stage of concurrent urban growth & urbanizationimpacts under the withdrawal of the colonial administrationover-urbanizationpseudo-urbanizationother factors for the rapid process (notes p.6)a case study of China (notes p.6)
Urban and rural population, 1950-2030
With projected values to 2030
Think about itWhat about the recent trend and prediction of Chinas urbanization?
What are the driving force of rural-urban migration in China?
Urbanization in ChinaTotal population at the end of 2006: 1.3 billion, with 737 million (56%) and 577 million (44%) residing in the rural and urban areas respectively. About 94% of population lives on approximately 46% of land.Recent trend: the decreasing rural population and increasing urban population; moving industry and economic activities from the rural to urban areas as the main focusThe UN forecast: By 2015, China's rural and urban population will be about 50% vs 50%]In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization: by 2035 the level of urbanization will reach 70% Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
3 driving forces for Chinas rural-urban migration1. the widening income gap between rural & urban areas2. the increasing labour demand in centain economic sectors of the big cities e.g. construction, electronics & textiles, services3. the further agricultural modernization & therefore the agricultural labour surplus
Recommended Reference:Rural-urban Migration in China: Recent Trend and Future Challenges