Upper Intermediate(Italian)

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    Upper intermediate

    Companion

    Italian 1st Edition

    Sue Kay, Vaughan Jones & Jil l Leatherbarrow

    Inside Out

    New

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    Welcome to the New Inside OutUpper intermediate Companion!

    What information does the NewInside OutCompanion give you?

    a summary of key words and phrases from each unit of NewInside OutUpper intermediateStudents Book

    pronunciation of the key words and phrases translations of the key words and phrases sample sentences showing the words and phrases in contexta summary of the GrammarExtraReference from New Inside OutUpper intermediate Students Book

    (art) article

    (v) verb(v*) irregular verb

    (adj) adjective

    (n) noun

    (phr v) phrasal verb

    (pron) pronoun(prep) preposition

    (det) determiner

    (f) feminine

    (m) masculine

    (pl n) plural noun(adv) adverb

    (conj) conjunction

    // big fish /b f/

    /i/ green beans /grin binz//U/ should look /d lk//u / bluemoon /blu mun//e/ ten eggs /ten egz/

    // about mother /bat m/

    // learn words /ln wdz/// short talk /t tk/// fat cat /ft kt/

    // must come /mst km/

    // calm start /km stt/

    // hot spot /ht spt/

    // ear ///e/ face /fes/

    // pure /pj/

    // boy /b/

    // nose /nz/

    /e/ hair /he/

    /a/ eye /a/

    /a/ mouth /ma/

    /p/ pen /pen/

    /b/ bad /bd/

    /t/ tea /ti//d/ dog /dg/

    /t/ church /tt/

    /d/ jazz /dz/

    /k/ cost /kst/

    /g/ girl /gl//f/ far /fr/

    /v/ voice /vos/

    // thin /n/

    // then / en/

    /s/ snake /snek//z/ noise /noz/

    // shop /p/// measure /mer/

    /m/ make /mek//n/ nine /nan/

    // sing /a/

    /h/ house /has/

    /l/ leg /leg/

    /r/ red /red/

    /w/ wet /wet/

    /j/ yes /jes/

    VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS CONSONANTS

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    1

    Unit 1 (page 4)

    adopt a child /dpt ald/ Madonna and her husband adopted a childfrom Malawi, called David

    Banda.

    annoy (v) /n/ It annoysBelinda that some people think the royal family had

    something to do with Dianas death.

    ascent (n) /sent/ Someones ascentto stardom is the way in which they progress

    towards or achieve fame.

    attract criticism /trkt krtsz()m/ The adoption attracted criticismfrom people who felt Madonna had

    used her fame to fast-track it.

    bleach (v) /bli/ People who bleachtheir hair use a special product to make it blonde.

    as bright as a button /z brat z bt()n/ Someone who is as bright as a buttonis very intelligent.

    buckle down (phr v) /bk()l dan/ When you buckle down, you start to work hard to achieve something.

    calm down (phr v) /km dan/ Dont get so angry just calm down!career-wise (adj) /krwaz/ Career-wise, Madonna is as successful now as shes ever been.

    celebrity (n) /slebrti/ Madonna is not just a celebrity shes a real pop icon.

    charity (n) /rti/ Princess Diana raised a lot of money for charity.

    chilly (adj) /li/ Chillyis a word that means cold.

    collar (v) /kl/ If you collar someone, you find someone and force them to talk or

    listen to you.

    consolidator (n) /knsldet/ When we say that Madonna is a consolidatorof trends, we mean she

    makes them more popular and well known.

    controversy (n) /kntrvsi; kntrvsi/ Madonna is no stranger to controversyand has shocked many people

    over the years.

    cowgirl (n) /kagl/ A cowgirlis a girl or woman whose job is to look after cows on a ranch.

    criticism (n) /krtsz()m/ Criticismis a comment or comments that you think something is

    wrong or bad.

    to date /t det/ To dateis an expression meaning until now.

    death (n) /de/ Belinda thinks that Dianas deathwas a tragic accident.

    adottare un bambino

    dar fastidio

    ascesa

    attirare critiche

    schiarire

    molto intelligente

    mettersi sotto (impegnarsi a

    fondo)

    calmarsicome carriera

    celebrit

    beneficenza

    freddo/a

    attaccar bottone con

    uno/a che fa tendenza

    polemica

    mandriana, bovara

    critica

    fino ad ora

    morte

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    2

    distinctive (adj) /dstktv/ Something that is distinctiveis easy to recognize because it is different

    from other things.

    dreadful (adj) /dredf()l/ Im sorry were so late the traffic was dreadful.

    earth mother (n) / m/ An earth motheris someone who prefers natural methods of living

    and likes to look after people.

    ever-evolving (adj) /evrvlv/ Something that is ever-evolvingchanges all the time and stays

    fashionable.

    exceptionally (adv) /ksep()nli/ Madonna is an exceptionallytalented singer.

    an existing look /n gzst lk/ Madonna picks up on an existing lookand makes it her own.

    explode (v) /kspld/ At midnight, fireworks explodedacross the sky it was spectacular.

    be up to your eyes in sth /bi p t jr az n If you are up to your eyes in work, you are extremely busy.

    /sm/

    fame (n) /fem/ Some people felt Madonna had used her fameto fast-track the

    adoption.

    feature film (n) /fi flm/ A feature filmis a film that is made for the cinema.

    fit in (phr v) /ft n/ Madonna was different and didnt fit inwith the popular group.

    geisha (n) /ge/ A geishais a Japanese woman, whose job is to entertain men.genius (n) /inis/ A geniusis someone who is extremely clever or talented.

    global (adj) /glb()l/ Something that is globalis well known all over the world.

    gracefully (adv) /gresf()li/ If you do something gracefully, you do it in a quiet way without

    drawing attention to yourself.

    highlight (n) /halat/ Seeing the Great Wall was the highlightof Danas trip to China.

    hitchhike (v) /hhak/ Madonna hitchhikedto New York with $35 in her pocket.

    hound (v) /hand/ If journalists hounda famous person, they do not leave them alone.

    huge (adj) /hju/ Watching the first man land on the Moon made a hugeimpression

    on Alec.

    icon (n) /akn/ Madonna is not just a celebrity shes a real pop icon.

    iconic (adj) /aknk/ How did Madonna achieve her iconicstatus?

    the key to sth / ki t sm/ She realised that marketing was the key to her success.

    kid (n) /kd/ A kidis an informal word meaning a child.

    leotard (n) /litd/ A leotardis a tight piece of clothing that people wear when they

    dance or exercise.

    lingering (adj) /lgr/ A lingeringkiss is one that lasts for quite a long time.

    caratteristico/a

    terribile

    madre terra

    sempre allultima moda

    eccezionalmente

    un look attuale

    scoppiare

    averne fin sopra le orecchie

    di qualcosa

    fama

    lungometraggio

    legare con

    geishagenio

    famoso/a in tutto il mondo

    con naturalezza

    parte migliore

    andare in autostop

    perseguitare

    enorme

    icona

    di icona

    la chiave di qualcosa

    bambino

    body

    lungo/a

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    look back (phr v) /lk bk/ She had her first hit with Holidayin 1984 and has never looked back.

    mainstream (adj) /menstrim/ Something that is mainstreamis used, liked, or accepted by most people.

    make an impression on sb /mek n mpre()n n/ Watching the first man land on the Moon made ahuge impression on

    /smbdi/ Alec.

    market (v) /mkt/ Madonna is brilliant at marketingher image.

    midriff (n) /mdrf/ Your midriffis the front part of your body between your waist and

    your chest.

    millennium celebrations (n pl) /mlenim The millennium celebrationstook place on 31st December 1999.

    selbre()nz/

    momentous (adj) /mments/ A momentousevent is extremely important.

    moon landing (n) /mun lnd/ The first moon landingwas the occasion on which the first man

    walked on the Moon.

    motherhood (n) /mhd/ Madonna has three children and enjoys motherhood.

    off-the-cuff (adj) /fkf/ An off-the-cuffremark is one that you make without planning it or

    thinking about it.

    off stage /f ste/ Off stageis an expression for describing what an actor or singer is

    really like when they are not performing.on stage /n ste/ Madonna has known controversy both on stageand off stage.

    the press (n) / pres/ The pressis an expression meaning newspapers and magazines, or the

    people who work for them.

    pick up on sth (phr v) /pk p n sm/ If you pick up on something, you notice it and react to it.

    pride yourself on sth /prad jself n sm/ Madonna prides herself onher ever-evolving look, style and sound.

    proud (adj) /prad/ The fireworks were spectacular I felt proudto be Australian.

    the queen of ... / kwin v/ A woman who is known as the queen of an activity is very good at

    that activity.

    raise money (for sth) /rez mni (f sm) / Princess Diana raised a lot of moneyfor charity.

    recall (v) /rkl/ You recallMadonnas career as a series of images.

    recording artist (n) /rkd tst/ A recording artistis a professional singer.

    register sth (as sth) (v) /rest sm (z In 1979 she registeredMadonna asa trademark.

    /sm) /

    3

    smettere di progredire

    tradizionale, mainstream

    fare impressione su qc.

    vendere

    busto, tronco

    festeggiamenti per il nuovo

    millennio

    epocale

    allunaggio

    maternit

    improvvisato/a

    privato/a (fuori di scena, gi

    dal palco)pubblico/a (sul palco)

    stampa

    far attenzione a qualcosa

    vantarsi di qualcosa

    orgoglioso/a

    la regina di

    raccogliere soldi (per

    qualcosa)

    ricordare

    cantante

    registrare

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    4

    non assomigliare a

    famiglia reale

    autostima

    immagine di se stessi

    fare il tutto esaurito

    vendere la propria imagine

    spettacolare

    la copia esatta

    ristagnare

    notoriet

    status

    diminimrecrescere

    periodo duro

    super marchio

    tornare con la mente a

    tirare la cinghia

    marchio commerciale

    tragico/a

    minimizzazione

    patrimonio

    mostrare i propri sentimenti

    bear no resemblance to sb /be n rzemblns t/ If someone bears no resemblanceto another person, they do not look

    smbdi/ like that person at all.

    the royal family (n) / rl fm()li/ Belinda doesnt think the royal familyhad anything to do with Dianas

    death.

    self-esteem (n) (TS) /selfstim/ Clothes that are clean and neat say that you care about yourself and

    have good self-esteem.

    self-image (n) (TS) /selfm/ CHAPS magazine are doing a survey about mens self-image.

    sell out (phr v) /sel at/ If a concert sells out, people buy all the tickets and there are none left.

    sell your image /sel jr m/ Shes a talented business woman whos brilliant at selling her image.

    spectacular (adj) /spektkjl/ At midnight, fireworks exploded across the sky it was spectacular.

    the spitting image of sb / spt m v Someone who is the spitting image ofanother person looks exactly

    /smbdi/ like them.

    stand still /stnd stl/ A situation that stands stillstops developing.

    stardom (n) /stdm/ Stardomis the state of being very famous.

    status (n) /stets/ Madonna achieved her iconic statusby constantly changing and

    staying fashionable.

    step down (phr v) /step dan/ I dont want to step down I want to carry on with my career.step up (phr v) /step p/ She is stepping upcareer-wise and has no exit plan.

    struggle (n) /strg()l/ A struggleis a difficult period of time during which you have to work

    very hard.

    super-brand (n) /supbrnd/ The name Madonna is a global super-brand.

    think back (on) (phr v) /k bk (n) / Think backonher career its not the songs you remember, its the

    images.

    tighten yr belt /tat()n j belt/ If you tighten your belt, you spend less money.

    trademark (n) /tredmk/ In 1979 she registered Madonna as a trademark.

    tragic (adj) /trk/ Dianas death was a tragicaccident.

    understatement (n) /ndstetmnt/ An understatementis something that you say that makes something

    seem less important than it is.

    wealth (n) /wel/ Someoneswealth is the amount of money they have.

    wear your heart on your sleeve /we j ht n j sliv/ If you wear your heart on your sleeve, you show your feelings to other

    people.

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    weird (adj) (TS) /wd/ Something that is weirdis strange in an unexpected or slightly

    frightening way.

    wind up (phr v) /wand p/ If someone is easy to wind up, it is easy to make them angry or upset.

    CLOTHING AND APPEARANCE

    bangles (n) /bg()lz/ A bangleis a big circular bracelet that you wear around your wrist.

    belt (n) /belt/ A beltis a narrow piece of leather or cloth that you wear around your

    waist.

    buckle (n) /bk()l/ A buckleis a metal object used for fastening a belt.

    button (n) /bt()n/ A buttonis a small round object that you push through a hole to

    fasten clothes.

    casual (adj) /kul/ Casualclothes are comfortable and suitable for informal situations.

    change your style /en j stal/ If you change your style, you change the type of clothes you wear.

    collar (n) /kl/ A collaris the part of a shirt or coat that goes around your neck.

    cool (adj) /kul/ Clothes that are coolare fashionable and attractive.

    cuff (n) /kf/ A cuffis the part of a sleeve that goes around your wrist.

    hem (n) /hem/ A hemis the bottom edge of a dress, skirt or coat.image (n) /m/ The genius of Madonna is the way she manages her image.

    image-conscious (adj) /mkns/ Someone who is image-consciouscares about their clothes and

    appearance.

    lacy gloves (n pl) /lesi glvz/ Lacy glovesare made of fine material and have small holes in them.

    professional (adj) /prfe()nl/ Someone who looks professionalwears smart clothes that are suitable

    for work.

    satin (n) /stn/ Satinis a smooth, shiny expensive material.

    sleeves (n pl) /slivz/ The sleevesare the part of a piece of clothing that covers your arms.

    sporty (adj) /spti/ Sportyclothes are designed for doing sport or for informal occasions.

    trendy (adj) /trendi/ Someone who is trendywears fashionable and attractive clothes.

    zip (n) /zp/ A zipis a long piece of metal or plastic used for opening or closing a

    piece of clothing.

    COLLOCATIONS

    designer/old-fashioned/scruffy /dzan/ldf()nd/ Designer clothesare expensive and fashionable;

    clothes /skrfi klz/ old-fashioned clothesare not modern; scruffy clothesare untidy or

    dirty.

    5

    bizzarro/a

    irritare

    braccialetto

    cintura

    fibbia

    bottone

    casual, informale

    cambiare look

    colletto

    fico/a

    polsino

    orloimmagine

    attento/a alla propria

    immagine

    guanti di pizzo

    professionale

    raso

    maniche

    sportivo/a

    alla moda

    cerniera

    abiti firmati/ antiquati/ sciatti

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    bright/close-set/staring eyes /brat/klsset/ster Bright eyeslook lively and intelligent; close set eyes are very near each

    /az/ other; staring eyesseem to look at you in a very fixed way.

    expressive/impassive/round face /kspresv/mpsv/ An expressive faceshows what you are feeling; an impassive facedoes

    rand fes/ not show what you are feeling; a round face has the shape of a circle.

    sleek/spiky/tousled hair /slik/spaki/taz()ld he/ Sleek hairis smooth and shiny; spiky hairsticks up; tousled hair looks

    untidy.

    firm/hearty/limp handshake /fm/hti/lmp hndek/ A firmor hearty handshakefeels strong; a limp handshakefeels weak.

    abrasive/charming/mild manner /bresv/m/mald An abrasive mannerseems rude; a charming manneris friendly and

    mn/ pleasant; a mild manneris kind and gentle.

    fake/forced/warm smile /fek/fst/wm smal/ A fakeor forced smileis not natural or genuine; a warm smileis kind

    and friendly.

    deep/husky/shrill voice /dip/hski/rl vs/ A deepor husky voiceis low; a shrill voiceis high and unpleasant.

    WORD FORMATION

    rearrange (v) /riren/ If you rearrangepeople or things, you put them in a different place.rebuild (v) /ribld/ If you rebuildsomething, you build it again after it has been damaged

    or destroyed.

    reconsider (v) /riknsd/ If you reconsidera decision, you think about it again in order to

    decide whether you should change it.

    reconstruct (v) /riknstrkt/ If you reconstructsomething, you build it again.

    rediscover (v) /ridskv/ If you rediscoversomething, you discover it again.

    redo (v) /ridu / If you redosomething, you do it again in a different way in order to

    improve it.

    redraft (v) /ridrft/ If you redraftsomething, you write it again in order to make changes

    to it.

    re-examine (v) /rigzmn/ If you re-examinesomething, you look at or think about it carefully

    again.

    reinvent (v) /rinvent/ If you reinventsomething, you change something that already exists

    and give it a different purpose.

    reinvention (n) /rinven()n/ Madonna is known as the queen of reinvention!

    relocate (v) /rilket/ If you relocate, you move to a different place.

    6

    occhi lucenti/vicini/sguardo

    fisso

    volto espressivo/impassibile/

    viso rotondo

    capelli setosi/ setolosi/

    arruffati

    stretta di mano ferma/

    cordiale/debole

    modi bruschi/affascinanti/

    gentili

    sorriso falso/forzato/

    smagliante

    voce profonda/roca/acuta

    risistemarericostruire

    riconsiderare

    ricostruire

    riscoprire

    rifare

    fare una nuova bozza

    riesaminare

    reinventare

    reinvenzione, riciclaggio

    trasferirsi

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    remake (v) /rimek/ If you remakesomething, you make it again in a different way.

    reorganise (v) /rignaz/ If you reorganisesomething, you organise something in a different way.

    repackage (v) /ripk/ If you repackagesomething, you present it in a different way to make

    it look more attractive.

    reschedule (v) /riedjul/ If you reschedulesomething, you, you change the time when it was

    planned to happen.

    rethink (v) /rik/ If you rethinksomething, you think about it again in order to improve it.

    reunite (v) /rijunat/ If you reunitepeople, you bring them together again.

    reword (v) /riwd/ If you rewordsomething, you express it using different words.

    rewrite (v) /rirat/ If you rewritesomething, you write it using different words in order to

    improve it.

    Unit 2 (page 14)

    academic qualifications (n pl) /kdemk/ Your academic qualificationsare the exams you have passed at school,/kwlfke()nz/ college or university.

    act (n) /kt/ Anact is a short performance of singing, dancing etc.

    adolescence (n) /dles()ns/ Adolescenceis the period of time when you are a teenager.

    adulthood (n) /dlthd; dlthd/ Adulthoodis the period of life when you are an adult.

    all-in-one (adj) /lnwn/ An all-in-one pieceof clothing is made up of separate parts that look

    like one part.

    aptitude (n) /pttjud/ If you have an aptitudefor something, you are good at it.

    backroad (n) /bkrd/ The backroadsare small, quiet roads with less traffic.

    ball girl (n) /bl gl/ A ball girlis a girl whose job is to throw a ball back to a player during

    a match.

    bus pass (n) /bs ps/ A bus passis a special ticket that allows older people to travel by buswithout paying.

    childhood (n) /aldhd/ Childhoodis the period of time when you are a child.

    clown around (phr v) /klan rand/ If you clown around, you act in a silly or stupid way.

    comically (adv) /kmk()li/ Comicallyis an adverb that means in a way that seems amusing.

    7

    rifare

    riorganizzare

    riconfezionare

    spostare (la data o lora di

    q.csa)

    ripensare

    riunire

    riformulare

    riscrivere

    qualifiche accademiche

    numero

    adolescenza

    et adulta

    coordinato

    attitudine

    strada secondaria

    raccattapalle

    biglietto gratuito perlautobus

    infanzia

    fare il pagliaccio

    comicamente

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    compensate (v) /kmpnset/ If something compensatesfor something else, it makes it seem less bad.

    cosmetic surgery (n) /kzmetk sri/ Cosmetic surgeryis a medical operation to improve someones

    appearance.

    cuddle (v) /kd()l/ If you cuddlesomeone, you put your arms around them to show that

    you love them.

    do sb a favour /du smbdi fev/ If you do someone a favour, you do something in order to help them.

    dote on sb (phr v) /dt n smbdi/ If you dote on someone, you love them very much.

    dread (v) /dred/ If you dreadsomething, you are very frightened that it might happen.

    drop (v) (TS) /drp/ As soon as we told Sarah we liked Jeremy, she droppedhim.

    dull (adj) /dl/ Dullis an adjective that means boring.

    to good/excellent etc effect /t gd/ekslnt fekt/ If you use something to good effect, you use it in a way that impresses

    people.

    sbs elders (n pl) /smbdiz eldz/ Your eldersare people who are older than you.

    exchange (=a person) (n) /ksen/ When she was 15, Viv went to stay with her German exchange, Frauke

    Schoon.

    (school) exchange (n) / (skul) ksen/ Have you ever done a school exchange?

    exoticism (n) /gztszm/ Viv loved the exoticismof new friends such as Axelle and Amalia.

    extended family (n) /kstendd fm()li/ An extended familyis a large family group that includes grandparents,

    aunts, uncles, cousins etc.

    fake ID (n) /fek adi / Fake IDis an identity card that has been made to look real in order to

    trick people.

    family background (n) /fm()li bkgrand/ Your family backgroundis the type of family that you come from.

    faultline (n) /fltlan/ Faultlinesare small problems that develop.

    fluency (n) /flunsi/ Fluencyin a language is the ability to speak it well.

    fool around (phr v) /ful rand/ If you fool around, you act in a silly or stupid way.

    see the funny side of sth /si fni sad v/ If you see the funny side of something, you see thesm/ amusing part of a difficult or embarrassing situation.

    get to hear about sth /get t hr bat/sm/ All Alexs friends got to hear aboutthe fact that his father was a clown.

    grow apart (phr v) /gr pt/ Viv and Axelle grew apartand eventually lost touch.

    have a wild side /hv wald sad/ Amalia was quiet but had asecret wild side.

    hip (adj) /hp/ Someone who is hipis cool and trendy.

    8

    compensare

    chirurgia estetica

    abbracciare, stringere

    fare un favore a q.cno

    stravedere per q.cno

    avere il terrore di

    lasciare

    noioso/a

    bene, in modo eccellente

    maggiore, pi grande,

    anziano, antenato

    parter di scambio

    scambio scolastico conlestero

    esotismo

    famiglia allargata

    carta didentit falsa

    retroterra familiare

    incrinature

    scioltezza

    fare il buffone

    vedere il lato divertente diq.csa

    venire a sapere q.csa

    distanziarsi gradualmente

    avere un lato selvaggio

    fico/a

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    host family (n) /hst fm()li/ Your host familyis the family that welcomes you into their home.

    humiliation (n) /hjumlien/ Humiliationis the state of feeling embarrassed and ashamed.

    immersion (n) /m()n/ Immersionis a way of learning another language in which you only

    use the foreign language in class.

    infancy (n) /nfnsi/ Infancyis the period of time when you are a baby or very young child.

    be on its last legs /bi n ts lst legz/ If something is on its last legs, it is very old and no longer very useful.

    sbs loved ones (n pl) /smbdiz lvd wnz/ Your loved onesare the people you love, especially members of your

    family.

    (club) mascot (n) / (klb) mskt/ Kayleighs mum is club mascotfor Cardiff City and wears a bird

    costume at matches.

    middle age (n) /md()l e/ Middle ageis the period of time when you are no longer young, but

    are not yet old.

    music decks (n pl) (TS) /mjuzk deks/ Its easy for Andy, as a DJ, to hide behind his music decksat work.

    nappy (n) /npi/ A nappyis a thick piece of cloth that a baby wears between its legs

    before it has learned to use the toilet.

    nickname (v) /nknem/ Alexs friends nicknamedhim Corky Junior.

    nightlife (n) /natlaf/ Nightlifeis entertainment available in the evenings in clubs, bars,restaurants etc.

    object (v) /bekt/ If you objectto something, you do not like it or approve of it.

    old age (n) /ld e/ Old ageis the period of someones life when they are old.

    outrageous (adj) /atres/ Something that is outrageousis slightly shocking.

    perform (v) /pfm/ Ginas mum dresses up as Cher and performsat clubs.

    poster-girl (n) /pst gl/ A poster-girlis a girl or woman who is a good advertisement for

    something.

    prospect (n) /prspekt/ If you have good job prospects, you are likely to get a good job and

    earn a lot of money.

    rusty (adj) /rsti/ If your knowledge of a language is rusty, you have forgotten a lot of

    what you have learnt.see-through (adj) /siru / See-throughis an adjective that means transparent.

    sink or swim /sk swm/ If you are in a situation where you must sink or swim, you must deal

    with problems on your own if you want to succeed.

    sour (v) /sa/ If a relationship between two people sours, the people stop liking

    each other.

    9

    famiglia che d ospitalit

    umiliazione

    immersione

    prima infanzia

    essere malconcio

    cari

    mascotte di unassociazione

    mezza et

    impianto stereo

    pannolino

    nomignolo

    vita notturna

    opporsi

    vecchiaia

    scandaloso/a, atroce

    esibirsi

    ragazza da pubblicit

    prospettiva

    arrugginito/a

    trasparente

    affogare o nuotare

    inaridire

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    cant stand (doing) sth /knt stnd du/sm/ Gina is shy and cant stand beingthe centre of of attention.

    stay in shape /ste n ep/ If you stay in shape, you stay fit and healthy.

    sticky (adj) /stki/ Stickyobjects are covered with a substance that sticks to things.

    study trip (n) /stdi trp/ A study tripis a period of time that you spend away from home in

    order to study or learn something.

    table manners (n pl) /teb()l mnz/ Your table mannersare the way you behave when you are at a table

    eating food.

    ultimate (adj) /ltmt/ When Viv says she is the ultimateposter-girl for school exchanges, she

    means she is a perfect example of someone who enjoys them.

    underneath (adv) /ndni/ She wears a bird costume, but everyone knows its Mum underneath.

    urban (adj) /bn/ Someone who isurban is used to life in cities.

    want the ground to open up /wnt grand tu / If you want the ground to open up, you feel extremely embarrassed.

    /pn p/

    wiggly (adj) /wgli/ A wigglymoustache is not straight and you can move it around.

    witness (n) /wtns/ A witnessat a wedding is someone who also signs the official

    document that the married couple sign.

    SAYINGS

    Birds of a feather flock /bdz v fe flk Birds of a feather flock togethermeans that people of a similar type

    together. tge/ spend time together.

    Blood is thicker than water. /bld z k n wt/ Blood is thicker than watermeans that family relationships are the

    most important.

    Charity begins at home. /rti bgnz t hm/ Charity begins at homemeans that you should look after your family

    and friends first.

    Home is where the heart is. /hm z we ht z/ Home is where the heart ismeans that your home is wherever your

    loved ones are.

    One good turn deserves /wn gd tn dzvz One good turn deserves anothermeans that if someone is kind andanother. n/ helpful to you, you should also be kind and helpful to them.

    Twos company. Threes a crowd. /tuz kmp()ni riz Twos company. Threes a crowdmeans that two people can be happy

    krad/ together, but a third person causes problems.

    10

    non sopportare di fare/essere

    qualcosa

    essere in forma

    appiccicoso/a

    viaggio di studio

    modi a tavola

    migliore

    sotto

    cittadino/a

    desiderare di sprofondare

    nel terreno

    fluente

    testimone

    Dio li fa e poi li accoppia

    il sangue non acqua

    la carit inizia a casa

    la casa dov il cuore

    un buon servizio ne merita

    un altro

    in due compagnia, in tr

    folla

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    SHOWING SOMEONE AROUND YOUR HOME

    Welcome to our home! /welkm tu hm/ Hello Marie. Welcome to our home!

    Did you have a pleasant /dd ju hv plez()nt Did you have a pleasant journey? Yes, but Im feeling a bit tired

    journey? ni/ now.

    Let me introduce you to let mi ntrdjus ju tu Let me introduce you tothe rest of the family.

    Then Ill show you around. /en al ju rand/ Ill introduce you to the rest of the family, then Ill show you around.

    You must call me /ju mst kl mi / You must call meJill.

    Help yourself to /help jself tu / Help yourself totea and coffee.

    Make yourself at home. /mek jself t hm/ If you make yourself at homesomewhere, you feel relaxed and

    comfortable.

    If theres anything you need /f ez n j nid/ If theres anything you need, just give me a shout.

    Give me a shout. /gv mi at/ Give me a shoutif theres anything you need.

    SOCIAL REGISTER

    InformalHiya! /haj/ Hiya! The doors open.

    The doors open. / dz pn/ The doors open. Come in.

    Cheers thats great! /z ts gret/ I remembered to bring you that CD. Cheers, thats great!

    Hows it going? /haz t g/ Hows it going? All right, but Im shattered.

    chill out (phr v) /l at/ I just want to chill outthis evening and watch TV.

    Do you want to ? /du j wnt tu / Do you want towatch a DVD?

    Whatever. /wtev/ Do you want to watch TV or shall I get a DVD? Whatever.

    No idea. /n ad/ Whats on TV? No idea rubbish as usual, I expect.

    Formal

    Welcome! /welkm/ Welcome! Do come in!

    Do come in! /du km n/ Welcome! Do come in!

    Thats very kind of you! /ts veri kand v ju / Thank you, thats very kind of you!

    relax /rlks/ You must sit down and relax.

    Would you prefer ? /wd j prf / Would you prefertea or coffee?

    11

    Benvenuto, fa come fossi a

    casa tua!

    Hai fatto buon viaggio?

    Lascia che ti presenti

    Poi ti mostro i dintorni

    Chiamami

    Serviti

    Fai come a casa tua.

    Se ti serve qualcosa

    Fammi un fischio

    (chiamamia)

    Ehil! Ciao!

    La porta aperta.

    Bene, grandioso!

    Come va?

    rilassarsi

    Vuoi?

    Fa lo stesso.

    Non ne ho idea.

    Benvenuto/a!

    Entra!

    Davvero gentile da parte tua!

    Mettersi a proprio agio

    Preferisci

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    I dont mind. /a dnt mand/ Would you prefer tea or coffee? I dont mind.

    Im afraid I dont know. /am fred a dnt n/ How many miles is it exactly? Im afraid I dont know.

    Unit 3 (page 24)

    adventurer (n) /dvenr/ An adventureris someone who will take a risk in order to make money.

    antique (n) (TS) /ntik/ An antiqueis an object that is old and valuable.

    appear in court /pr n kt/ If someone appears in court, they go to a court of law so that people

    can ask you questions about something illegal they think you have done.

    band together (phr v) /bnd tge/ If people band together, they work together in order to achieve

    something.

    breathtaking (adj) /bretek/ Something that is breathtakingis very is extremely impressive or

    beautiful.

    capitalise on sth /kptlaz n sm/ If you capitalise onsomething, you use it to get an advantage for

    yourself.be charged with sth /bi d w/ Someone who is charged witha crime is officially accused of it.

    collapse (v) /klps/ If something collapses, it fails completely.

    community service (n) /kmjunti svs/ Community serviceis work that someone does as a punishment

    instead of going to prison.

    concern (n) /knsn/ Concernis a feeling of worry or sympathy for someone who is in a bad

    situation.

    con-man (n) /knmn/ A con-manis a criminal who tricks other people in order to get their

    money.

    corner the market (TS) /kn mkt/ If you corner the market, you get complete control of an area of

    business.

    cornice (n) (TS) /kns/ A corniceis an overhanging area of snow on the edge of a mountain.

    crops (n pl) /krps/ Cropsare plants that farmers grow to produce food.

    cynic (n) /snk/ A cynicis a person who thinks that people are not sincere or honest.

    declare (v) /dkle/ If you declaresomething, you say officially that it is true.

    discovery (n) /dskv()ri/ The discoveryof gold attracted thousands of people to California.

    12

    Quel che c va bene.

    Mi spiace, non lo so.

    avventuriero

    pezzo dantiquariato

    presentarsi in tribunale

    associarsi

    mozzafiato

    giovarsi di

    imputato/a di

    collassare

    lavori di pubblica utilit

    preoccupazione, interesse

    truffatore

    monopolizzare il mercato

    nevaio

    raccolto

    cinico

    dichiarare

    scoperta

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    disillusion (n) /dslu()n/ Disillusionis a feeling of great disappointment when something is not

    as good as you thought.

    disillusioned (adj) /dslu()nd/ John Sutter eventually left California feeling disillusioned.

    easterner (n) /istn/ Easternersare people who live in the east of a country or state.

    eastward (adv) /istwd/ If you travel eastward, you travel in a direction towards the east.

    entrepreneur (n) /ntrprn/ An entrepreneuris someone who uses money to start a business.

    epic (adj) /epk/ An epicjourney is very long and exciting.

    epidemic (n) /epdemk/ An epidemicis a situation in which a feeling spreads very quickly.

    follow sbs tracks (TS) /fl smbdz trks/ If you follow someones tracks, you follow where they are walking or

    moving.

    foolishness (n) /fulns/ Foolishnessis a word that means the same as stupidity.

    fort (n) /ft/ A fortis a strong building that is used to defend a place.

    a gap in the market / gp n mkt/ A gap in the marketis an opportunity to sell something that is not

    available but that people would like to have.

    glint (n) /glnt/ Aglintof something is a quick flash of light from something that is shiny.

    go through with sth (phr v) /g ru w sm/ If you go through with something, you succeed in doing something

    difficult.gold (n) /gld/ In 1848 goldwas discovered in California.

    gold fever (n) /gld fiv/ Gold feverwas the wish to find gold that a lot of people felt in the

    19thcentury.

    gold rush (n) /gld r/ The gold rushwas the period in the 19thcentury when a lot of people

    went to a place where gold had been discovered.

    gold strike (n) /gld strak/ A gold strikeis the act of discovering that gold exists in a place.

    GPS (Global Positioning System) /ipies/ GPSis a system you install in your car that tells you where you are and

    (n) (TS) gives you directions.

    hammock (n) /hmk/ A hammockis a bed consisting of a piece of cloth tied to a tree.

    a handful (of) / hndfl (v) / A handful ofpeople or things is a very small number of them.hand-painted (adj) (TS) /hndpentd/ Eric bought some beautiful hand-paintedtoy soldiers.

    a hard turn (n) (TS) / hd tn/ A hard turnis a sudden movement you make to the right or left.

    a head of (cattle) / hed v kt()l/ A head is an expression used as a way of counting farm animals.

    hot up (phr v) /ht p/ When an activity hots up, it becomes much more popular.

    immigrant (n) /mgrnt/ Sutter was a Swiss immigrantwho came to California in 1848.

    13

    disillusione

    deluso/a

    orientale

    verso est

    imprenditore

    epico/a

    epidemia

    seguire le tracce di qualcuno

    stupidit

    fortezza

    una micchia mercato

    scintilla

    venire a capo di qualcosa

    oro

    febbre delloro

    corsa alloro

    scoperta delloro

    GPS (Global Positioning

    System)

    amaca

    manciata

    dipinto a mano

    scarto

    un capo di (bestiame)

    espandersi

    immigrato/a

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    be intent on /bi ntent n/ Sutter was intent onbuilding his own private empire.

    joint (adj) /nt/ Ajointcompany is owned by more than one person.

    keenly understand sth /kinli ndstnd sm/ If you keenly understanda situation, you have thought about it and

    understand it well.

    kingdom (n) /kdm/ A kingdomis an area or activity that someone controls.

    lead to sbs downfall (TS) /lid t smbdz/ /danfl/ Alcoholism led to his downfalland Californias first millionaire died an

    unnoticed death.

    life-affirming (adj) /laffm/ Something that is life-affirmingmakes you feel happier or more

    positive about life.

    lifetime (n) /laftam/ The adventurers were willing to spend a difficult year in return for a

    lifetimeof riches.

    madness (n) /mdns/ If people think that something is madness, they think it is extremely

    stupid.

    mid-life crisis (n) /mdlaf krass/ A mid-life crisisis when people who are middle-aged feel very anxious

    about their life.

    mortgage (v) /mg/ People mortgagedtheir farms in order to travel to California.

    newcomer (n) /njukm/ Sutter welcomed the newcomersas subjects for his new kingdom.opportunist (n) /ptjunst/ An opportunistis someone who always tries to get an advantage for

    themselves.

    outpost (n) /atpst/ An outpostis a place that is far away from other places.

    pan (n) /pn/ A panis a large, flat bowl used for collecting gold.

    pick (n) /pk/ A pickis a tool used for breaking hard surfaces.

    private empire (n) /pravt empa/ Someones private empireis a business that they own.

    prosecute (v) /prskjut/ If you prosecutesomeone, you officially accuse them of a crime.

    be registered in sbs name /bi restd n/ Christopher sold the car although it was registered in his mothers

    smbdz nem/ name.

    resident (n) /rezd()nt/ Residentsare the people who live in a particular place.

    risk-taker (n) /rsktek/ A risk-takeris someone who is not afraid of taking risks to get whatthey want.

    at the root of sth /t rut v sm/ If something is at the root ofa problem or situation, it is the thing

    that has caused it.

    rug (n) /rg/ A rugis a very small carpet that you put on a floor.

    ruined (adj) /rund/ In 1850 Sutter had lost all his wealth and was a ruinedman.

    14

    essere intento a

    di gruppo

    capire perfettamente

    regno

    portare alla rovina di q.cno

    propositivo/a

    vita

    pazzia

    crisi di mezza et

    ipotecare

    nuovo arrivatoopportunista

    avamposto

    setaccio

    piccone

    impero privato

    far causa a q.cno

    essere intestato a q.cno

    residente

    uno che ama rischiare

    alla radice di q.csa

    tappetino

    rovinato/a

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    satellite navigation (n) (TS) /stlat nvge()n/ Satellite navigationis a system that tells you where you are and gives

    you directions.

    sawmill (n) /sml/ A sawmillis a building where wood is cut into pieces using a machine.

    scheme (n) /skim/ A schemeis a plan that you make in order to get something.

    shovel (n) /v()l/ A shovelis a tool that is used for lifting and moving earth or snow.

    spa (n) /sp / A spais a type of bath filled with water that you put your feet into in

    order to relax.

    special delivery (n) /spe()l dlv()ri/ A special deliveryis a parcel that is delivered by a fast postal service.

    spotlight (n) /sptlat/ If you are in the spotlight, everyone is looking at you or is interested

    in you.

    start afresh /stt fre/ Ian Usher has sold his life because he wants to start afresh.

    starving (adj) /stv/ I havent eaten since this morning Im starving.

    statement (n) /stetmnt/ A statementis something that you say or write publicly.

    stock company (n) /stk kmp()ni/ A stock companyis one that is owned by several people.

    subject (n) /sbekt/ A subjectis a person who works for someone who is very powerful.

    supply and demand (n) /spla n dmnd/ The laws of supply and demandrelate to the amount of a product

    that is available and how many people want to buy it.support a charity /spt rti/ If you support a charity, you give money to it.

    sweep sb up (phr v) (TS) /swip smbdi p/ If water or snow sweeps someone up, it moves over them quickly.

    Swiss (adj) /sws/ Someone who is Swissis from Switzerland.

    tear down (phr v) /te dan/ If you tear downa building, you destroy it.

    telegraph (v) /telgrf/ News of the discovery of gold was telegraphedto every village and

    town.

    thump (v) /mp/ If your heart thumps, it beats very fast.

    trample (v) /trmp()l/ If people tramplesomething, they destroy it by walking all over it.

    traverse (v) (TS) /trvs/ If you traversean area, you move over or across it.

    trickle (v) /trk()l/ By the mid-1840s more and more Americans were tricklinginto California.undertake (v) /ndtek/ Other people have undertakensimilar schemes to Ian Usher and profited.

    vigorous (adj) /vg()rs/ If you do vigorousexercise, you exercise very hard.

    vision (n) /v()n/ Sutter had a visionof building his own private empire.

    visionary (n) /vn()ri/ Someone who is a visionaryhas a clear idea of how things should be

    done.

    15

    navigatore satellitare

    segheria

    piano

    pala

    pediluvio

    consegna speciale

    centro dellattenzione

    ricominciare da capo

    affamatissimo

    dichiarazione

    stock company

    suddito

    domanda e offerta

    sostenere um istituto di

    beneficenza

    travolgere

    svizzero/a

    tirar gi

    telegrafare

    battere

    calpestare

    attraversare

    migrare poco per voltaintraprendere

    energico/a

    visione

    idealista

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    wagon (n) /wgn/ A wagonis an old-fashioned vehicle pulled by horses.

    be in the way /bi n we/ If you are in the way, you are stopping people from doing what they

    want to do.

    wealthy (adj) /weli/ Wealthyis a word meaning the same as rich.

    whisper (n) /wsp/ Whispersof a gold strike drifted eastward across the country.

    Why on earth? /wa n / Why on earth? is an expression that is used to emphasize the

    question word Why?without sbs knowledge /wat smbdz/ nl/ Without his mothers knowledge, Christopher sold her car.

    COLLOCATIONS

    have

    have a chat /hv t/ If you have a chatwith someone, you talk to them for a short time.

    have difficulty /hv dfk()lti/ We had difficultyfinding somewhere to park.

    have a duty /hv djuti/ We all have a dutyto help each other.

    have a go /hv g/ If you have a goat something, you try to do it.

    have a guess /hv ges/ How many people live in the UK? I dont know. Have a guess.have a laugh /hv lf/ I like meeting friends and having a laugh.

    have a look /hv lk/ Can I have a lookat your new iPod?

    have a right /hv rat/ People over 18 have the rightto vote.

    have a think /hv k/ Well have a thinkand let you know what we decide.

    have a word /hv wd/ Can I have aquick wordwith you, please?

    make

    make a fortune /mek fun/ Top football players can make a fortune.

    make a fuss /mek fs/ If you make a fussabout something, you get too worried or excited

    about it.

    make a living /mek lv/ It can be hard to make a livingas an actor.make a loss /mek ls/ Banks have madehuge lossesin recent months.

    make a mess /mek mes/ I always make a messwhen I cook.

    make money /mek mni/ Businessmen such as Bill Gates and Richard Branson have madea lot of

    money.

    make a profit /mek prft/ If you make a profit, you sell something for more money than it cost

    to buy.

    16

    carrozza

    essere tra i piedi

    facoltoso/a

    diceria, bisbiglio

    Perch mai?

    senza che q.cno lo sappia

    chiacchierare

    avere problemi

    avere il dovere di

    provare

    indovinare, ipotizzarefarsi quattro risate

    dare unocchiata

    avere il diritto di

    pensarci su

    dire una parola

    fare una fortuna

    agitarsi

    mantenersi

    perdere

    fare un disastro

    far soldi

    fare un affare

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    make sense /mek sens/ I dont understand my dreams. They never make sense.

    make a start /mek stt/ Weve a lot of work to do we'd better make a start.

    take

    take action /tek k()n/ Theres a time for talking and a time for taking action.

    take advice /tek dvas/ If you take advice, you ask someone for their opinion about the best

    thing to do.

    take a deep breath /tek dip bre/ Take a deep breathand calm down.

    take an exam /tek n gzm/ Shes takingher piano examtomorrow.

    take notes /tek nts/ Students listened to the teacher and took notes.

    take office /tek fs/ President Barack Obama took officein January 2009.

    take place /tek ples/ The 2012 Olympics take placein London.

    take responsibility /tek rspnsblti/ Shes 16 and old enough to take responsibilityfor herself.

    take a risk /tek rsk/ You sometimes have to take risksto succeed.

    take sugar /tek g/ Do you take sugarin coffee?

    METAPHORS

    Time = Money

    be running out of time /bi rn at v tam/ Hurry up! Were running out of time.

    spare (sb) a couple of minutes /spe (smbdi) We need to talk. Can you spare a couple of minutes?

    /kp()l v mnts/

    sbs time is precious /smbdiz tam z pres/ If someones time is precious, they are busy and do not have a lot of time.

    use your time profitably /juz j tam prftbli/ You should use your timemore profitablyand get a proper job.

    waste your time /west j tam/ Youre wasting your timeif you think you can make money out of the

    Internet.

    be worth sbs while /bi w smbdiz wal/ Just five minutes of your time I promise it will be worth your while!

    Ideas = Food

    chew sth over /u sm v/ Martha had been chewing overthe idea for the past few weeks.

    digest information /daest nfme()n/ I need time to digestall this information.

    17

    avere un senso

    incominciare

    agire

    chiedere consiglio

    fare un profondo respiro

    fare un esame

    prendere appunti

    prendere servizio

    aver luogo

    prendersi la responsabilit di

    assumersi un rischio

    zuccherare

    essere in ritardo

    trovare un attimo

    il tempo (di qualcuno)

    prezioso

    mettere a profitto il tempo

    sprecare il tempo

    essere tempo ben speso

    rimuginare

    digerire delle informazioni

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    food for thought /fud f t/ Thats interesting. Theres certainly food for thoughthere.

    be a half-baked idea /bi hf bekt ad/ A half-baked ideais one that you have not thought about properly.

    MONEY

    afford (v) /fd/ If you can affordsomething, you have enough money to buy it.

    be a bargain (TS) /bi bgn/ If something is a bargainit costs much less than normal.blow it on sth /bl t n sm/ He didnt save the money instead he blew itall ona new music system.

    breadwinner (n) /bredwn/ A breadwinneris the person who earns the money to support a family.

    broke (adj) /brk/ If you are broke, you have spent all your money.

    budget (n) /bt/ A budgetis an amount of money that you an afford to spend on

    something.

    cheap and cheerful (TS) /ip n f()l/ Something that is cheap and cheerfuldoes not cost a lot of money but

    is suitable for a particular purpose.

    earn a living /n lv/ Do you agree that its a mans job to earn a living? Theres no such

    Theres no such thing as a free /ez n s z thing as a free lunchmeans that you cannot get something goodlunch. /fri ln/ without paying for it.

    hard-up (adj) /hdp/ Someone who is hard-updoes not have a lot of money.

    inherit (v) /nhert/ He told his girlfriend he had inheritedthe money from his grandfather,

    who had died.

    invest (v) /nvest/ If you investmoney, you use it in order to make more money.

    loaded (adj) /ldd/ Loadedis an informal word meaning extremely rich.

    The love of money is the / lv v mni z The love of money is the root of all evil means that money makes

    root of of all evil. rut v l iv()l/ people do bad things to other people.

    be made of money /bi med v mni/ No, I cant afford to buy you a new car Im not made of money, you

    know!

    Money makes the world. /mni meks wld Money makes the world go roundmeans that it is peoples desire togo round g rand/ make money that makes them do things.

    overdraft (n) /vdrft/ If you pay off an overdraft, you pay the bank money that you owe to it.

    get sth for peanuts /get sm f pints/ Computers are much cheaper nowadays you can get them for peanuts.

    In for a penny, in for a pound. /n fr peni n fr In for a penny, in for a poundmeans that you intend to finish

    pand/ something you have started doing.

    18

    cibo per la mente

    mezza idea

    permettersi

    essere un affare

    scialacquare

    chi lavora per mantenere

    tutta la famiglia

    al verde

    budget

    economic e bello/a

    guadagnarsi da vivere

    Tutlo si paga

    squattrinato/a

    ereditare

    investire

    ricco sfondato

    Lamore per il denaro la

    radice di ogni male

    navigare nelloro

    I soldi fanno girare ilmondo/a.

    scoperto (bancario)

    comprare a poco prezzo

    Quando inizi una cosa la devi

    finire

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    pricey (adj) (TS) /prasi/ Priceyis a word that means expensive.

    push the boat out /p bt at/ If you push the boat out, you decide to spend a lot of money on

    something.

    Put your money where your /pt j mni we j If you put your money where your mouth is, you give money to

    mouth is. ma z/ someone or something to show that you mean what you say.

    save it for a rainy day /sev t fr reni de/ If you save money for a rainy day, you save it for a time when you

    need it.

    splash out (on) (phr v) /spl at (n) / He splashed out onan extravagant champagne holiday for himself and

    his girlfriend.

    stretch to sth (phr v) /stre t sm/ How much can you afford to spend? I could stretch toabout 10,000.

    a sum of money / sm v mni/ Christopher said he had inherited a sum of moneyfrom his grandfather.

    tax (v) /tks/ The government taxescigarettes and alcohol heavily.

    Watch the pennies, and the /w penz n Watch the pennies and the pounds take care of themselvesmeans

    pounds take care of pandz tek ke v that if you save small amounts of money, you will eventually have a

    themselves. mselvz/ large amount.

    be worth 100/$250 etc /bi w hndrd Win a holiday worth 6,000!

    pandz/tu hndrd n ffti dlz/

    Review A (page 34)

    advisor /dvaz/ Louise wanted to save the bookshop and asked a business advisor

    for help.

    delighted /dlatd/ The bookshop is making a fortune and Louise is delighted.

    fed-up /fedp/ If you feel fed-up, you feel bored and annoyed or sad.

    get sth noticed /get sm ntst/ In order to get the shop noticed, she painted it bright red.get rid of sth /get rd v sm/ I decided to get rid ofthe old car and buy a new one.

    give up /gv p/ If you give up, you stop doing something.

    pay sb back /pe smbdi bk/ I dont mind lending you the money, but I expect you to pay me back

    soon.

    19

    costoso/a

    investire molto

    Dimostrare qualcosa coi fatti.

    Risparmiare per quand ce

    ne sar o nonspendere una follia

    arrivare a

    una somma di denaro

    tassare

    Se risparmi i penny i pounds

    si prenderanno cura di s.

    avere un valore di

    consulente

    entusiasta

    scocciato/a

    far notare

    sbarazzarsi di

    piantarla

    ripagare, rimborsare

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    have a row (with sb) /hv ra (w smbdi)/ We had a rowand now were not speaking.

    run a business /rn bzns/ Louise runs her own business a bookshop.

    Unit 4 (page 36)

    achievement (n) /ivmnt/ Getting to the Pole was a tremendous achievementfor Ben.

    aim (v) /em/ Claire is aimingto raise money for a breast cancer charity.

    ammunition (n) /mjn()n/ Ammunitionis bullets that can be fired from a gun.

    the Antarctic (n) /i ntktk/ The Antarcticis the extremely cold region in the most southern part of

    the world.

    the Arctic (n) /i ktk/ The Arcticis the extremely cold region in the most northern part of

    the world.

    bear drill (n) /be drl/ A bear drillis a series of actions that you must do to avoid being

    attacked by a bear.

    bloke (n) /blk/ Blokeis an informal word meaning a man.blood sugar level (n) /bld g lev()l/ Its important to maintain blood sugar levelsfor energy.

    bother (n) /b/ Botheris an informal word meaning problems or difficulties.

    bra (n) /br / A brais a piece of underwear that supports a womans breasts.

    carbohydrates (carbs) (n pl) /kbhadrets/ Carbohydratesor carbsare substances in foods such as bread and

    potatoes.

    cardio (n) /kdi/ A cardiois an exercise to make the heart stronger.

    carnivore (n) /knv/ Carnivoresare animals who eat meat.

    cartridge (n) (TS) /ktr/ Pen reloaded the gun again with a fifth and sixth cartridge.

    cause (n) /kz/ Completing the MoonWalk means I will have contributed money to a

    good cause.

    challenge (n) /ln/ Doing a walk for charity and giving up smoking are different types ofchallenge.

    clear sbs head /kl smbdiz hed/ If something clears your head, it helps you to think more clearly.

    comfort (v) /kmft/ If you comfortsomeone, you make them feel better.

    crucial (adj) /kru()l/ Carbohydrates are crucialfor energy levels.

    look like death warmed up /lk lak de wmd p/ Someone who looks like death warmedup looks extremely ill.

    20

    litigare

    aprire unattivit

    impresa

    progettare

    munizione

    Antartide

    Artico

    piano anti orso

    tipo, tizioglicemia

    guaio

    reggiseno

    carboidrati

    esercizio cardiostimolante

    carnivoro

    cartuccia

    causa, fine

    sfida

    chiarire le idee a q.cno

    consolare

    decisivo/a

    sembra uno zombie

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    to sbs delight /t smbdiz dlat/ To my delight, the twenty cigarettes were intact!

    dial (v) /dal/ I should dialShubentsov whenever I feel the urge to smoke.

    drag (v) /drg/ If you dragsomething heavy, you pull it with difficulty.

    endeavour (n) /endev/ Do you think that the achievements and endeavoursof explorers have

    significance for the rest of us?

    energy bar (n) /eni b / An energy baris a small piece of cake or biscuit that you eat to give

    you energy.

    environmental scientist (n) /nvarnment()l An environmental scientistspecialises in studying the environment.

    santst/

    expedition (n) /ekspd()n/ Ben went on an expeditionto the North Pole.

    explorer (n) /ksplr/ Richard Branson, Ellen McArthur and Ben Saunders are all explorers.

    fingertip (n) /fgtp/ Your fingertipsare the parts right at the end of your fingers.

    finishing line (n) /fn lan/ The finishing lineis a line on a track that marks the end of a race.

    fire (v) /fa/ Fireis an informal word meaning to make someone leave their job.

    focus (n) /fks/ Focusis the effort and concentration that you give to something.

    frostbite (n) /frstbat/ Walking through snow and ice can give you frostbite.

    fundamentally (adv) /fndment()li/ Fundamentallymeans the same as basically.gear (n) /g/ Running gearis the type of clothes you wear for running.

    healing energy (n) /hil eni/ Healing energyis energy that helps to cure people.

    health freak (n) /hel frik/ A health freakis someone who is obsessed with keeping fit.

    hibernate (v) /habnet/ Do polar bears hibernatein winter?

    hooked (adj) /hkt/ If you are hookedon cigarettes, you cannot do without them.

    horizon (n) /hraz()n/ Peoples horizonsare the things they try to achieve.

    hydrated (adj) /hadretd/ Its important to stay hydratedso Ill be drinking a lot of water.

    imminent (adj) /mnnt/ Something that is imminentis going to happen soon.

    inquisitive (adj) /nkwztv/ Inquisitivemeans the same as curious.

    intact (adj) /ntkt/ Something that is intactis not damaged or broken.

    intrigue (v) /ntrig/ The question : How far can we go? intriguesBen.joint (n) /nt/ Yourjointsare the parts of your body that can bend such as your

    knees and hips.

    keep sb going /kip smbdi g/ The idea of giving money to a good cause keeps Claire going.

    Its killing me! /ts kl mi / My ankles hurting in fact its killing me!

    21

    per la gioia di q.cno

    chiamare, contattare

    trascinare

    sforzo

    barretta energetica

    scienziato dell mbiente

    spedizione

    esploratore

    polpastrello

    traguardo

    licenziare

    concentrazione, sforzo

    congelamento

    fondamentalmentevestiti

    potere di guarire

    salutista

    andare in letargo

    dipendente

    obiettivo

    idratato/a

    imminente

    indiscreto/a

    intatto/a

    incuriosire

    articolazione

    dare la forza di andare

    avanti

    Mi fa male da morire!

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    land-based (adj) /lndbest/ Land-basedanimals are animals that live on the land, not in the sea.

    media interest (n) /midi ntrst/ Media interestis the interest shown by TV, newspapers in events.

    membership (n) /membp/ Gym membershipcan be quite expensive.

    motivational speaker (n) /mtve()nl spik/ A motivational speakeris someone who gives talks in public to try to

    encourage people to do something.

    muddy (adj) /mdi/ Amuddy accent is deep and not very clear.

    navigate (v) /nvget/ Someone who navigatesuses maps or other equipment to decidewhich way to go.

    obscenely (adv) /bsinli/ Someone who is obscenelyrich is so rich that you think it is unacceptable.

    only have yourself to blame /nli hv jself t blem/ If you only have yourself to blame, you are completely responsible for

    something bad.

    outline (v) /atlan/ If you outlinesomething, you give a quick description of it.

    outrun (v) /atrn/ If you outruna person or animal, you run faster than them.

    pocket (v) /pkt/ I picked the cigarettes up and pocketedthem.

    pointless (adj) /pntls/ Something that is pointlessdoes not have any meaning or use.

    power-walk/power-walking (n) /pawk/ A power-walkor power-walkingis a form of exercise in which you

    pawk/ walk very quickly.quit (v) /kwt/ Once youve started smoking, its very difficult to quit.

    quitting technique (n) /kwt teknik/ Lots of quitting techniquesare available to help you give up smoking.

    since records began /sns rekdz bgn/ Conditions in the Arctic were described as some of the worst since

    records began.

    relieved (adj) /rlivd/ I felt relievedwhen no one answered the phone.

    reload (v) /rild/ Pen reloadedthe gun when he saw the bear walking towards them.

    the reverse (n) /rvs/ The reverseof something is its opposite.

    risky (adj) /rski/ Something that is riskyis slightly dangerous.

    seal (n) /sil/ Do polar bears eat seals?

    It serves you right. /t svz ju rat/ My back stings I didnt put any sunblock on. It serves you right

    then, doesnt it?shambolic (adj) /mblk/ Something that is shambolicdoes not succeed because it is badly

    organised.

    significance (n) /sgnfkns/ Do the achievements of explorers have significancefor the rest of us?

    not sleep a wink /nt slip wk/ If you dont sleep a wink, you dont sleep at all.

    sledge (n) /sle/ Ben Saunders dragged a 180-kilogramme sledgeover 1,420 miles.

    22

    terrestre

    interesse mediatico

    lessere membro di

    conferenziere motivazionale

    poco chiaro

    condurre

    oscenamente

    dover ringraziare solo se

    stessi

    descrivere a grandi linee

    superare nella corsa

    mettere in tasca

    insignificante, inutile

    marcia

    smettere

    tecnica per smettere

    da quando si iniziato a

    registrarlo

    alleviato/a

    ricaricare

    il contrario

    rischioso/a

    foca

    ti sta bene

    molto disorganizzato/a

    senso

    non chiudere occhio

    slitta

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    slip into sth /slp nt sm/ If you slip intoa particular way of behaving or speaking, you start

    behaving or speaking in that way.

    sole (n) /sl/ The solesof your feet are the flat parts underneath your feet.

    the South Pole (n) / sa pl/ The South Poleis the part of the earth that is the furthest south.

    sponsor (v) /spns/ If you sponsorsomething, you provide the money that is necessary to

    do it.

    stamina (n) /stmn/ Your staminais the ability to do something without getting tired.steadily (adv) /stedli/ Slowly and steadilymost smokers get hooked on cigarettes.

    a streaming nose / strim nz/ If you have a streaming nose, liquid flows from your nose because you

    have a cold.

    strength-training (n) /stretren/ Claire does a combination of cardio, aerobics and strength-trainingto

    prepare for the race.

    stretch yourself (v refl) /stre jself/ The more you stretch yourself, the stronger your self-belief gets.

    supplies (n pl) /splaz/ Suppliesare things such as food or medical equipment that you need.

    transmit (v) /trnzmt/ Shubentsov transmitshis healing energy through his fingertips.

    COLLOCATIONS

    be in charge of /bi n v/ If you are in charge of something, you are responsible for it.

    close the barrel /klz brl/ If you close the barrelof a gun, you close the part that the bullet is

    fired through.

    I couldnt quite figure out /a kd()nt kwat fg Something was wrong, but I couldnt quite figure it out.

    t at/

    The guns still jammed. / gnz stl md/ The guns still jammed it wont fire.

    load the gun /ld gn/ If you load a gun, you put bullets in it.

    go into slow motion /g nt sl/m()n/ If everything goes into slow motion, it seems to be happening very

    slowly.

    pull the trigger /pl trg/ If you pull the triggerof a gun, you fire it.Theres no way ... /ez n we/ Theres no waywe can outrun a bear!

    undo the zip /ndu zp/ My fingers were too cold to undo the zip.

    23

    scivolare in

    pianta (del piede)

    Polo Sud

    patrocinare

    resistenza

    regolarmente

    naso che gocciola

    esercizio rinforzante

    sforzarsi

    rifornimenti

    trasmettere

    essere incaricato di

    chiudere la canna

    non sono riuscito proprio a

    capire

    La pistola di nuovo

    inceppata.

    caricare la pistola

    andare a rallentatore

    premere il grilletto impossibile

    aprire la cerniera

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    PHRASAL VERBS

    call sb back /kl smbdi bk/ Leave a message and Ill call you back.

    chase sb/sth away /es smbdi/sm Smoke chases awaymosquitoes.

    we/

    come up with /km p w/ I wish someone would come up withnon-fattening chocolate!

    cut down on /kt dan n/ Hes trying to cut down onthe number of cigarettes he smokes a day.

    do without sth /du wat sm/ Most smokers find it hard to do withoutcigarettes.drive sb away /drav smbdi we/ Smoking can help drive awayannoying people!

    get over sth /get v sm/ If you get over somethingdifficult or upsetting, you recover from it.

    give in /gv n/ If you give in, you do something that you shouldnt.

    give sth in /gv sm n/ Dont forget to give your homework in.

    hop down /hp dan/ I hopped downfrom the doorstep and picked the cigarettes up from

    the pavement.

    keep up with /kip p w/ Its not easy keeping up withall the latest diets.

    let sb down /let smbdi dan/ If someone lets you down, they disappoint you.

    light up /lat p/ When you light up, you light a cigarette or cigar.

    look sth up /lk sm p/ Lookthe words upin a dictionary.pick sth up /pksm p/ (Sense 1) He pickedthe cigarettes upfrom the pavement.

    (Sense 2) Some people find it easier to pick upa new language than

    others.

    put the phone down /pt fn dan/ When he puts the phone down, he feels relieved.

    put sth off /pt sm f/ I need to lose weight but I keep putting it off.

    run out of /rn at v/ During Bens first expedition they ran out offood.

    take sth up /tek sm p/ (Sense 1) When did you take upsmoking?

    (Sense 2) Work takes upa lot of most peoples lives.

    WORD FORMATION

    -able/-ibleaccessible /ksesb()l/ Prices that are accessiblecan be afforded by most people.

    doable /dubl/ My Arctic expedition is just about doable, and thats whats exciting to me.

    edible /edb()l/ If food is not edible, it is not good enough to be eaten.

    enjoyable /nb()l/ We spent a very enjoyableevening together.

    feasible /fizb()l/ My Arctic expedition is just about feasible, and thats whats exciting

    to me.

    24

    richiamare

    scacciare

    inventare, tirar fuori

    tagliare (diminuire)

    far senza

    tener lontano

    superare

    sbagliare

    consegnare

    saltar gi

    restare aggiornato/a

    deludere q.cno

    accendere

    cercare q.csa1. raccogliere 2. imparare

    riagganciare il telefono

    rinviare q.csa

    terminare

    1. prendere labitudine di

    2. occupare, assorbire

    accessibile

    fattibile

    commestibile

    piacevole

    realizzabile, credibile

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    reasonable /riz()nb()l/ Something that seems reasonableseems sensible.

    unbearable /nberb()l/ I find very hot temperatures unbearable.

    self-

    self-belief (n) /selfblif/ Doing things that are risky or uncomfortable makes your self-belief

    get stronger.

    self-conscious (adj) /selfkns/ I feel self-consciouswhen I speak English to a native speaker.self-discipline (n) /selfdspln/ Self-disciplineis the ability to make yourself do things that are difficult.

    self-employed (adj) /selfmpld/ I dont like working for other people Id rather be self-employed.

    Unit 5 (page 46)

    accidentally (adv) (TS) /ksdent()li/ If you do something accidentally, you do it without meaning to.

    affirmation (n) /fmen/ An affirmationis a statement that something is true.

    aftershave (n) /ftev/ Aftershaveis a liquid with a pleasant smell that men put on their faceafter shaving.

    assume (v) /sjum/ If you assumesomething, you think it is true even though you have no

    proof that it is.

    be attached to sth /bi tt tu / Some people arevery attached totheir superstitions.

    back out (phr v) /bk at/ Dad always backs outof the drive carefully.

    bounce (v) /bans/ Serena bouncesthe ball five times before the first serve.

    break a jinx /brek ks/ If you break a jink, you stop something that is bringing you bad luck.

    at breakneck speed /t breknek spid/ Someone who drives at breakneck speeddrives extremely fast.

    brush against (phr v) (TS) /br genst/ Nobody is allowed in the garage in case they accidentally brush

    againstthe car.

    chant (v) /nt/ If you chantsomething, you sing a word or phrase many times.choking (adj) (TS) /k/ If you are chokingyou cannot breathe properly and are coughing

    because of smoke or fumes.

    come across (phr v) /km krs/ If you come acrosssomeone, you meet them by chance.

    contrasting (adj) /kntrst/ Contrasting colours are colours such as black and white that are very

    different from each other.

    25

    ragionevole

    intollerabile

    fiducia in se stessi

    imbarazzato/a

    autodisciplina

    autonomo/a

    per caso

    affermazione, conferma

    dopobarba

    credere

    essere affezionato a q.csa

    uscire in retromarcia

    far rimbalzare

    spezzare un maleficio

    a folle velocit

    grattare (con la macchina)

    salmodiareaffannato/a

    imbattersi in

    contrastante

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    convertible (n) /knvtb()l/ A convertibleis a car with a roof that can be folded back or removed

    completely.

    cubicle (n) /kjubk()l/ A shower cubicleis a small, enclosed area where you can have a

    shower.

    curse (n) /ks/ A curseis a bad situation or event caused by someone who

    deliberately uses magic powers.

    deep down (TS) /dip dan/ If you feel something deep down, you feel it even though yourbehaviour may not show it.

    derive from (phr v) /drav frm/ Some of Serenas confidence derives fromthe knowledge that shes a

    super-talented player.

    devote (v) /dvt/ If you devoteyour time to doing something, you spend a lot of time

    doing that thing.

    fall back on sth (phr v) /fl bk n sm/ Ana Ivanovic explains that she likes having rituals to fall back on.

    first and foremost /fst n fmst/ A wedding, first and foremost, is a rite of passage to be shared with

    family and close friends.

    focus (v) /fks/ If you focusobsessively on one thing, you only think about or do that

    thing.formula (n) /fmjl/ Superstitions form part of Serenas winning formula.

    gig (n) /gg/ A gig is a performance of live music.

    go through (phr v) /g ru / If you go througha routine, ritual or procedure, you do a series of

    actions regularly.

    idyllic (adj) /dlk/ An idyllicsituation is one that is perfect and makes you feel very happy.

    immune (adj) /mjun/ If you are not immuneto something, you are affected by it.

    inside out (adv) /nsad at/ Something that is inside outhas the inside part facing towards the

    outside.

    jinx (n) /ks/ Ajinxis something that causes bad luck.

    loopy (adj) /lupi/ Someone who is loopyis slightly crazy.

    match (v) /m/ If things match, they look good or attractive together.mind game (n) /mand gem/ A mind gameis a series of actions intended to affect how someone

    thinks or feels.

    national anthem (n) /n()nl nm/ A national anthemis the official national song of a country.

    obsessive compulsive /bsesv kmplsv Obsessive compulsive disorderis a type of mental illness which makes

    disorder (n) dsd/ you repeat certain actions.

    26

    decappottabile

    cabina

    malocchio, maleficio

    dentro

    derivare da

    dedicare

    ricorrere a

    prima di tutto

    concentrarsi su

    formula

    esibizione

    fare regolarmente

    idilliaco/a

    immune

    rovescio/a

    malocchio

    eccentrico/a

    star bene insiemegioco immaginario

    inno nazionale

    disturbo ossessivo compulsivo

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    obsessively (adv) /bsesvli/ If you focus obsessivelyon one thing, you only think about or do that

    thing.

    opponent (n) /pnnt/ An opponentin a game of sport is the person or team you are playing

    against.

    opt (for) (v) /pt (f)/ Some people dont want the stress of a big wedding and opt fora

    low-key affair instead.

    outfit (n) /atft/ Some football fans wear the same clothing to a match if that outfitbrought victory in the previous game.

    pat down (phr v) (TS) /pt dan/ If you patsomething down, you press it gently with your fingers.

    perfect (v) /pfekt/ If you perfecta skill, you practise it until it is perfect.

    perfectionism (n) /pfek()nzm/ Perfectionismis the state of being perfect and without any mistakes.

    pitch (n) /p/ A pitchis a flat area of ground used for playing sports such as cricket

    or football.

    preside (over) (v) /przad v/ If you preside oversomething, you are responsible or in charge of it.

    procedure (n) /prsi/ Dad always goes through exactly the same procedure before setting

    off in the car.

    rational (adj) /r()nl

    / Someone who is rationalis sensible and makes good decisions.

    relentlessly (adv) /rlentlsli/ If you do something relentlessly, you do it again and again without

    stopping.

    be renowned for sth /bi rnand f sm/ If you are renowned for something, you are associated with it and well

    known for it.

    reportedly (adv) /rptdli/ Beckham reportedlyspends hours straightening the furniture at home.

    repulsive (adj) (TS) /rplsv/ Something that is repulsiveis extremely unpleasant.

    rife (adj) /raf/ Something bad that is rifeis very widespread and common.

    ritual (n) /rul/ A ritualis something that you do regularly and always in the same way.

    ritual-bound (adj) /rulband/ Someone who is ritual-boundmust do something regularly in order to

    feel happy.

    ritualistic (adj) /rulstk/ Victoria Beckham has had to get used to Davids ritualisticways.be on the road /bi n rd/ If you are on the roada lot, you travel a lot.

    run through (n) /rn ru / After the run throughfor the wedding, we were ready for the real thing.

    set off (phr v) /set f/ When you set off, you start a journey.

    shades (n pl) /edz/ Shadesis an informal word that means sunglasses.

    sit by (phr v) /st ba/ If one building sits byanother, it is situated next to that building.

    27

    ossessivamente

    avversario

    optare per

    vestiti

    appiattire con dei colpetti

    perfezionare

    perfezionismo

    campo

    presiedere

    procedura

    razionale

    ininterrottamente

    essere famoso/a per q.csa

    a quanto si dice

    ripugnante

    comune

    rituale

    legato/a a dei riti

    ritualeessere in viaggio

    prova

    partire

    occhiali scuri

    essere accanto

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    skill (n) /skl/ A skillis the ability to do something, usually to do it well.

    skinny (adj) /skni/ Someone who is skinnyis very thin.

    slam (v) /slm/ If you slama door, you shut it hard, usually because you are angry.

    sneeze (v) /sniz/ Strong aftershave makes me want to sneeze.

    soloist (n) /slst/ Elvis is the most sought-after soloist in the Las Vegas wedding industry.

    sought-after (adj) /stft/ Someone who is sought-afteris very popular.

    a spare pair (n) / spe pe/ Mums always losing her glasses she should get a spare pair!take sth a stage further /tek sm ste f/ Beckham takes his rituals a stage furtheras everything has to be just

    right at home as well.

    straighten (v) /stret()n/ If you straightensomething, you make it straight or put it in a straight

    line.

    stick thin (adj) /stk n/ Someone who is stick thinis extremely thin.

    What strikes me is ... /wt straks mi z/ What strikes me isthat so many celebrity marriages are short-lived.

    stride (v) /strad/ If you stridesomewhere, you walk there quickly and confidently.

    superstition (n) /supst()n/ A superstitionis the belief that things such as magic or luck have the

    power to affect your life.

    superstitious (adj) /supsts/ A lot of sports people are very superstitious.

    tap out (phr v) (TS) /tp at/ If you tap outtobacco, you put it in a pipe.

    thrash (v) /r/ If you thrashan opponent at sport, you beat them very easily.

    at the top of your game /t tp v j gem/ Someone who is at the top of their gameis playing it better than

    anyone else.

    track (n) /trk/ A trackon a CD is a particular song.

    tuck up (phr v) (TS) /tk p/ When you tucka child up, you put him or her into bed and put a

    duvet or blankets round them.

    two-pronged (adj) /tuprd/ Something that is two-prongedhas two long, sharp points at the end

    of it.

    uneven (adj) /niv()n/ 2,4,6,8 are even numbers; 1,3,5,7. are uneven numbers.

    have the upper hand /hv i p hnd/ If you have the upper handin a situation, you are in control of it.vandalise (v) /vndlaz/ If you vandalisesomething, you deliberately damage or destroy it.

    28

    abilit

    ossuto

    sbattere

    starnutire

    solista

    richiesto/a

    paio di scrota

    portare a uno stadio

    successivo

    raddrizzare

    magro come uno stecchino

    quel che mi colpisce, mi urta

    camminare a lunghi passi

    superstizione

    superstizioso/a

    mettere

    stracciare

    essere il migliore

    traccia

    mettere a letto e rimboccare

    le coperte

    biforcuto/a

    dispari

    avere in pugnovandalizzare

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    USEFUL PHRASES

    Things that annoy you

    I cant stand it when ... /a knt stnd t wen/ I cant stand it whenpeople say they havent done any work for an

    exam and then get top marks!

    I find it irritating when ... /a fand t rtet wen/ I find it irritating when people keep losing things.

    I hate it when ... /a het t wen/ I hate it whenmen wear too much aftershave.

    It really annoys me when ... /t rli nz mi wen/ It really annoys me whenmy brother and his girlfriend kiss in front ofme!

    It really winds me up when ... /t rli wandz mi p It really winds me up whenpeople who are thin talk about how fat

    wen/ they are.

    The thing that annoys me / t nz mi The thing that annoys me mostis people who talk but never listen.

    most ... mst/

    How something makes you feel

    It makes me mad. /t meks mi md/ It makes me madwhen mum keeps losing her glasses!

    It makes me sick. /t meks mi sk/ It makes me sickwhen my brother and his girlfriend hug and kiss in

    front of me!

    Its so annoying. /ts s n/ She talks all the way through films. Its so annoying.

    That really gets on my nerves. /t rli gets n ma She complains all the time about being fat, and

    nvz/ shes stick thin. That really gets on my nerves.

    WEDDINGS

    aisle (n) /al/ The aisleis the long, narrow part of a church that you walk down

    before you get married.

    annul (v) /nl/ When a marriage is annulled, it is declared officially that it is no longer

    legal.

    best man (n) /best mn/ The best manis a male friend who helps the groom at a wedding.

    bouquet of flowers (n) /buke v flaz/ In the UK, its a ritual for the bride to throw a bouquet of flowersintothe crowd of guests.

    bride (n) /brad/ Its traditional for Muslim bridesto have their hands and feet

    decorated in henna designs.

    bridesmaid (n) /bradzmed/ A bridesmaidis a girl or young woman who helps the bride at a

    wedding.

    29

    non sopoorto

    mi irrita che

    detesto quando

    mi secca tantissimo che

    mi scoccia da morire

    quando

    la cosa che pi mi infastidisce

    impazzisco

    mi sento male

    cos pesante

    mi d proprio ai nervi

    navata

    annullare

    valletto

    bouquet

    sposa

    damigella donore

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    30

    ceremony (n) /sermni/ The wedding ceremonywas presided over by Ron DeCar, also known

    as Elvis.

    conduct a ceremony/service /kndkt sermni/ Rebecca said shes only marry Mat if Elvis conducted the service.

    svs/

    confetti (n) /knfeti/ Confettiis small pieces of coloured paper that people throw in the air

    at a wedding.

    drive-through chapel (n) /dravru p()l/ A drive-through chapelis one that you can travel through in your car.

    elaborate (adj) (TS) /lb()rt/ Moroccan weddings are elaborateaffairs and preparations take weeks.

    exchange vows /ksen vaz/ When a couple exchange vows, they make promises to each other

    during a wedding ceremony.

    get married /get mrd/ One in six couples now prefer to get marriedabroad.

    go out of fashion /g at v f()n/ In Britain, the traditional white wedding is going out of fashion.

    groom (n) /grum/ The groomis the man who is getting married.

    henna (n) /hen/ Hennais a red-brown substance used for colouring hair or skin.

    honeymoon (n) /hnimun/ A honeymoonis a holiday that a couple have after their wedding.

    in-laws (n pl) /nlz/ Your in-lawsare the parents of your husband or wife.

    lavish (adj) /lv/ A lavishwedding is one that is extremely expensive.

    limousine (n) /lmzin/ A limousineis a large, expensive, comfortable car.

    low-key (adj) /lki/ A low-keywedding is one that does not cost a lot of money and to

    which not many guests are invited.

    make a speech /mek spi/ Its traditional for the groom and best man to make a speech.

    matrimonial (adj) /mtrmnil/ Matrimonialis a word that means relating to a wedding or marriage.

    modest (adj) /mdst/ A modestwedding is one that does not cost a lot of money and to

    which not many guests are invited.

    your nearest and dearest /j nrst n drst/ Your nearest and dearest is an expression meaning your family.

    No wonder there is/are ... /n wnd er z/ / Millions of people get married in Vegas no wonder there are

    wedding chapels round every corner.once-in-a-lifetime /wnsnlaftam/ Honeymoons are a once-in-a-lifetimeholiday.

    package (n) /pk/ The wedding packagein Las Vegas included limo, video, three songs

    and twenty-four photos.

    cerimonia

    celebrare un rito/una

    funzione

    coriandoli

    chiesa in cui si pu entrare

    con lauto

    complicato/a

    scambiarsi promesse

    sposarsi

    passare di moda

    sposo

    henn

    luna di miele

    suoceri

    fastoso/a

    limousine

    modesto/a, tranquillo/a

    tenere un discorso

    matrimoniale

    modesto/a, tranquillo/a

    i tuoi cari

    non c da meravigliarsi se

    che si presenta una volta

    nella vita

    pacchetto

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    photographer (n) /ftgrf/ Wedding photographersare people who are paid to take photographs

    at weddings.

    pin money on sth /pn mni n sm/ At Muslim weddings, guests pin money onthe bridegrooms suit.

    pose (n) /pz/ A poseis another word for a photograph.

    priest (n) /prist/ A priestis a person who conducts the service during a religious wedding.

    pronounce you man and wife /prnans ju mn n I now pronounce you man and wife are the words that are said at

    waf/ the end of a wedding ceremony.propose a toast /prpz tst/ When the best man proposes a toast, he says that the guests at a

    wedding reception should drink together to send best wishes to the

    bride and groom.

    purify (v) (TS) /pjrfa/ In Morocco, the bride has a milk bath, which is supposed to purifyher.

    reception (n) /rsep()n/ A wedding receptionis a formal party after a wedding.

    ring (n) /r/ A wedding ringis a piece of jewellery that someone who is married

    wears on their finger.

    rite of passage (n) /rat v ps/ A rite of passageis a ceremony that marks an important stage in

    someones life.

    separate (v) /sepret/ Rene Zellwegger and her husband separatedafter four months of

    marriage.

    short-lived (adj) /tlvd/ Celebrities are renowned for their short-livedmarriages.

    superstretch limo (n) /supstre lm/ A superstretch limois a large, expensive car that is very long.

    throw rice /r ras/ Sometimes guests throw riceover the bride and groom as they leave

    the church.

    tie the knot /ta nt/ Tie the knot is an informal expression meaning to get married.

    veil (n) /vel/ A veilis a thin piece of material worn over a womans face.

    vow (n) /va/ A vowis a promise that you make to someone when you marry them.

    walk (sb) down the aisle /wk dan i al/ Fathers are often very proud to walktheir daughters down the aisle.

    wedding cake (n) /wed kek/ A wedding cakeis a special cake that is eaten during a wedding

    reception.wedding present (n) /wed prez()nt/ The crystal vase was a wedding presentfrom friends.

    white wedding (n) /wat wed/ A white weddingis a traditional wedding where the bride is dressed

    in white.

    worldly goods (n pl) (TS) /wldli gdz/ Worldly goodsare your possessions.

    31

    fotografo

    appuntare soldi su

    foto

    sacerdote

    dichiarare marito e moglie

    proporre un brindisi

    purificare

    ricevimento

    anello

    rito di passaggio

    separarsi

    di breve vita

    super limousine

    lanciare riso

    sposarsi

    velo

    voto

    accompagnare allaltare

    torta di nozze

    regalo di nozze

    matrimonio tradizionale

    beni terreni

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    Unit 6 (page 56)

    abandon (v) /bndn/ If you abandonsomeone or something, you leave it and no longer care

    about it.

    alarming (adj) /lm/ Alarmingmeans very frightening.alert (v) /lt/ If you alertsomeone to something, you do something to make them

    realise what is happening.

    approximate (adj) /prksmt/ An approximatefigure or size is one that is close to a particular figure

    or size, but not exact.

    archaic (adj) /kek/ Archaicmeans very old or old-fashioned.

    avoidable (adj) /vdb()l/ Something that is avoidablecould be stopped and should not happen.

    backlash (n) /bkl/ A backlashagainst something is a strong reaction against something

    you do not like.

    bee (n) /bi / A beeis a yellow and black insect that produces honey.

    bird flu (n) /bd flu / Bird fluis a dangerous disease that affects both birds and people.

    bulge (v) /bl/ If your eyes bulge, they stick out and look bigger than usual.

    cancer (n) /kns/ Canceris a dangerous disease that affects different parts of the body

    and can kill you.

    chilled (adj) /ld/ Chilledwine is very cold.

    clean up (phr v) /klin p/ Wall-E is a robot who cleans upthe polluted planet.

    climate change (n) /klamt en/ Climate changeis the changes that people think are making the

    weather in the world warmer.

    coffin (n) /kfn/ A coffinis a box in which you put the body of a dead person.

    combined (adj) /kmband/ The meat industry produces more greenhouse gases than all the cars,

    trains and planes in the world combined.

    come out (phr v) /km at/ If something you cook comes outwell, it is very well cooked and goodto eat.

    Compliments to the chef. /kmplmnts t ef/ Compliments to the chef is an expression you use to say how much

    you have enjoyed someones cooking.

    compromise (v) /kmprmaz/ Vegetarians believe that eating meat compromisestheir beliefs.

    32

    abbandonare

    allarmanteavvisare

    approssimativo/a

    antiquato/a

    evitabile

    reazione violenta, rigetto,

    contraccolpo

    ape

    influenza aviaria

    essere gonfio/a

    cancro

    ghiacciato

    ripulire

    cambio climatico

    bara

    messo/a insieme

    riuscire

    Complimenti al cuoco.

    compromettere,

    danneggiare, confliggere

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    conduct a study /kndkt stdi/ The studyinto food waste was conductedby the Waste & Resources

    Action Programme.

    confined space (n) /knfand spes/ Confined spacesare places where there is not enough room to move.

    consume (v) /knsjum/ If you consumefood or drink, you eat or drink it.

    consumption (n) /knsmp()n/ The consumptionof bottled water has increased.

    contributor (n) /kntrbjt/ Water bottles are a major contributorto global warming.