Unit 7B: Cognition: Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language Slide 2 Unit Overview Thinking Language Thinking and Language Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Slide 3 Introduction Cognition Cognitive psychologists Slide 4 Thinking Slide 5 Concepts Category hierarchies prototypeprototype Slide 6 Solving Problems Task: move the tower from the left peg to the middle peg, moving only one disk at a time and never putting a larger disk on a smaller one Slide 7 Solving Problems Strategies Algorithms Step-by-step Heuristic Insight Slide 8 Solving Problems Creativity Creativity Strernbergs five components Slide 9 Assuming that each card has a triangle on one side and a circle on the other, which card or cards need to be turned over to test this statement: Every card that has a black triangle on one side has a red circle on the other Slide 10 Solving Problems Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation bias Fixation Mental setMental set Functional fixednessFunctional fixedness Slide 11 Functional Fixedness Slide 12 Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing Heuristics The Representative Heuristic Slide 13 Write down your answer either a or b Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely? A. Linda is a bank teller B. Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement Slide 14 Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing Heuristics The Availability Heuristic Slide 15 Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Overconfidence Overconfidence Slide 16 Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Belief Perseverance Phenomenon Belief perseverance Consider the opposite Slide 17 Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Perils and Powers of Intuition Intuition Unconscious intuition Slide 18 Intuition uses past knowledge we may make mistakes But it allows us to quickly respond so are thought is more automatic. Slide 19 Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Effects of Framing Framing Framing experiments Slide 20 Language Slide 21 Language Introduction Language Slide 22 With person next to you share what you did on Friday and Saturday using telegraphic speech. Dont know what that means? LOOK IT UP Slide 23 Language Structure Phonemes Phoneme English about 40 phonemes Learning another languages phonemes Slide 24 Language Structure Morphemes Morpheme Includes prefixes and suffixes Slide 25 Language Structure Grammar Grammar SemanticsSemantics SyntaxSyntax Slide 26 Language Development When Do We Learn Language? Receptive language Productive language Babbling stageBabbling stage One-word stageOne-word stage Two-word stageTwo-word stage Telegraphic speechTelegraphic speech Slide 27 Language Development When Do We Learn Language? Slide 28 Language Development Explaining Language Development Skinner: Operant Learning Learning principles Association Imitation Reinforcement Slide 29 Language Development Explaining Language Development Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar Language acquisition device Universal grammar Slide 30 Language Development Explaining Language Development Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Statistical learning Critical (sensitive) period Slide 31 Language Development Statistical Learning Statistical aspects of human speech breaking down syllables to create meaning and breaks in sentences Evidence? 8 month infants: recognize three-syllable sequences that appeared repeatedly (measuring attention) 7 month infants: recognize different sequences/language patterns ABA verse ABB pattern (li-na-li/wo-fe-fe) What does this show? Nature or Nurture? Built in ability to learn grammatical rules (Noam Chomsky) Slide 32 Critical Period No exposure to language (spoken or signed) before age seven: lose ability to master ANY language No stimulation to a brain early on = language learning capacity never fully develops Second languages? Sign language? Conclusion? Is there a critical period of language? Slide 33 Thinking and Language Slide 34 Language Influences Thinking Whorfs linguistic determinismlinguistic determinism Bilingual advantage Slide 35 Thinking in Images Implicit memory Slide 36 Thinking and Language Benjamin Lee Whorf: Linguistic determinism hypothesis Language determines thought Evidence? Culture differences How many words a culture has to describe something will change our thoughts on it Book example: Papua New Guinea Berinmo tribe: distinguish between two shades of yellow Bilingual advantage: Canadian program: Slide 37 Taste Write down the difference between Pepsi and Coke Typically our responses are not very useful: vague and general comments about sweetness or level of carbonation only an expert taster will pick up on the subtle nuances that distinguish these soft drinks Slide 38 Thinking in Images Helps! How? Slide 39 Question Which comes first? Thought or Language? Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought -Would not develop language without the thought first would not have the thought without the language to express it! Slide 40 Create a timeline Part 1: Create a timeline demonstrating the development of language structure but also incorporating important concepts into a cohesive timeline. Must include: ages, examples of each stage/concept, and pictures. Part 2: Compare B.F. Skinner and Noam Chomskys theory of language development Examples Picture for each Slide 41 The End Slide 42 Definition Slides Slide 43 Cognition = the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Slide 44 Concept = a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. Slide 45 Prototype = a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin). Slide 46 Algorithm = a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics. Slide 47 Heuristic = a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms. Slide 48 Insight = a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. Slide 49 Creativity = the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. Slide 50 Confirmation Bias = a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. Slide 51 Fixation = the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. Slide 52 Mental Set = a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. Slide 53 Functional Fixedness = the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving. Slide 54 Representativeness Heuristic = judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information. Slide 55 Availability Heuristic = estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common Slide 56 Overconfidence = the tendency to be more confident that correct to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. Slide 57 Belief Perseverance = clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited. Slide 58 Intuition = an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning. Slide 59 Framing = the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. Slide 60 Language = our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning. Slide 61 Phoneme = in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. Slide 62 Morpheme = in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix). Slide 63 Grammar = in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Slide 64 Semantics = the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning. Slide 65 Syntax = the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language. Slide 66 Babbling Stage = beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. Slide 67 One-word Stage = the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words. Slide 68 Two-word Stage = beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements. Slide 69 Telegraphic Speech = early speech state in which a child speaks like a telegram go car using mostly nouns and verbs. Slide 70 Linguistic Determinism = Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the way we think.