Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language

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Cognition 7A Memory 7B Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language. Memory. Memory Example . The Memory Process. Three step process. Encoding : Getting the info into the brain Storage : Retaining the info Retrieval : Getting the info back out. 4 Memory Models. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>Cognition7A Memory7B Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language</p></li><li><p>MemoryMemory </p><p>Example </p></li><li><p>The Memory ProcessThree step process.</p><p>Encoding:</p><p>Getting the info into the brain</p><p>Storage:</p><p>Retaining the info</p><p>Retrieval:</p><p>Getting the info back out </p></li><li><p>4 Memory Models</p><p>Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage modelModified Atkinson-ShiffrinConnectivism Model </p></li><li><p>Atkinson and Shiffrins 3 Step Model of MemorySensory memory brief recording of sensory information Example: Short-term memory memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgottenExample Long term memory relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.Examples:</p></li><li><p>Sensory MemorySensory Memory </p><p>Examples:.Iconic Memory </p><p>Echoic Memory </p></li><li><p>Short Term MemoryShort term memory </p><p>Encoded visually, acoustically or semantically through rehearsal.Hold items for about 20 seconds.</p><p>Short Term Memory Activity</p></li><li><p>Long Term MemoryLong-term memory </p><p>Examples:</p></li><li><p>Modified Atkinson Shiffrin (3 Stage) Model2 New conceptsWorking Memory that combines novel (?) or important info along with info retrieved from </p><p>Instead of short-term memory being just a 20 sec. holding tank, this model includes the ability to briefly process infoSome info skips the 1st two stages in Atkinsons/Shiffrins and is processed into</p><p>Example </p></li><li><p>Modified Three-stage Model of Memory </p></li><li><p>Connectionism Model of MemoryConnectionism </p><p>Many neurons may work together to process a single memorymemory emerges from particular</p><p>retrieval of the memory is a reconstruction based on each of the elements of the pattern</p></li><li><p>How We Encode2 Types of EncodingAutomatically ProcessingAutomaticParallel Effortful processing Rehearsal </p></li><li><p>Encoding - Automatic ProcessingAutomatic Processing </p><p>Examples: Time </p><p>space </p><p>Frequency </p><p>well learned info </p></li><li><p>Automatic ProcessingParallel Processing </p><p>-unconscious or effortful</p><p>Example:</p></li><li><p>Automatic ProcessingSpring is thethe most beautifultime of the year</p></li><li><p>Encoding Effortful ProcessingEffortful Processing </p><p>Example:</p><p>Rehearsal </p><p>Example:</p></li><li><p>Ebbinghauss Forgetting Curve</p><p>Ebbinghaus Curve </p><p>Overlearning </p></li><li><p>Effortful ProcessingSpacing effect distributed study is better for long-term recall than massed study (cramming)DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!</p><p>Testing effect repeated quizzing or testing improves retention</p></li><li><p>Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents</p></li><li><p>Encoding InformationSerial Positioning Effect </p><p>Primacy Effect </p><p>Recency Effect </p><p>Von Rostorff effect </p></li><li><p>What We EncodeVisual Encoding: the encoding of picture/visual images.Example </p><p>2. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.Example:</p><p>3. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.Example: Encoding Exercise</p></li><li><p>Visual EncodingImagery visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding)Example:</p><p>Rosy Retrospection recalling high points, forgetting the worstExample:</p><p>Encoding Exercise</p></li><li><p>MneumonicsMnemonic Devices any memory aid that uses visual images and organizational devicesEXAMPLES:Peg word system </p><p>Example: One is a bun (chicken squashing bun), two is a shoe (corn filling up shoe)Method of Loci </p><p>Example: remembering items on a grocery list by associating them with a place in our house (chicken is pecking at front door, corn smashed in foyer etc)</p><p>Encoding Exercise</p></li><li><p>Mneumonics</p><p>3. Hierarchies </p><p>4. Chunking </p><p>Example: PORN Proactive Interference: Old info interferes with New Retroactive Interference: New interferes with Old</p><p>Encoding ExerciseEvery Good Boy Does Fine1-800-IBM-HELP</p></li><li><p>Acoustic and Semantic EncodingAcoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.Example:</p><p>Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.Examples:Self Reference Effect </p></li><li><p>StorageTypes of MemorySensory MemoryIconicEchoicWorking Memory/Short-termLong-Term MemoryImplicit Memory/Procedural MemoryConditioned MemoriesExplicit MemoryEpisodic MemorySemantic MemoryFlashbulb Memories</p></li><li><p>Sensory MemorySperlings memory experiment</p><p>After flashing an image, participants had a momentary mental image of all 9 lettersIconic memory A momentary mental image that remains after the image is gone Example: A momentary mental image that remains after seeing a phone number flashed on the TV</p></li><li><p>Sensory MemoryEchoic memory </p><p>A momentary auditory impression that remains after the sound is gone </p><p>Example: </p></li><li><p>Working/Short-Term MemoryDuration Brief (30 sec or less) without active processingSlightly longer for auditory info than visual infoNumbers better than lettersCapacity - LimitedMagic number SevenPlus or minus 2The list of magic sevens</p></li><li><p>Long-Term MemoryDuration Capacity - </p></li><li><p>Types of Long Term MemoryImplicit Memory/Procedural MemoryConditioned MemoriesExplicit MemoryEpisodic MemorySemantic MemoryFlashbulb Memories</p></li><li><p>Types of Long-Term Memory</p></li><li><p>Implicit MemoriesImplicit/Procedural Memories </p><p>Processed by and other brain areasstill intact with</p><p>Examples:</p><p>Conditioned Memories </p><p>Example: </p></li><li><p>Explicit MemoriesExplicit Memories memories of facts and experiences, consciously recalledProcessed by information is stored in the</p><p> are stored in</p><p>Infantile amnesia </p><p>Hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to developExample:</p></li><li><p>Explicit MemoriesEpisodic Memories -</p><p>Example:</p><p>Semantic Memories </p><p>Example:</p></li><li><p>Explicit MemoriesFlashbulb</p><p>Facilitated by Prolonged stress however, can inhibit memory formation by </p></li><li><p>Storing MemoriesMemory trace memory is distributed acoss groups of neuronsLong Term-Potentiation physical basis for memory .Increases synaptic firing potential of a neuron by increasing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron.Neurons that fire together wire togethercreating a memory.Memory boosting drugsCREB increases proteins that make a cell more likely to keep a memoryGlutamate enhances synaptic communication (LTP)</p></li><li><p>AmnesiaAmnesia loss of memoryRetrograde Amnesia inability to remember past eventsExampleAlzheimers Patient Ronald ReaganAnterograde Amnesia inability to create new memoriesLoss of Explicit Memory but not Implicit memoriesExamples:Clive wearing50 1st dates</p></li><li><p>Exceptionally clear memories of emotionally significant events are calledSensory MemoriesFlashbulb MemoriesState Dependent MemoriesMood Congruent MemoriesProcedural Memories</p><p>1234567891011121314151617181920212223</p></li><li><p>Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ________ memory.FlashbulbSensoryImplicitExplicitSemantic</p><p>1234567891011121314151617181920212223</p></li><li><p>The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known asExplicit memoryImplicit memoryLong-term potentiationSerial position effectInfantile amnesia</p><p>1234567891011121314151617181920212223</p></li><li><p>RetrievalRecallyou must retrieve the information from your memory fill-in-the blank or essay tests Recognitionyou must identify the target from possible targets multiple-choice tests</p></li><li><p>RecallWho is this handsome fellow?</p></li><li><p>RecognitionA. Brad PittB. Gordon RamsayC. Ryan SeacrestD. Mike The Situation Sorentino</p></li><li><p>RecallWho is this sweet-looking girl? </p></li><li><p>RecognitionA. MadonnaB. Katy PerryC. Jenna ElfmanD. Jennifer Aniston</p></li><li><p>RecallWho is this?</p></li><li><p>RecognitionA. Jennifer LopezB. Eva LongoriaC. FergieD. Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi </p></li><li><p>Ways to help you retrieve infoRelearning learning material for the second time, saves time.Example: Taking Psych in college should save you time for going to football gamesRetrieval Cues anchor points used to access target info for retrieval later Example: Mnemonics, words, events places , emotions that trigger memoryPriming unconscious activation of associations in memoryExample: See a rabbit and asked to spell hair, you spell hare</p></li><li><p>The Context Matters!!!Mood Congruent Memory recalling memories consistent with current moodExample: When you break up with your girlfriend you think about all the other times youve been dumped</p><p>State Dependent Memory learning that takes place in one physiological or situational "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar physiological state or situational stateExample: info learned when person is drunk is better recalled when person is drunk</p><p>Dj vu eerie sense that youve experienced something beforeExample: When I saw the play Billy Elliot I had dj vu I thought I had seen it before</p></li><li><p>Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process ofRepressionEncodingStorage RetrievalRelearning</p><p>1234567891011121314151617181920212223</p></li><li><p>The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known asImplicit memorySerial position effectMood congruent memorySource amnesiaDj vu </p></li><li><p>Forgetting</p><p>Encoding Failures</p><p>Storage Decay</p><p>Retrieval Failures</p></li><li><p>Forgetting</p><p>Schacters sevens sins of memorySins of ForgettingAbsent-mindedness encoding failure (inattention to detail)Transience storage decayBlocking inaccessibility to stored infoSins of distortionMisattribution confusing the sourceSuggestibility linger effects of misiformationBias belief colored recollectionsSin of intrusionPersistence unwanted memories</p></li><li><p>Encoding FailureExample You cant remember a persons name that you were just introduced to because you werent paying attention</p><p>What should you do to prevent an encoding failure?</p></li><li><p>Storage DecayEbbinghaus Curve Apply the Ebbinghaus curve to Psych Class</p></li><li><p>Retrieval Failure</p></li><li><p>Forgetting</p><p>Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.Example: Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.</p><p>Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.Example: Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.</p><p>PORN</p><p>Positive Transfer old info helps you learn new infoExample: learning Spanish helps you learn French</p></li><li><p>Motivated Forgetting</p><p>Motivated Forgetting revising past memories</p><p> Repression (Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory)A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxietyExample: Woman with unexplained fear of running water had repressed a memory of almost drowning</p></li><li><p>Constructive MemoryConstructed memory - a created memory, altered when encoded or retrieved.Misinformation effectImagination effectSource amnesia</p></li><li><p>Constructive MemoryElizabeth LoftusMisinformation Effect incorporating misleading info into a memoryExample: misrecalling a yield sign as a stop signImagination Effect/Inflation imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memoriesExample: imagining that Solon beat Mentor, you may create a false memory (:Source Amnesia retaining the memory of an event, but not the sourceExample: Someone told you that Solon beat Mentor, but you think you read it in the newspaper</p></li><li><p>Discerning True and False MemoriesMemory studies real vs. falseEye witness testimony</p></li><li><p>Childrens Eyewitness Recall</p><p>Childrens memories of abuseSuggestibility</p></li><li><p>Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?Areas of agreementSexual abuse happensInjustice happensForgetting happensRecovered memories are incompleteMemories before 3 years are unreliableHypnotic memories are unreliableMemories can be emotionally upsetting</p></li><li><p>Improving Memory Techniques</p><p>Study repeatedlyMake the material meaningfulActivate retrieval cuesUse mnemonic devicesMinimize interferenceSleep moreTest your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know</p></li><li><p>The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics ofAutomatic processingMemory constructionRepressionProactive InterferenceMood-congruent memory</p><p>123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930</p></li><li><p>As we retrieve memories from our memory bank, we often alter them based on past experiences and our current expectations. This best illustratesProactive interferenceInfantile amnesiaTransienceMemory constructionRepression</p></li><li><p>Professor Maslova has so many memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor's difficulty best illustratesRetroactive interferenceMood congruent memoryProactive interferenceSpacing effectSource amnesia</p></li><li><p>As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustratesSelf-reference effectMood congruent memoryInfantile amnesiaRepressionSource amnesia</p><p>123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930</p></li><li><p>An attorney uses misleading questions in an attempt to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustratesState dependent memoryMood congruent memoryMisinformation effectPrimingInfantile amnesia</p><p>123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930</p><p>*Encoding getting info into memory (aquiring the info)</p><p>Storage - retention of info</p><p>Retrieval getting info out of memory**Sensory memory is fleeting some gets processed in short term memory</p><p>Short term consciously activated, but limited in capacityEx. Looking at a new phone number only remember long enough to dial it</p><p>Long term permanent, limitless flash bulb memoryPay attention to something so it gets encoded into long term memory.**We recall digits better than letters.</p><p>**Working memory active information processing that occurs in short term memoryDaydreaming in class, calculating a number</p><p>integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory</p><p>*Active processing occurs in the short term memory stage, that many now perfer the term working memoryShort term memory is not infor that we remember for days or weeks and then forget. True short term memory only lasts about a minute or so.Memories that stay with us, but not permanenetly are stored in working memory</p><p>Pledge of allegiance ask students if they can recite the second sentence of the pledge. It consists of a single sentenceA modern information-processing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks is known as</p><p>the view that memory emerges from interconnected neural networks*Parallel processing = automatic processing</p><p>2 types of encoding automatic and effortful</p><p>Parallel processing allows many sensory experiences to be encoded all at once, some automatically, some with effort</p><p>We can encode many sensory experiences simultaneously, some automatically, because of parallel processing</p><p>Effortful can only occur with conscious attention*Automatic occurs without unconscious awarenessSpace cant remember what Active processing means, but remember the page and where it appears in your textbook</p><p>Activity: What time did you get up? What did you have for breakfast? Lunch? So far, who have you talked to? What did you talk about? Can you retrace the route that you took to class today? Did you see anyone more than one time.**May not notice the repeated word the in the poem demonstrates the limits of automatic processingMost high school students take reading for granted. Students who read on grade level process the words without much effort*Effortful can become automatic through practiceOnly occurs conscious effortStudy of information played during sleep found that ears register it, but its not rememberedreq...</p></li></ul>