Unit 7B Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language Monday, November 18, 2013

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<p>Unit 7B Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language</p> <p>Unit 7BThinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and LanguageMonday, November 18, 2013Thinking: ConceptsCognition: the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatingStudied by cognitive psychologistsConcepts: mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people helps simplify thingsGive us a lot of information with little cognitive effort</p> <p>Thinking: ConceptsExample: ChairMany different typeshigh chair, reclining chair, dentist chairbut its their common featuresmeant for sittingthat define the concept of chair</p> <p>What would life be without concepts?Thinking: ConceptsTo further simplify things, we organize concepts into category hierarchies</p> <p>Once we perceive something, we also identify its categoryThinking: ConceptsWays to form concepts: By definitionExample: told that a triangle has 3 sides = classify all 3-sided geometric forms as trianglesDeveloping prototypes (a mental image or best example)Most common way of forming a conceptThe more closely something matches our prototype of a concept, the more readily we recognize it as an example of the conceptExample: Picture a bird. Which matches your prototype more?</p> <p>Thinking: ConceptsOnce we place an item in a category, our memory of it later shifts toward the category prototypeExample: Shown an ethnically mixed face (70% Asian, 30% Caucasian), people categorized the face as Asian but later recalled it being a more prototypically Asian face then it was (90% Asian rather than 70%)</p> <p>Thinking: ConceptsConcepts speed and guide thinking, but dont always make us wiseExample: Prototype of prejudice = white against black, male against femalePrejudice that goes the other way is often overlooked</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsStrategiesTrial and errorAlgorithmsmethodical, logical rules or procedures that guarantee solving a particular problemHeuristicssimple thinking strategies that often allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsInsighta sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problemContrasts with strategy-based solutionsSome animals also use insightExample: Sultan the chimpanzeehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPz6uvIbWZE</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsBrain TeasersThe maker doesnt want it, the buyer doesnt use it, and the user doesnt see it. What is it?A man left home one morning. He turned right and ran straight ahead. Then he turned left. after a while, He turned left again, running faster then ever. Then he turned left once more and decided to go home. In the distance he could see two masked men waiting for him. Who were they?Thinking: Solving ProblemsActivity: You have two minutes to come up with as many uses of a paper clip as you can. Thinking: Solving ProblemsActivity resultsYou just took a creativity testAdd up the total # of uses and divide by two4 is average, 8 is high</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsCreativitythe ability to produce novel and valuable ideasNot related to IQIQ tests measure convergent thinkingCreativity tests measure divergent thinking</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsComponents of Creativity: ExpertiseImaginative thinking skillsVenturesome personalityIntrinsic motivationCreative environment</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsObstacles to Problem SolvingConfirmation biasa tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidenceExample: WMD in IraqFixationthe inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsExamples of Fixation:Mental set: a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the pastFuncitonal fixednessthe tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsWhat are the final three letters in the following sequence?O-T-T-F-?-?-?</p> <p>Thinking: Solving ProblemsWhat are the last three letters in the following sequence?J-F-M-A-?-?-?Thinking: Making Decisions and Forming JudgesRepresentaiveness heuristicjudging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypesMay lead us to ignore other relevant informationAvailabilty heuristicestimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memoryIf instances come readily to mind, we presume such events to be commonThinking: Making Decisions and Forming JudgesWhich are you more afraid of: car accident, being murdered, terrorist attack, or choking? Thinking: Making Decisions and Forming JudgesOverconfidencethe tendency to be more confident than correctto over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgmentsBelief perserveranceclinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discreditedThinking: Making Decisions and Forming JudgesIntuitionan effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thoughtUsually enables us to react quickly and adaptivelyThinking: Making Decisions and Forming JudgesFramingthe way an issue is posedExample: Which sounds more dangerous? 10% of people die while undergoing a particular surgery90% of people survive a particular surgery</p> <p>Reviewhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bKTAUcoKCLohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xnviM-w-0s25Exit SlipAnswer the following questions. Put answers on front table before you leave.Give an example of a concept.People are more concerned about a medical procedure when told it has a 10% death rate than they are when told it has a 90% survival rate. What is this an example of?What is the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective called?Why do people often underestimate the amount of time it will take to complete a project?</p>