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  • Understanding International Counter Terrorism

    A Professionals Guide to the Operational Art

    A. Hunsicker

    Universal Publishers Boca Raton, Florida

    USA 2006

  • Understanding International Counter Terrorism: A Professionals Guide to the Operational Art

    Copyright 2006 A. Hunsicker All rights reserved.

    Universal Publishers Boca Raton , Florida

    USA 2006

    ISBN: 1-58112-905-X (paperback) ISBN: 1-58112-906-8 (ebook)


  • Dedicated to all the victims of Terrorist Attacks

  • . . . the state of things and the dispositions of men were then such, that a man couldnot well tell whom he might trust or whom he might fear.

    Thomas More (1478 1535)

  • - III -


    The Primary Human Right is the Right,to live in Safety and without Fear

    This manual contains information collected and obtained from authentic and highly regardedsources. Additional research material and further results are based upon and obtainedthroughout my professional experience as Dignitary Protection Advisor and SecurityEnforcement Expert.

    All reference material is quoted and respective sources are indicated. A wide variety ofreferences are listed for further reading.

    Studies of this particular subject and terrorism in general had been excellently carried out bynumerous academic, professional and governmental institutions; however, none has offered anadequate guidance toward the operational aspects of countering terrorism.

    Recent events and the increasing number of new incidents made the need for a detailed andunderstandable Counter-Terrorism manual became a priority.

    All previous studies were used and served as a foundation for this new manual.

    Reasonable efforts have been made to provide reliable data and information, but one can onlyassume limited responsibility for any changes or the validity of all material due to the rapidpath and ever changing patterns of terrorism.

  • - IV -

    Table of Contents

    Prologue IIIIntroduction IX

    Nature of the Threat and the ResponseTerrorism and Terrorists 11The Nature of Terrorism 13Terrorism by Numbers 15The Purpose of Terror 17The Profile and Characteristics of Terrorists 19The Counter Terrorism Reaction 58The Counter Terrorism Operations 59The Weapons of Mass Destruction 60The Militarys Involvement 61The Aviation Administrations Functions 61Terrorism Finance and Hawala 62Counter Terrorism Capabilities 72Counter Terrorism Tactics 73Challenge of Investigation Techniques 74The Capabilities of the Local Law Enforcement 75Interagency Relations 75The Significance of Local Intelligence 76Cooperation of the Private Sector 76

    The Incident PreparednessRisk Assessment 78The Defense Plan Structure 79Information- Gathering 79The Target Analysis 81The Organization 83The Training 85The Terrorist Tactics 85Risk Analysis 86Avoiding Risks- Risk Reduction 87Hostage Defense 88

    Bomb Incident PreparednessTypes of Bomb Incidents 97The Bomb Threat 97The Logic behind a Bomb Threats 98A Warning Letter 99The Real Warning or a False Alarm 100Bomb Threat Response 101Options of Evacuation 102The Evacuation Procedures 103Evacuation without Panic 103Some Planning Issues 104The Police Role in Handling a Bomb Threat 104Why Terrorists favor Bombs 105The Bombers Profile 106The Bombers Motivation 107

  • - V -

    Hostage Incident PreparednessA Rare Situation 109Who is taking Hostages 109Reaction and Panic 110Suicide by Cop Situation 111Why Hostages are Taken 113The Triangle of Power 114Olympic Games- Munich 1972 115The Deadline 120A Kill on Deadline 120Evaluation 121First Responding Officer s Responsibilities 122The Mobilization Point 123The Location of the Mobilization Point 124Making Decisions 124The Evacuation 124Keeping Track on People 125Intelligence- Gathering 125The Inner Perimeter 126The Tactical Units 126Communications 126Reviewing First- Response 127Hostage Incidents 1960- 2004 128Conclusion 128

    Definition of TerrorismWhat is Terrorism 130A Brief History 131A Political Statement 132Terrorist Groups Modernized 133Actions of the Terrorists 135Other Actions of the Terrorists 136Threat and Intimidation 136Propaganda and Disinformation 138The Assassinations 138The Success of the Terrorists 138

    The Threat of Weapons of Mass DestructionIntroduction to WMDs 143Today s Threat 144The Tokyo Subway Incident 145Bio Chemical Agents 146WMD Incident Response 200

    Kidnapping IncidentKidnapping used as a Weapon 202The involved Risks 202The Difference between a Hostage-Taking and Kidnapping 202Kidnapping Situations 203Kidnapper Profiles 204The Political Kidnapping of the Post- Cold War 209The Role of the Private Industry 209The Role of the Law Enforcement 210

  • - VI -

    Residence/ Workplace of the Victim- Police Response 210Kidnap/ Extortion Threat Response 211No Police Involvement 212A Pretended Kidnapping 212Preparedness and Tactics 213The Individual- Preparedness 214The Family- Preparedness 215The Corporation- Preparedness 215Who can become a Victim 216

    Bomb IncidentsConducting Searches 217Overview 217Searching in Buildings 217Searching the Exterior 218Searching the Interior 218The Search Teams 219The Training Program 219Search Team Alternatives 220The Concept of the Search 220Room Search 220Common Locations for Bomb Placements 221Precautions 222Searching Vehicles 222Car and Anti- personnel Bombs 223Vehicle borne IEDs 224Searching an Aircraft 224VIP Bomb Search 224Explosives Detection K-9 225Suspicious looking Packages 226Identifying IEDs 227Explosives 227The Initiation Systems 231

    Hostage IncidentsInvolvement 235Communication with the Hostage- Taker 235Development of a Hostage Incident 236The Contact 238The Professional Reaction of the Law Enforcement 238The Role of the Criminal 239The Role of the Public 239The Containment 239Intelligence and Evacuation 240Negotiation conducted by the Police 240Post- Incident Crisis Intervention Teams 241Environment Control 241The Dynamics of Hostage Negotiation 243Weapons 244Negotiation NO 245The Art to Negotiate 245Actions and its Course 246The Ritual of Surrender and Suicide 247

  • - VII -

    Interruption of Thought 248Never Take a Weapon from a Surrendering Perpetrator 248Some Special Qualifications 248

    The Post- Blast EnvironmentThe Bomb Incident 250The First Responders 250The Investigative Stage 251The Seat of the Explosion 255Gathering all Physical Evidence 256The Examination of Bomb Fragments 258The Recovery of Evidence 258The Physical Evidence 259The Post- Blast Investigation Process 262

    The Hostage Incident AftermathThe Dangers 263Victims Immediate Reactions 263The Long- term Reactions 264The Victim's Family 264The Police Handling the Incident 265The Stockholm- Syndrome 265The Transference 266Ending in the Use of Deadly Physical Force 267Ransom Payment 267The Payoff 268The Recovery 269Victimology 270Effects on Rescue Officers 271

    Interviewing the VictimsIntrusive Recollections 273Constricting Life Activity 274PTSD Is Not Always the Same 275Who Gets PTSD 275Other Difficulties 275Interviewing 276The Right Timing 276Setting the Stage for the Interview 276Response Stages 277

    The Humanitarian Role of the Investigator 278Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder 278

    Role of the CommanderDeveloping Guidelines 279Forming the Team 280Manpower and Equipment 280Keeping Up- to- Date 281Evaluation and Update 281Cooperation with Other Agencies 282Intelligence- Gathering 283Evaluating possible Alternatives 284Sharpshooter Involvement 285

  • - VIII -

    The Use of Chemical Agents 286Food Supply 287Alcoholic Beverages 288Containment and Negotiation 288Public Impact 288Post- Incident Debriefing 289A Formal Debriefing 290Evaluating Development and Outcome 290

    The Command PostThe Center 291Staffing the Command Post 292Bomb Incident Command Post 293Log and Situation Map 294Equipment and Supplies 294Communications 295Concealment vs. Cover 296Handling the Media 296

    Epilogue 298


    Terrorism by DatesTerrorist Incidents between 1961 and 2003 300Terrorist Incidents in 2004 327

    Terrorist Organizations and Support Groups 394References and Sources for additional Information 451Glossary 452Footnotes 456Report Form Samples 460

    Telephone Bomb Threat Report Form 461Bomb Scene Investigation Forms 464Hostage Incident Report Forms 467

  • - IX -


    Terrorism, as we experience it nowadays, is a form of warfare that relies principally oninflicting fear to its targets- societies, citizens and people and to deliver its deadly and horrifyingmessage. The targets of this controlled violence often go beyond the immediate victims. Itsultimate goal for the terrorists` point of view, a very well orchestrated and theatrical one, theWorld Theater of terrifying and vicious acts.

    This proves to be more a reality, especially today with all the varieties of television newsprograms, broadcasting images of the terrorist events with gruesome close- ups and fearinducing background sounds. All that, even before any senior official have had time to assessany extend of the event and outcome of the situation itself. This, together with the advent ofcell phones, computer networks and Internet, has led to a just-in-time decision making- a newphenomenon in managing and approaching a crisis situation.

    In most recent years, we have witnessed a never- ending flood of bombings, suicide attacks,assassinations, hostage executions and incidents, where hostages were taken. With every newthreat spawning, a new countermeasure has to be developed, and every new counter- measureresulting in a new form of threats. While terrorists are unlikely to give up the concepts of truckbombs or spectacular suicide missions that afford them instant gratification