Understanding Inclusion in Music Performance Classrooms
Ryan Hourigan Ph. D.Ball State Universityrmhourigan@bsu.edu
My BackgroundWind Ensemble Conductor
Broad Educational TheoryCulturally Responsive Classrooms
Support of children and accepting of difference
Difference is part of the learning environment
What does a culturally responsive band room look like?
Is this true in instrumental music?Hidden CurriculumJoin in 5th/6th grade or? Jr. Sr. High?Western Music/High Art MusicYou must play a traditional instrument.What was your program like?
Implications of the Hidden CurriculumExcludes diverse students including:Students from other culturesStudents with special needsStudents who are interested in different ways to make musicMEJ article (Kratus: Tipping Point) My research and parents of children w/ S. N.
Why are you here?Chasing the thrill of performance?Teach children high art?Prestige?To win?To teach children?
Special Education StatisticsOver the past 10 years, the number of U.S. students enrolled in special education programs has risen 30 percent.
Three out of every four students with disabilities spend part or all of their school day in a general education classroom.
In turn, nearly every general education classroom across the country includes students with disabilities.
(National Education Association, 2007)
Implications of StatisticsIt is likely that you will teach a child with special needs.
How are you going to teach these children in a traditional setting?
Children with Special Needs (First step) Move past behaviorist model of disabilities to child-centered model
Focus on the child and his/her needs
Teaching Music to Children with Special NeedsUse Information about a student to gain broad understandingsDiagnosis/Background
Resources (see reference list)
Participating in the process (later in the discussion)
Children with Special Needs (Broad Categories)CognitivePhysicalEmotionalSocialCommunicationSensory
Students may fall in multiple categoriesPerson-first language
Teaching Music to Children with Special NeedsInstead of labels focus on:
How they are learning?
What they are learning?
Other issues:Social challengesCommunication challenges
Participating in the ProcessAnyone who teaches a child with disabilities is a part of the IEP teamBe involved (go to meetings)
Seek out the document (IEP)
Read the goals for the student in each areaThis will help you understand the nature of the disabilityIdeas for adapting and accommodatingRelate these goals to your goals as a music educator Previous slide to accommodate
PL 94-142 or IDEASix Basic PrinciplesFAPE (Free and Appropriate Education)Nondiscriminatory evaluationsLRE (Least Restrictive Environment)IEPParents have rightsDue Process
Amended several times since (86,90,97,&04)
Accommodations 100From the Darling Hammond reading:SizeTimeLevel of SupportInputDifficultyOutputDegree of ParticipationModified Goals
Accommodations in Instrumental Music (Size/Time)
See the IEP goalsOther assessments in other areasAre they at grade level?
What are the strategies used in other classes?
Understand that students may have aptitude for music that is higher than in other content areas (Thaut, 1999)
Assessing your studentAccommodations Setting appropriate goalsMore time/less material Adaptation of parts (rewrites)
Accommodations in Instrumental Music (Level of Support)Paraprofessionals
Are they in the room?
Are they participating?
Can you train them?
Accommodations in Instrumental Music (Level of Support)Alternative Practice Strategies
Smart Music and other technology
Ideas from you?
Accommodations in Instrumental Music (Degree of Participation)Think outside of the box
Learning stylesAural/visual etc.
Accommodations in Instrumental Music (Degree of Participation/Modified Goals)CurriculumAppropriate Placement Eligibility Offer a place for all studentsMeaningful musical contributionsEvery ensemble is not the place for all studentsSelect ensembles (expect the same requirements)Needs of all students
Accommodations in Instrumental Music (Degree of Participation/Modified Goals)Appropriate Goals for Performance
Portions of MusicCareful of how this is done (stage)Again, be sure that it is a meaningful participation musicallyStart somewhere and build to typical
Provide music to students as far in advance as possibleInclude recordings
Some students may need to practice the finer details of the rehearsal and performance (organizational etc.)
Other Concerns Persons with disabilities are more likely to be behind in social development
Persons with disabilities are more likely to face social isolation
Persons with special needs encounter failure more often (Lewis & Doorlag, 2005)
How can we assist with these issues?Setting the tone in your ensemble
Understand your reputation
Information can change attitudes
Our society consists of many kinds of people
Goal: Ensembles are microcosms of society
Be aware of the potential hidden curriculum in your ensemble
Questions?My Contact information:
Ryan Hourigan Ph. D.Assistant Professor of Music EducationBall State UniversityCollege of Fine ArtsSchool of MusicMuncie, IN 47306-0410(765) firstname.lastname@example.org
Suggested MaterialsSee attached
Very clear about being a conductor playerHow does this apply to a rural Indiana school?
What is a culturally responsive band room? Children with special needs may not be developmentally ready in 6th grade
People from other cultures and white European musicNothing wrong with those goals. Hey thats me. I was happier when I decided to teach children music
As you get older (world economy etc.) these traditions might not applyWhat are the implications of NCLB?Those of you who were here last night, why is this important?
Person-first lanuageIt is more than likely that you will teach a child with special needsEnglish as a second language (Glenbard East Story)From class: How do you find these things out?
I am amazed that this takes no more time then filling out paperwork for solo and ensembleAsk what they think these items mean? 360 reviewThese will be our organizers for the remainder of classShould they participate?Hi Ryan,
I was surfing the web and found you on the Ball State Web Page.
I wanted to share with you Jacobs progress in Band. He is now in 9th grade and just completing his first season of March Band. I have attached a few pictures from a recent performance. Being in Marching Band has been a wonderful experience for him but not without a few glitches along the way. He did not know until the first day of school that he was in the Marching Band. It appears that his teachers "Forgot" to add him to the 9th grade class list so he was not invited to attend Band Camp or the 6 weeks of practice prior to the start of school. When school started he showed up for band and was informed he was in Marching Band. Of course the teachers suggested that since he was now so far behind maybe he should drop band. The Director of Special Ed stepped in and told the Band Director that he screwed up and needed to fix this to Jacobs satisfaction. We told Jacob it would take ALOT of work to catch up and gave him the option to stay or leave and he chose to stay. He has been working with UM Student Dave Tenerelli for the past year and Dave offered to spend extra time to help him learn the drills and music. Well, after 5 weeks of practice he was in his first halftime performance last week. The process of Marching and Playing is quite challenging for him but he has done a great job. He is thrilled to be part of the Band and is enjoying the experience of making new friends and having fun. Everytime I see him in his uniform playing, I can't believe how far he has come and we are very proud of him. You would be thrilled, he no longer has puffy cheeks!
Your boys must be getting big. How are they doing in school?
Hope all is well with you and your family.