understanding inclusion

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  • 7/29/2019 understanding inclusion


    Understanding inclusion


    Challenges and barriers to learning Approaches toteaching and learning

    Functional Skills


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    Equality, diversity and inclusionVisual aids Consider colours and their effectiveness. Write

    clearly in a legible style of writing. User

    expressions such as wipe board and chalkboard

    rather that whiteboard and blackboard.

    Learning aids Offer alternative formats, i.e. electronic, paper,

    large print, Braille, whenever possible.

    Space Ensure coats, bags, etc. Are not left around the

    room, ensure there is sufficient space for moving

    around the classroom.

    Support Ensure that learners needs are addressed, which

    may involve using a specialist team of physical

    and educational support workers.

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    Challenges and barriers to learningThink about your specialism and environment and


    Evaluating the effectiveness ofapproach

    Strength of approach in terms ofinclusivity

    Analyse how create inclusivity

    Understand assessment and functional

    skill opportunities Motivation and feedback

    Dont forget ground rules!

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    Challenges, barriers and attitudes to learning and general

    expressions, which means things that hold back learning.

    Challenges, in this context, usually mean making learning

    difficult; barriers mean things that prevent learning.

    Challenges and barriers to learning

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    Attitudes are feelings and emotions brought into the

    class room by leaner's. As a teacher we want our

    learners to work to the best of their ability. Some

    learners may present themselves in our classes withmore long term barriers challenges and attitudes.

    Challenges and barriers to learning

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    Challenges and barriers to learning

    Challenges, barriers and

    attitudes are often the reason(oroccasionally the excuse!) for notlearning. I cant do this or I've

    never been any good at... or Ihate tests and any number ofsimilar expressions can be heardin classrooms up and down thecountry. For teachers, if our

    learners are saying things likethis they are demonstrating theirlack of motivation or poor self-esteem.

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    Challenges and barriers to learning

    We should think, how can I make this easier to

    understand? or is there something else behind that


    Whatever the cry, whatever the remedy, few people

    have a phobia of learning (sophophobia) - many have

    challenges, barriers and attitudes which inhibit theirlearning and so their success.

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    Challenges and barriers to learningRemember some of the challenges, barriers or attitudes to

    learning can be made easier by using DELTA to classify them:

    Disability Emotional Language Technology Ability




    Long illnessDyslexia


    Mental health


    Chronic pain


    Child care or Dependents


    ConfidenceBehaviour and Discipline

    Personal problems


    Previous experience

    Fear of unknown

    Peer pressure

    Parental pressure

    Employer pressure



    New surroundings

    Returning to education


    Foreign language





    Basic skill needs



    Computer skills

    Car breakdown




    Fear of technology

    Short illness





    Study support

    Inaccurate advice

    Teaching styles

    Large classes

    Personal skills

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    Challenges and barriers to learning

    Learning to recognise thesymptoms of these barriers isessential in attempting to resolvethe issues. It returns to the idea

    that we should know our learners.

    Also, don't forget that people andenjoyment are excellentmotivators. NB - it is usually a

    good indicator that you have lostthe interest of your learners if youlook up and they have gone!

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    Curing Your Learners Symptoms

    Recognise changes in your learners behaviour and make

    time to listen to their concerns

    Include lots of smaller activities to build and develop andpraise at each stage of development

    Offer one-to-one support during group activities

    Use nominated questions, aimed at differentiating to meet

    learners individual levels of ability, to increase self-esteem

    /Cont ...

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    Challenges and barriers to learningBefore if gets that far; here are some things to lookout for:

    Limited short-term memory

    Carelessness in work

    Lack of eye contact

    Glazed looks

    Repeated and persistent errors

    Time - management difficulties

    Side effects to prescribed drugs

    Poor concentration Lack of participation

    Constantly demanding attention

    Poor behaviour

    Poor attention span


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    Curing Your Learners Symptoms

    Vary your teaching techniques to ensure a variety of

    auditory, visual and kinaesthetic learning

    Offer comfort breaks within longer sessions of work Provide additional or extended work for less able or quick


    Offer rewards for good behaviour or good progress

    Encourage study skills. Stress key words and when to makenotes

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    Approaches to teaching and learning

    Teaching and learning strategies will vary according to what

    you want to get out of the session, what the learners are ableto achieve within the time allowed, what materials and

    resources are available to you, the subject matter you are

    delivering, the needs of the learners and your personal style.

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    Approaches to teaching and learning

    The choice of method will depend on whether you wish to

    deliver a formal teaching session in which all learners are

    working on the same topic at the same time, a leaner-

    centred session, where learners are working on the samebroad topic but using different methods and resources, or

    finally a self-study style where learners are working on

    different aspects of a topic or even different topics, using

    their own style of leaning.

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    Approaches to teaching and learningFactors that influence teaching:

    How leaner's learn and their preferred learning styles

    What the teacher wants to achieve

    The subject matter What the learners are capable of achieving

    Time constraints

    Resources implications

    What the learners want to get out of the session Where you will teach

    How dependent your learners are

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    Approaches to teaching and learning

    First of all, you should separate teaching from learning in

    order to understand these influences. In short, teaching is

    what we do; learning is what your leaner's will do.

    Each activity in the classroom will

    consist of teaching and learning

    activities. These should be

    balanced to meet the differentneeds of your learners and to

    develop motivation.

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    Approaches to teaching and learning

    Modern technology allows for a blended learning style which

    incorporates traditional and computer based methods. This is

    often referred to as information learning technology (ITL) or

    information communication technology (ICT).

    The use of computer based technology to enhance teaching

    methods and resources or develop learner autonomy is

    widely promoted.

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    The table considers some of the most frequently used approaches and

    compares them in the context of teaching and leaning activities.

    Approaches to teaching and learning

    Activity Value of teacher Value to leaner

    Lecture (verbal


    High focus on teacher activity

    Excellent knowledge base


    Clarity and tone of voice needs

    to be clear and interesting.

    Can be used to deliver to large

    groups easily

    Is enhanced by visual aids.

    Requires good listening and

    note-taking skills

    Passive learning

    Limited opportunities to

    clarify understanding

    Appeals to auditory learners

    Demonstration Needs to be well organised

    before session

    Explains difficult parts of the

    task when verbal exposition is

    not suitable

    Opportunities to see, hear

    and smell

    Allows a task to be broken

    down into smaller chunks

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    Approaches to teaching and learning

    Activity Value to teacher Value to leaner

    Group work Less teacher focused teac